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The New Covenant: 


I. An Accurate Tbanslation op The New Testament. 

n. A Harmony of the Four Gospels. 

in. A Chronological Arrangement op the Text. 

IV. A Briep and Handy Commentary. 


By J. W. Hanson, A. M., D. D. 

Non yalet hseo ego dioo, hsec tu dicis, haec illi dicit, sed haec dicit Domlnns. 


Seconft SE&itiom 




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The author of this Version of the New Testament had long 
desired to see a more accurate translation of the Christian Script- 
ures than the Established Version, and when the Kevision was 
projected he anticipated a realization of his hopes; but his ex- 
pectations were not met by the work of the Kevisionists, and at 
the earnest suggestion of a number of his friends, he resolved to 
undertake the task — in the midst of a busy editorial life — of pre- 
paring an exact rendering of the sense of the original Greek in 
plain and idiomatic English, that should avoid the defects of 
both the Established and Kevised Versions. Perhaps he cannot 
better indicate the reasons that induced him to attempt the labor 
than by referring to a few of the merits and defects of the two 

The defects of King James's Version are many. 

1. It was not rendered directly from the original Greek of 
the New Testament, but was really collated from several English 
versions, most of which were themselves translations from the 
Latin. It therefore necessarily misses the finer shades of mean- 
ing in the Greek, for it has been well said that "the Greek can 
draw a clear line where other languages can only make a blot." 
It would be impossible for a translation of a translation to be a 
faithful rendering. Professedly translated from the same Greek 
text as Luther's, it was mostly from a recension collated by 
Erasmus in 1516, and Kobert Stephens in 1550, from manuscripts 
no older than the tenth century, and was mainly a revision of 
several older English versions nearly aU from the Latin Vulgate, or 
Beza's Latin version. We have closely examined a version by L. 
Tomson, dated 1676, thirty-five years before King James's saw 
the light, and find the two to be almost word for word. 

2. But even if the Established Version had been a faithful 
translation of the Greek manuscripts of the New Testament then 
accessible, it would have been defective, for there were then but 
eight known and available, none of which were older than the 
tenth century, and not one of superior critical value. The book 
of Bevelation had but on^, and that an incomplete MS., and the 

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missing portions had to be supplied from the Latin Vulgate. 
Since then the number of known MSS. has been increased to 
more than 1,700, besides versions in Latin, Syriac, Coptic and 
Gothic, dating from two to four centuries after Christ, which 
contain 150,000 variations from each other. This fact alone 
should call for a translation from a text made after the most 
careful and critical collation. 

3. Had King James's translators desired to give a faithfiil 
rendering of such materials as they had, they must have failed 
in consequence of the royal commands, which were to conform 
to the existing versions of Wickliffe, Tyndale, the Geneva, and 
especially the Bishop's Bible. Macknight declares: "It was 
made a little too complaisant to the king, in favoring his notions 
of predestination, election, witchcraft, familiar spirits, and 
kingly rights, etc." 

4. It was done by a single sect at a time when the exercise 
of the spirit of a true and generous scholarship was difScult, if 
not impossible. 

\ 5. A theological bias impelled the authors to incorpo- 
rate words into their version that have no warrant in the Greek. 
Hades, Gehenna, axon, aionios, improperly rendered "hell," 
"world," "eternal," and "everlasting," have wrought incalculable 
mischief by inculcating ideas not contained in the original; 
while "damnation" and kindred terms convey thoughts never 
intended by the sEicred writers. Says Canon Farrar: "Where 
woiild be the popular teachings about *hell' if we calmly and 
deliberately erased from our English Bibles the three words 
'damnation' *hell' and 'everlasting'? Yet I say imhesitatingly 
that not one of these words ought to stand any longer in the 
English Bible." These are glaring instances that represent a 
miiltitude of similar defects. 

6. Great liberties were taken that pervert the meaning of 
the authors of the Bible. In 1 Cor. xv: 26, we read, "The last en- 
emy that shall be destroyed is death," implying that there may be 
others not destroyed,after death. But strike out the words that 
the translators had the grace to print in Italics to show that they 
are not in the Greek, "that" and "is," and it reads very differ- 
ently, "The last enemy shall be destroyed, death." This unpar- 
donable instance represents a class. 

7. Archaisms and obsolete words and expressions, of course, 
abound. Once imderstood, they now mislead or are obscure. 
"Let," for hinder." worship," for respect, "room," for seat,"quick," 

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for liviig, "conversatiou," for conduct, "usury," for interest, "by 
and by," for immediately, "thought," for anxiety, "carriage," for 
baggage, are only a few of the words frequently found in a book 
that should not contain a dubious word. 

8. Inaccuracies of various kinds abound: the wrong use 
of the definite article, which is omitted where it should occur, and 
inserted in passages from which it should be absent. 2 Thess. 
ii: 3, "The falling away and the man of sin," is rendered, " A fall- 
ing away, and that man of sin." 1 Tim. vi: 10, " A root of evil," is 
translated "The root of evil." John vi: 48, "the bread" is "that 
bread." There are many instances of this inaccurate use of the 
definite article. 

Besides these errors the wrong tenses are of frequent occur- 
rence. The aorist and perfect are habitually confounded, and 
other tenses are disregarded, and grammatical errors of various 
kinds are frequent. The defects and errors named, and others, 
are offset by the great merit of being in the main accurate, and 
of being couched in a magnificent diction that places it at the 
head of English literature. It is a "well of English undefiled." 
But this great merit does not cancel its deficiencies as a source 
of truth. Its defects have so vehemently pleaded for correction 
that the Kevision was the almost universal demand of English- 
speaking Christendom. 

The history of the Kevision is weU known. A company of 
English scholars invited several eminent American scholars to 
join them in revising the Established Version. The Kevision is 
their work. Many suggestions of the American committee, re- 
jected by their English co-laborers but printed as notes, have 
practically become a part of the text, for it is evident to all 
scholars not warped by a conservative spirit, that an unbiased 
scholarship would have adopted them. Some of the defects of 
the Kevision may be named without attempting to enumerate 
them aU: 

1. The Kevisers were trammeled by their instructions always 
to adhere strictly to the language of King James's Version unless 
absolutely compelled to depart from it. Instead of this it goes 
without saying that their only purpose should have been to pro- 
duce a faithful equivalent of the sacred original in aU cases, 
regardless of all other considerations. 

2. It is, in many instances, as "Bibliotheca Sacra" observes, 
"a manifest compromise between the Anglican and American 
committees." Any one of the dozen principal scholars engaged 

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in the work, untrammeled and unrestricted, would have made a 
more faithful rendering. 

3. Often, when no more faithful than the Established Ver- 
sion, the meaning is put into inferior English, so much so as 
to evoke this criticism from so eminent an authority as the 
"Edinburgh Keview;" "Every phase of New Testament scholar- 
ship was represented in the New Testament company, but the 
niceties of idiomatic English appear to have found no champion." 
—Ed. Kev. No. 315. 

4. It abounds in inconsistencies. Why should Hades be 
transplanted and Gehenna translated? Both are proper names, 
but while the latter is the name of a well-known locality, the 
former is of an imaginary place. There is tenfold more propri- 
ety in retaining Gehenna than Hades, The Kevisionists virtually 
concede at least their misgivings, when they place Gehenna in 
the mai-gin. Had they placed it in the text they would have 
removed a hurtful prejudice from the mind of the average reader, 
and relieved the sacred text from a serious incumbrance. And 
if our Master brought the word from the Hebrew, and set it in 
the Greek without translation— if he spoke Greek — or if the 
evangelist thus transplanted it, why should not an English trans- 
lator follow the example? 

Again, if aion denotes "age," as is admitted in the margin 
(see Matt, xxiv, 3), or if it means "world," why should the plural 
be rendered "forever," and the adjective "everlasting?" Is it not 
manifest that any word should carry substantially the same 
meaning in all its modifications? To render the noim "world" in 
the text, and "age" in the margin, "forever and ever" in the 
t*>xt and "ages of ages" in the margin, and the adjective, "eter- 
nal'* and "everlasting," is to proceed arbitrarily. and not to trans- 
Jiite legitimately. Nothing but a theological proclivity can ex- 
11 lain the inconsistency. 

So, too, in the Lord's Prayer, the interjection of "one" after 
"evil" seems a deliberate attempt to sustain the doctrine of a 
]ioTsonal devil, regardless of the language of our Lord. By 
jkrinting the word "owe" in Italics the Kevisers have acknowledged 
tliat it is not in the original, but by printing it at all they have 
titsiuonstrated that the Eevision needs revising. These are but a 
fuw specimens of the inconsistencies with which the work 

5. Archaisms, and obsolete and obsolescent words and 
jjhxases that should have been discarded, are numerous: "On 

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this wise," "wroth,** "verily,** "twain,** "for to see,** "doest,** 
"hale,** "wot," etc. Some of the defenders of the Revision claim 
that it was better, on account of the sacred associations, to re- 
tain certain archaic phrases and words, which they caU "inno- 
cent archaisms." But there are no "innocent archaisms" in a 
book intended to teach men the great truths of religion. Every 
word should be a transparent medium through which the unlet- 
tered reader can see the meaning of the inspired author. The 
young and illiterate cannot fail to be misled or confused when 
"quick" and "quicken" appear where "aUve" and "make alive" 
should be, and when meeting words that have changed or lost 
their former meaning. 

6. Uncouth and infelicitous words and phrases abound. 
Matt, vii: 4, 5: "Cast out * * the mote out." Mark iv: 31, 32, 
the mustard seed is called "less than all the seeds," and therefore 
less than itself; "[other]" should be added. Mark v: 42 Luke ii: 
42, "Twelve years old" instead of "of age;" old cannot be applied 
to a young person. Mark xv: 44: "If he were," instead of 
"whether he was." Luke i: 7, "Now well stricken" instead of 
"then." Luke v: 21, vi, 4, "alone" should be "only." Luke vii: 44, 
John ii: 17, "thine" should be "thy;" Luke ix: 53, "though he were" 
should be "if he was;" xix: 26; "From him, ♦ ♦ ♦ shall be taken 
away from him." John viii: 24, "except" should be "unless," etc. 
So they employ "chief est," 2 Cor. xi: 5, xii: 11; "agreed together," 
Acts, v: 9; "each one," Acts, ii: 3; "either" instead of each, John 
xix: 18, etc. Acts xix: 16, 2 Pet. iii: 1, "both of them;" Heb., xi: 
12, "as good as dead? so many as the stars," etc.; 2 Cor. xi: 18, 
21, "I will glory also," instead of, "I also will glory;" and similar 
errors disfigure a large part of the revision. 

One of the most indefensible errors is the phrase "forever 
and ever." If "forever" means endlessly, the addition of "and 
ever" is superfluous; if "forever" does not carry that meaning, 
"and ever" cannot impart it. But inasmuch as the phrase con- 
tains two plural nouns, it should be thus translated: "aeons of 
aBons," or "ages of ages." "Forever and ever" is a rendering that 
cannot be defended on philological grounds. It is a theological 

7. Grammatical inaccuracies. Matt, vi: 14, "For thine is the 
kingdom and the power; vi: 19, "Moth and rust dothf ix: 30, 
"See that no man know it;"" xiii: 55, Is not his brethren;" xvi: 17, 
"Flesh and blood hathf xxii: 40, "On these two hangethf xxvii: 
56, "Among whom was Mary Magdalene and Mary;" Mark iii: 33, 

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"Who is my mother and my brethren?*' Luke xvi: 15, "They that 
justify yourselves,'' instead of "themselves;" Johnvii: 17," Wheth- 
er it be;" xix: 18, "either" should be "each;" Acts xvii: 34, 
"Among whom also was Dionysius, the Areopagite, and a woman 
named Damaris, and others;" Bom. ix: 4, "Whose is the adoption 
and the glory, and the covenants," etc.; Eph. iii: 18," What is the 
length, and breadth, and heighth, and depth. 

Again, 1 Cor. xiii: 13, "And now abideth faith, hope, and 
love, these three;" 1 Tim., i: 20, „0f whom is HymensBus and 
Alexander;" Heb. ix: 3, 4, "Wherein was a golden pot hold- 
ing the manna, and Aaron's rod that budded, and the tables of 
the covenant," etc., meaning to say that these three articles were 
there. The Kevisers actually do say that the golden pot held the 
manna, Aaron's rod and the tables;" Kev. xx: 13, "* Every man ac- 
cording to their works;" Bom. i: 13, "Oftentimes I purposed to 
come to you." The same error in Matt, xiv: 29, and elsewhere, 
and similar errors many times more. In spite of these and other 
less prominent defects, all which are inexcusable, the Kevision 
is a very considerable improvement on the Established Version. 

1. It is rendered from the best Greek text the world ever 
saw. The work of scholars during the last century, such as Tre- 
gelles, Alford, Tischendorf , and many others, and the large num- 
ber of manuscripts that have been collated, have developed a 
Greek text incomparably superior to any other — Westcott and 
Hort's Greek Testament. While the Kevision is not a direct 
translation of this great work, as it might and should have been, 
it passed through the press simultaneously with it, and the Ke- 
visionists had the work of Westcott and Hort constantly before 
them, and availed themselves of its aid. Many of the sugges- 
tions of the American committee are derived from Westcott and 
Hort, and are placed in the margin, and there is scarcely a sug- 
gestion of theirs that an unprejudiced scholar would not have 
incorporated into the text. Prof. Schaflf, in his Introduction to the 
American edition of Westcott and Hort, says: "The text of the 
Kevisers corresponds to the secondary readings of Westcott and 
Hort, and the text of Westcott and Hort with the margiijal read- 
ings of the revisers, so that the two texts are virtually the same." 
English conservatism seems to have kept obvious improvements 
out of the Kevision. StiU, while the Established Version sur- 
passes the Kevision in its vernacular, idiomatic English, the 

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Bevision is a far closer rendering of a far better Greek text—a 
better text than ever before was accessible. 

Indeed, in place of only eight manuscripts, none older than 
the tenth century, the sole sources accessible in the days of King 
James, subsequent discoveries, and the investigation of scholars, 
have produced ah authentic record of the original Gospels. 
Every new codex discovered has added to the "various readings" 
until 150,000 variations have been discovered. But most of them 
are very slight, and very few of them affect any important event, 
doctrine or principle. An accidental change of a letter or word 
in copying, the addition or omission of a word, letter or sentence, 
to perfect what the copyist thought to be the meaning, or a copy- 
ist's carelessness, explains most of the variations. Very few, if any 
of them are believed to be the result of design. It is indeed one 
of the remarkable facts in the history of the Bible manuscripts 
that seldom was the pious fraud of foisting supports of favorite 
doctrines into the Christian Scriptures ever attempted, though 
the exigencies of theological controversy must often have pres- 
sented the temptation. Only about four hundred variations 
really affecting the sense have been discovered. Most of the 
errors in the later MSS. were first written in the margin as 
glosses, and subsequently crept into the text. But the micro- 
scopical eyes of critics have detected them, and it is now certain 
that we have a nearly perfect recension. 

The three great sources of an accurate Greek text are the 
Sinaitic, Vatican and Alexandrian codices, whose value is in the 
order named. 

The Sinaitic was found by Constantine Tischendorf , in 1844, 
and 1859, in a convent on Mt. Sinai, and it contains the Bible, 
complete. Its discovery is one of the most singular of aU lit- 
erary events. Its date is between A. D., 300, and A. D., 400, 
and it is at least six centuries older than any manuscript known 
when the Authorized Version was made. It is probably one of 
the fifty copies that the Emperor Constantine ordered made, 
A. D. 331. 

The Vatican is next, if not equal to the Sinaitic codex. It 
was first catalogued A. D. 1475, but how long it had been in the 
Vatican library, where it had long been kept with jealous care, 
is unknown. It is incomplete from the middle of verse 14 in 
Hebrews ix. It closely agrees with the Sinaitic, and is of about 
the same age. 

The Alexandrian was brought from Alexandria, by the Patri- 

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arch of Constantinople, and presented to King Charles I, in 
1628. It is now in the British Museum. It does not contain 
Matthew before xxv: 6, or John, from vi: 50 to yiii: 52, or 2d Cor- 
inthians fropi iv: 13 to xii: 6. It is about one century more re- 
cent than S. and Y., and is of less critical value than either of 

These three codices are more valuable as sources of an accu- 
rate Greek text of the New Testament, than aU other known MSS. 
They agree with the translations and Christian writers that 
antedate them, and are proved to be faithful copies of still older 
documents, which, written on the tender papyrus then, in use, 
perished soon after they were written, as did all contemporane- 
ous writings not preserved in mummies or under lava. 

The great labor of critically examining the fountains of the 
Christian Scriptures was extended through more than a genera- 
tion of years, and was performed by two of the most eminent 
English scholars— Brooke Foss Westcott, D. D., and Fenton John 
Anthony Hort, D. D. The great result of their labors was given 
to the world in 1881, simultaneously with the Kevision. It is the 
most valuable addition to Biblical literature in modem times, 
and is worth more than all other Greek Testaments — is in fact the 
only one approximating perfection. This volume is primarily 

A Translation. It aims to present, in plain, idiomatic 
English, the exact sense of the Greek original, avoiding archa- 
isms, and obsolete and obsolescent words, and reproducing the 
meaning of the language of inspiration, as nearly as possible. 
Had the book been intended for public use, or to take the place 
of the two Versions, certain words, rendered sacred by associa- 
tion,might have been preserved, but as it is designed for study , and 
comparison with them, and to convey the precise meaning of the 
New Testament to those not familiar with the original, the 
author has in all cases tried to convey the sense in the words 
that best 'convey the meaning, regardless of association or any 
other consideration. Whether Jesus and his apostles spoke in 
Aramaic or Greek, their language must have been quite collo- 
quial, and in order to reproduce their meaning in English, cer- 
tainly the Gospels, Acts, James's and John's epistles should be 
couched in common phraseology. The nearer a version succeeds 
in employing everyday speech, the closer it wiU be to the spirit 
of the New Testament. 

The author does not claim to have produced that impossible 
thing, a perfect translation, but he trusts he has rendered the 

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exact thought of the inspired record in plain, simple, accurate 
English. There is an occasional departure from the grammat- 
ical construction of the original, as where a plural and singular, 
or a past and present are found in the same sentence; in such 
instances grammatical consistency is produced. In all other 
respects as literal a rendering has been made as the difference 
in the two idioms allows. The ti anslator has taken for his rule 
an adapted alteration and application of the ancient oracle: "Be 
literal, be literal, be not too literal," The book is 

A Harmony. The four Evangels- are independent records of 
the words and works of our Lord, each relating as much of his 
life and teachings as the author had received, and differing in 
minute details, but essentially harmonious with the others. Mat- 
thew and Mark closely resemble each Other, the former giving 
fuller details, and accounts not elsewhere found. Luke is quite 
parallel at the beginning and end of his account, with Matthew 
and Mark, while Mark and John relate much that is not in either 
of the other two, except the solemn events accompanying our 
Lord's passion. Each is part of a perfect whole. Mark and 
John seem to have pursued an even chronological course, while 
Matthew and Luke are more fragmentary and irregular, and wrote 
as they recalled the language of our Lord and the incidents of his 
life. The four currents of narrative pursue varying channels, 
unitingin one broad stream. 

Much of the interest of the average reader of the New Testa- 
ment is lost in consequence of his failure to read the book as a 
connected story. By arranging all that the different evangelists 
relate of any event in one connection, the reader is able to see 
at a glance all that can be known o^it. Our Harmony does this. 
The book is also 

A Chronology. The fragmentary manner in which the Gos- 
pels were compiled, and the arbitrary way in which the other 
books appear in the New Testament, prevent the common reader 
from reading the book as a connected narration. This Version 
is chronologically arranged, so that the Gospels present the 
scenes in the Blessed Life, as they occurred, and the other books 
are arranged according to the dates on which they were written. 
It is also 

A Commentary. The notes accompanying the text are de- 
signed to shed such light on the language as will enable the 
reader to see what the inspired authors meant, chiefly on matters 
of eschatology. He has not attempted a full commentary, but 

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has only endeavored to assist the reader to see the teachings of 
the Book of books, concerning the destiny of the hmnan family. 
The reader of this Version should always remember that the 
Greek from which it is translated is not the "koine ekdosis," 
"textus recepft^s, "or received Greek text from which onr'Eeceived, 
Version was rendered, but a Greek derived from older manu- 
scripts than any that were available at the time our Keceived 
Version was made. [See pp. vi-vii of this Introduction.] No criti- 
cism concerning the accuracy of the rendering is just, unless it is 
based on a knowledge of that better Greek, contained in the 
recension of Westcott and Hort; as modified by the S. or V.,'or 
both. If any language should seem objectionable because differ- 
ent from that of the E. V. or E. V., it should be judged solely on 
the ground of its accuracy, and not at all from association, or 
because it disturbs the ear accustomed to other phraseology. 
In many places the same Greek is rendered in different 
English phraseology, where there seems little or no choice, and 
yet, as tastes may differ, equally accurate, though different ren- 
derings are given. 

Most of the points of difference from E. V. and E. V. result 
from following S. or V., or both, in omitting trivial words. Other 
variations, following S. or V., or both, are printed in Italics. 
The oldest manuscripts are distinguished for their brevity. 
Nearly all the corruptions are addition8,and are chiefly such words 
as "and," "but," "then," "now," "to them," "to *him,"and the like. 
These omissions are many, but they in no case affect the sense, 
and so are not specified. A comparison with the E. V., will 
identify them by their presence there, and their absence from 
this book. Other changes have been made on the score of ac- 
curacy — Kapharnaum, instead of Capernaum; Beelzebul, instead 
of Beelzebub; Gethsemani, instead of Gethsemane, etc. . Space 
has not been occupied in explanations or defenses of these 
changes, but their propriety will be acknowledged. 

When to render and when to ignore the definite article in 
translating New Testament Greek into English is a continual 
|(ii>l klem. It is often found in Greek where the English omits it, 
ami omitted where the English employs it. It is impossible 
always to translate it where it appears, or omit to insert it where 
it IS absent, in almost every chapter. Thus, Luke xii: 8, "Who- 
ever may acknowledge me in presence of the men, the Son of 
the Man will also acknowledge him in presence of the angels 
of tUe God." Our idiom requires the article before "presence," 

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and its suppression before "men," "man," and "God,"— one addi- 
tion and three omissions in one verse, and this is no more than 
a specimen verse. Where we have found it necessary to insert 
it, when it is not in the Greek, it is enclosed in brackets, but 
where it is omitted from places in which it occurs, no indication 
is given. 

The name of the Apostle James has been changed to Jacob, 
that being the accurate form — Latin Jacobus, Greek lacobos. 
The translator knows no good reason for employing the word 

A somewhat radical feature of this Version will be found in 
the words into which the aeonian phraseology is rendered. Un- 
doubtedly "age" is the best word to represent the Greek aion, 
but "age-lasting," though usually an accurate equivalent for the 
adjective aionion, is not euphonious, and where, as is sometimes 
the case, mere duration is not so much meant as quality, it is in- 
adequate. "Pertaining to the age," or "partaking of the quality ol 
the age," is sometimes the meaning. For this reason it was de- 
cided best to transliterate the seonian words rather than trans- 
late them, and they are rendered "aeon" and **aeonian." Thus the 
English reader sees these much -disputed terms as nearly as pos- 
sible as they are in the original, and has the same facilities for 
understanding their exact meaning as has the Greek scholar. 
The important omissions from the Four Gospels of passages 
contained in the Established Version, are compelled by the fact 
that they are not found in the oldest Greek MSS., nor in the 
earliest authorities. Most of them are referred to in the Notes. 
They are as follows : 

Matthew v: 44, 45. See page 81. 
vi: 13. . " 84. 

x: 8. " 138. 

xii: 44. " 250. 

xii: 47. " " "And one said 

to him, *Behold thy mother and thy brethren stand outside 
seeking to speak to thee.' " Om. S. V. 

Matthew xvi: 1, 3. See page 162. 





















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Mark vi: 11. "It shall be more tolerable for the land of 
Sodom and Gomorrah." 

Mark xi: 26. See page 246. 

"To heal the 

xvi: 9, 20. 



Luke i: 28. 



iv: 18. 



Lnke viii: 16. 



xi: 2-4. 



xvii: 19. 



xvii: 33. 



xxiii: 17. 



xxiii: 34. 



xxiv: 12. 



xxiv: 40. 



John vi: 3,4. Seepage 148. 
viii: 53 to viii: 11. 186. 


The author takes pleasure in acknowledging his indebtedness 
to the accurate and critical knowledge of Rev. Jacob Merrifleld, 
under whose eye his manuscript and proofs have passed, and to 
Bev. O. D. Miller, S. T. D., Rev. T. B. Thayer, D. D., and Bev. 
G. L. Demarest, D. D., some of whom have inspected all, and all 
of whom have inspected some of his proofs, and who have made 
valuable suggestions for which he and his readers are under 


"Om." signifies omitted; "E.V.," Established, or King James's 
Version; "B. V.," the Bevision by the Canterbury Convocation; 
"S.,"the Sinaitio Codex, or MS.; "V.," the Vatican; "A.," the 

The words in brackets are supplied by the translator, to 
give what he deems to be the full sense. The words in Italics are 
found in either the Sinaitic, or Vatican, or both, and are ^not in 
the Greek of Westcott and Hort. 

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THE great favor with which "The New Covenant " has been 
received has induced the translator to publish a second edi- 
tion, and the criticisms of some of his friends have urged him to 
accompany the issue with a few observations. 

The introduction to Volume II. explains many of the pe- 
culiarities of this version, to which the reader is referred. Mean- 
while it may be said that no attempt has been made to rival the dic- 
tion of the accepted version. The sole purpose has been to give 
a faithful and accurate rendering of the original, in modem idio- 
matic English. And the criticisms the work has [received have 
demonstrated that the author's success has been as great as he 
had a right to anticipate. 

Such words as contain the Greek letter Kappa, which has the 
force of the English K, which words are usually spelled with C in 
English, have been rendered by K, as Korinthians, etc., except 
Sadducees, Jacob, Isaac, etc., which should be Sadduke es, Isaak, 
Jakob, etc. They have been kept in the usual form, as they are 
so fixed in the mind of the average reader, as to render change 

The names of measures, weights, coins, etc., are given in their 
usual form, as the words "bushel," "penny," etc., give no ade- 
quate idea of the authors' meaning, and we have no English terms 
that afford equivalents. The following definitions will enable 
the reader to understand the meanings of the terms employed. 


BathSf - 







in E. V. firkins 7i gallons each. 

" " measure 30 quarts " 

" " " 75i gaUons. 

« « u 2i " 

" " bushel 2 " 

" " furlong ig mile. . 

" " mite 1-10 cent. 

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Quadrant - 


Drachma - 




Denarion - 



In order to clearly 
** The New Covenant, 
tion in each volume. 

in E. V. farthing 4 mills. 

- " '* *' II2 mills. 

" ** piece 14 cents. 

" " piece of silver 14 cents 

«* « « *« 56 « 

" " tribute money 28 ** 

" " penny 15 cents. 

" " talent, more than $1,000 

" " pound, 100 drachmas. 

understand all that is accomplished in 
" the reader should consult the Introduc- 


The inecrlption on the cross is here Kiven in the three tonfirues, Greek, 
Latin and Hebrew. 












John ziz : 10. 


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Mark i: 1. [The] beginning of the Good News of Jesus 

Luke i: 1-4. Since many have undertaken to prepare a 
narrative of those facts fully estabUshed among us, 'as they 
transmitted them to us, who, from [the] beginning were 
eye-witnesses and attendants of the Word, 'it seemed good for 

That "The New Covenant," and not "The New Testament," is the correct 
title of the Christian Scriptures, is conceded by all authorities. I need only 
cite the following: "The orijrtnal, which we translate The New Testament, . . . 
simply means the New Covenant. ^—A dam Clarke. "The New Covenant is, by 
the consent of all critics, the true title of the Christian Scriptures."— Daftney. 
"That the rendering of the word Diatheke, Covenant, is the better ver- 
sion, is unquestionable." — Camphell. "It is well known that Diatheke in Hel- 
lenistic Greek means, usually, covenant (corresponding to the Hebrew berith)^ 
except perhaps, in Heb. ix: 11-17, and also in GaL iii: 15, but even in these 
passages the same meaning is preferred by many commentators."— i^o&erts's 
Companion to the Revised Version. 

"Saint" and " Gospel" are wanting from all the older manuscripts. Kata 
Matthaion^ etc. ("according tq Matthew, etc."), is the plain and simple desig- 
nation of the Gospel record. The evangelists neither called themselves saints, 
nor their unpretending stories of The Life, Gospels. 

Mabe 1: 1. "Good News." The English Word Gospel, a modem form of 
the Anglo-Saxon "God's Spel," or " Good Spel," God's Message, era good mee- 

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me, also, who have accurately traced all things from the first, 
to write in an orderly manner to you, most excellent Theoph- 
ilus, *that you may know the certainty of the words of which 
you have heen orally taught. 


Lnke i: 6-26. It occurred in the days of Herod, king of 
Judea, that there was a certain priest, named Zachariah, of 
Abijah's course, and his wife was of Aaron's daughters, 
and her name was Elisabeth. 'And they were both right- 
eous before God, walking irreproachably in all the commands 
and ordinances of the Lord. ^And they had no child, because 
Elisabeth was sterile, and they were both far advanced in their 

sage, does not convey the meaning of the Greek Euangelion. The word Gos- 
pel stands to the ordinary mind as a synon3rm of the Christian system as it is 
popularly understood, whereas the Evangelist indicates the character of that 
system. Christianity is Good News, Good Tidings; the Gospel is a message 
o£ salvation, "Good News, which is to be a great joy to aU people." See Luke 
li: 10. A proper rendering of the verse would be, "Beginning of the Evangel 
of Jesus Christ." Westcott and Hort omit "Son of God," found in E. V. and 
B. V. (Established Version and Revised Version), and place it in jihe margin. 
It is probably not genuine. 

LUEE i: 1. "Undertaken," Greek epikeiresan. "Narrative," Greek diege- 
sin; these two words are peculiar to Luke in the N. T., and are medical 
terms found frequently in antecedent Greek medical literature. The first is 
found in Hippocrates (Epld. 1147), Morb. Acut. 396; Haemer. 891; In Ga- 
len, Comm. li : 71 ; Praedic. xvi: 656, etc. The second is found in Hipp. Morb. 
Acut. 392; in Galen Antid. 1: 5 (xiv: 51), etc. See "The Medical Language 
of St. Luke : A Proof from Internal Evidence that ' The Gospel According to St. 
Luke and the Acts of the Apostles were written by the same person, and that 
the writer was a medical man. By the Rev. William Kirk Hobart, LL.D. Dub- 
lin, 1882." This book demonstrates, by several hundred medical terms used 
by Luke, that he was a physician. 

Luke i: 5. "It occurred." This form of expression, " It came to pass," in 
E. V. and R. V., is of frequent occurrence, and Is rendered from egeneto. It 
is quite non-essential, and it was at first thought best to pass it over untrans. 
iated, on account of its frequent occurrence and unimportance, but on the 
whole, it was judged better to retain it. The phrase is about equivalent to the 
old English method of beginning a story, " Once upon a time." 

LUEE i : 9. The incense used in the Jewish offerings, on the altar of incense, 
before the ark, was a mixture of sweet spices, stacte, onycha, galbanum, and 
pure frankincense. This was burnt twice a day on the golden altar (Ex. 
XXX : 7, 8, 34-38). 

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•Now it occurred, while he performed the sacred rites, in 
the order of his course, before God, "that it fell to his lot, ac- 
cording to the custom of the priesthood, to go into the temple 
of the Lord, to bum incense. *®And the entire multitude 
of the people were praying outside, at the hour of incense- 
offering. "And an angel of [the] Lord appeared to him, 
standing at the right of the altar of incense. "And when Zach- 
ariah saw [him] he was startled, and fear fell on him. »»But 
the angel said to him, 

"Fear not, Zachariah, 

Because your prayer is heard. 

And your wife EUsabeth shall bear you a son, 

And you shall call his name John. 

"And he shall be a joy and an exultation to you, 

And many shall be glad at his birth. 

>*For he will be great in the sight of the Lord, 

Luke i: 11. The Greek angelos is rendered both "anger and "messenger" 
in the N. T. It occurs 183 times, and is appUed to good and bad spirits, men, 
armies, wind, fire, etc. Any messenger of God is God's angeL It is not easy 
to render the word nnif ormly, angel or messenger, but whichever term is nsed 
the meaning is the same, to be determined by the context, and not by the 
word. It is given to John the Immerser, Matt, i: 10; to his disciples, Luke 
vU: 24; to the disciples of Jesus, Luke ix: 52; to the thorn in Paul's flesh, 
2 Cor. zii: 17; to the Hebrew spies, James ii: 25, etc. In the O. T. a similar 
custom prevails. All messengers are angels. 

The difficulty of rendering any Greek word into the same English word, uni- 
formly, may be seen by the different words into which it has been found nec- 
essary to translate the verb katargeo^ which in the Authorized Version is 
rendered" cumber" (Luke xtU: 7), "make without effect" (Bom.iii: 3), "make 
void" (Rom. tU: 31), "destroy" (Rom. vi: 6; 1 Cor. vi: 13, andxv: 26; 2 Thess. 
ii: 8; and Heb. ii: 14), "loose" (Rom. vii: 2), "deliver" (Rom vii: 6), "bring 
to nought" (1 Cor.i: 28), and in the passive "come to nought" (1 Cor. ii: 6), 
"fail" (1 Cor. xiii: 8), "vanish away" (i6.), "be done away" {ih. 10; 2 Cor. iil: 
7, 11, 14), "putaway"(l Cor. xiii: 11), "put down" (1 Cor. xv: 24), "make of 
none effect" (Gal. iii: 17), and in the passive "become of no effect" (GaL v: 4), 
"cease" (GaL v: 11), and "abolish" (2 Cor. ill: 13; Eph. ii: 15; 2 Tim. i: 10), 
and for which the Revisers retain " cumber," " make of none effect," " be done 
away," "bring to nought," and "abolish," and three substitutes in "dis- 
charge," "sever," and "pass away." 

Luke i : 1 5. " Holy Spirit. " This phrase is not here accompanied by the def- 
inite article. Personality is not intimated. A proper rendering would be " a 

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And he shaU not drink of wine nor strong drink, 

And he shcdl be filled with [the] Holy Spirit, 

Even from his mother's womb. 

"And many of the sons of Israel 

Will he turn to [the] Lord their God. 

^^And he shall appear in his sight, 

In [the] spirit and power of Elijah, 

To turn fathers* hearts to children, 

And [the] disobedient in the wisdom of [the] just; 

To qualify for the Lord a prepared people." 

^^And Zachariah said to the angel, '* By what [sign] shall I 
know this, for I am an old man, and my wife is far advanced 
in her days." "And the angel answered and said to him, 
" I am Gabriel, that stand in God's presence, and I was sent 
to speak to you, and to tell you this good news. *®And 
behold, you shall be mute, and unable to speak, till the day 
when these things shall be accomplished; because you have 
not beUeved my words, which shall be fulfilled in their sea- 
son." "And the people were waiting for Zachariah, and they 
wondered at his delaying in the temple. "But when he came 
out he was unable to speak to them, and they perceived that 
he had seen a vision in the temple, for he made signs to them, 
and continued deaf and mute. ''And it occurred when the 
days of his m^strations terminated, [thatj he went to his 
house. *«And after these days his wife EHsabeth became 
pregnant, and concealed herself five months, saying: **"Thus 
has the Lord done for me in days when he regarded [me] 
to take away my reproach among men." 


Luke 1: 26-38. Now in the sixth month, the angel 
Gabriel was sent from God,to a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, 

divine spirit.** A ourioiis instance of inconsistency appears in the treatment 
of this phrase in B. V. It is sometimes rendered "Holy Spirit," and some- 

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''to a virgin affianced to a man named Joseph* of the house 

and lineage of David, and the virgin's name was Mary. "And 

he came in to her and said, 

" Hail, favored one, the Lord [is] with you." 

**But she was agitated at the word, and pondered what this 

salutation could mean. "^And the angel said to her, 
'Tear not, Mary! for you have found favor with God, 
"And hehold you shall conceive in your womb. 
And shall bear a son. 
And shall call his name Jesus. 

''He shall be great, and shall be called son of the Highest, 
And the Lord God will give him his father David's throne, 
"And he shall reign over the house of David to the 83ons, 
And of his reign there shall be no end.'* 

times it is rendered "Holy Ghost." It would seem that the Revisers In- 
tended to adopt the former and better phrase* bnt abandoned their purpose. 
Can it be that the occurrence o£ - Holy Ghost" in the Episcopal Prayer Book, 
as the object of worship, compelled the sacrifice of good taste? Holy Ghost is 
most objectionable and unwarrantable. 

Luke i: 28. "Blessed art thou among women," is omitted by S. & V. 

Luke i: 33. "To the sBons." The rendering of this language in E. V. and 
R V. is "forever," but the word is plural, eis tons aionas. The singular, aidn, 
denotes age, or aeon. The R. V. puts " unto the ages" in the margin. It would 
have been better to place these words in the text. To translate them " for- 
ever," meaning endless duration, is to make the Gospel contradict Itself, for it 
explicitly declares that Christ's kingdom will end, 1 Cor. xv: 24-25. He 
cannot, therefore, reign "forever;" moreover, if aion^ singular, does not mean 
eternity, no number of aions can have that meaning. The plural form demon- 
strates its meaning to be limited duration. For the lexicography of this word 
consult Theodoret, Hesychlus, Phavorinus, Bost, Hedericus, Schleusner, Pas- 
sow, Grove, Donnegan, Ewing, Schrevelius, Dr. Taylor, Autenrieth, Pickering, 
LiddeU and Scott, Hincks, Lutz, Macknight, Wright, Robinson, Jones, Cru- 
den, Alexander Campbell, Whitby, Pearce, Southwood Smith, Moses Stuart, 
Maclaine, Dr. Edward Beecher, John Foster, Simpson, De Quincey. Sears, De 
Lamennais, Blackie, Farrar, Eingsley, etc., quoted in "Hanson's Aion Aion- 
to 8." Schleusner says " an aion is any space of time, whether longer or 
shorter, past, present, or future, to be determined by the persons or things 
spoken of, and the scope of the subjects; the life, or age of man." The obvi- 
ous meaning of the phrase here is for ages, a long, indefinite, yet limited 
period. "No end" is to be understood rhetorically, figuratively, as the equiva- 
lent of "ages." 

This "aion," an4 " the t^i^ to come," further on, rendered " this world" an(i 

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""But," said Mary to the angel, "How can this be, since I 
do not know a man?" ''^And the angel answered, and said 
to her, 

"[The] Holy Spirit shall come upon you, 

And power from the Highest shall overshadow you; 

Wherefore, the begotten of you, being holy. 

Shall be called God's son. 

"^And behold, Elisabeth, your kinswoman. 

Even she has conceived a son in her old age. 

And this is the sixth month of her that was reputed sterile ; 

»'For no word of God is impossible." 

88 And Mary said, "Behold the Lord's bondmaid! be it done 
to me according to thy word." And the angel left her. 


Luke i: 39-56. And Mary arose in those days, and has- 
tened into the hill country, into a city of Judea ; *^and entered 
the house of Zachariah, and saluted EHsabeth. "And it oc- 
curred when Ehsabeth heard the salutation of Mary, that the 
babe leaped in her womb, and EHsabeth was filled with [the] 
Holy Spirit. *^And she raised her voice with a loud cry and 

"Blessed [are] you among women ! 

And blest the fruit of your womb ! 

*»And how comes this to me. 

That the mother of my Lord should approach me? 

"For, behold, when the voice of your salutation reached my 

The babe leaped with exultation in my womb ; 

"the world to come" in E. V., usually mean the Mosaic and the Christian, or 
Messianic ages, or dispensations. 

Luke i: 35. " Holy Spirit" here has no article; the phrase means nothing 
like personality, but denotes the quality of the influence that should possess 
Mary. See comment on Luke i: 15. A divine spirit from God was to Influ- 
ence her. 

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^And happy she who beUeved that there will be a fulfillment 
of the [words] spoken to her by the Lord." *»And Mary said, 

"My soul extols the Lord I 

*^And my spirit has exulted in God my Savior I 

^Tor he has seen the lowly condition of his bond-maid, 

For behold from now all generations shall call me happy I 

♦•For the Mighty One has done great things for me. 

And holy is his name! 

^And his mercy is to generations and generations, 

Of them that fear him ! 

^^He has shown strength with his arm, 

He has dispersed [the] haughty by [the] thought of their 

'^'He has cast down potentates from thrones, 

And exalted lowly ones. 

"He has fiUed [the] hungry with good things, 

And [the] rich he has sent empty away. 

^He has helped Israel, his own child, to remember mercy, 

"As he spoke to our fathers, 

To Abraham and his seed, [even] to the SBon.*' 

^'And Mary remained with her about three months, and 
[then] returned to her house. 


Lnke I: 67-80. Now EUsabeth's time to bear was com- 
pleted, and she brought forth a son. ***And her neighbors and 
kindred heard that {the] Lord had magnified his mercy toward 
her, and they rejoiced with her. ^And it occurred on the 
eighth day, [that] they came to circumcise the Uttle child, 
and were calling him Zachariah, after his father's name, 

Luke 1: 55. Eis ton aiSna Is the form In Weacott and Hort, but the Vati- 
can says eos aidnos. The meaning is "to, or during an age, or soon." As God's 
dealings with Abraham are here referred to, the duration must be limited to 
his life time. " For eyer** is manifestly inaocurate. 

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^and his mother answering said, '*No, hut he shall be 
called John." "And they said to her, "There is no one among 
your kindred who is called by this name." "And they made 
signs to his father, [asking] what he would desire him to be 
called. ""And he asked for a tablet, and wrote, saying, "John 
is his name." *^And they all wondered, but his mouth was 
immediately opened, and his tongue [loosened] , and he spoke, 
praising God. •^And fear came on all those who dwelt around 
them, and in the entire hill Qountry of Judea, becaitse of 
these sayings. ^And all who heard pondered them in their 
hearts, saying, "What, then, will this child be?" for the hand 
of the Lord was with him. <>'And Zachariah, his father, was 
filled with [the] Holy Spirit, and [he] prophesied, saying: 

""Blessed [be] the Lord, the Ged of Israel, 

Because he has visited, and wrought redemption for his 
people ; 

"'And has raised up to us a horn of salvation. 

In the house of David, his servant, 

^^Even as he spoke through the month of his holy proph- 
ets from [the] sBon, 

^'Salvation from our enemies. 

And from the hand of all those who hate us, 

"To perform mercy with our fathers. 

And to remember his holy covenant. 

^'The oath that he swore to Abraham our father, 

^*To enable us, rescued from the hands of our enemies. 

Fearlessly to worship him, 

^^in holiness and righteousness in his presence, all our days. 

"And you, little child, shall be called a prophet of the 

Hjkb 1: 63. A smaU board covered with wax and written on with an iron 

LUKB i: 70. Ap* aidnos "from an age, or ason," that is, anciently, from of 

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For you shall go before the face of the Lord, to prepare 
his ways, 

"To give knowledge of salvation to his people, 

In the forgiveness of our sins, 

'^Through the tender mercy of our God, 

By which a dawning from on high shall visit ns, 

'*To shine to those that sit in darkness, and the death- 

To guide our feet into [the] way of peace." 

•^And the little child grew, and became strong in spirit, 
and was in the deserts till [the] day of his appearance to Israel. 


Matt. 1: 18-35. Now the generation of Jesus Christ was 
thus : When his mother Mary had been affianced to Joseph, 
before they were united, she was discovered to be pregnant 
by [the] Holy Spirit. "And Joseph, her husband, being just, 
and yet reluctant to expose her publicly, inclined to put her 
away privately. ~But, while thinking of these things, behold, 
an angel of the Lord appeared to him, in a dream, saying, 
"Joseph, David*s son, fear not to take Mary, [as] your wife, for 
that begotten in her, is by [the] Holy Spirit. "And she shall 
bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus, for he shall 

Matt, i: 18. The oldest mss., usually, as in this text, precede Christ by the 
article, "The Christ." 

Matt, i: 19. Beigmatisai, reveal her condition, not paradeigmatisai, make 
her an example. See Eusebius. 

The account of the miraculous conception is rejected by many, as incredible; 
but what more probable than that God, who has been from the beginntnt; work- 
ing a new miracle, every time a new animal or vegetable has been created, 
should interpose to impart his divine spirit without measure, when he designed 
introducing a new order of spiritual creation? To our mind the miraculous 
conception is as credible as the account of man's original creation. Both are 
natural from God's side, and only supernatural from the human side of the 
phenomenoa. Jesus Christ can be accounted for only on the supposition of a 
divine beginning. 

MA.TT. i : 21. Dr. Paige remarks : ** His people. Some have supposed that a 
less number than the whole race of man is here indicated. But the general 

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save his people from their sins." "And all this occurred that 
the word spoken by the Lord, through the prophet, might be 
fulfilled, saying, 

**"Behold, the virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, 

And they shall call his name Emmanuel I 

Which is, when translated, God [is] with us." 

"And being aroused from the sleep, Joseph did as the Lord's 

testimony of the Scriptures justifies the belief that his people, as here used, 
Is equivalent to all men. Ps. il: 8; John xvil: 2, 10; 1 Cor. xv: 27, 28. Va- 
rious other circumstances combine to confirm this belief. (1.) The impartial 
goodness of the God and Father of the spirits of all flesh. Ps. cxlv: 9; Matt. 
v: 44-48; 1 John iv: 8-10. (2.) The declared object of Christ's mission. 
Gen. xxil: 18, with Acts iii: 25, 26, and GaL lii: 16; John iii: 17; Eph. 1:9, 
10 ; Phil, ii : 9-11; 1 John Iv :9, 1 4. (3. ) The testimony of Jesus and his apos- 
tles, that he came to save all, especially sinners. Matt, ix: 13; xvlii: 11; 
John xii: 32; xvii: 2; 1 Tim. i:15; 11:6; Heb. ii: 9; 1 John ii: 2. Such are 
the number and character of those whom Jesus had commission to save. 
From their sins. Not from some trivial danger or distress; but from that 
sinfulness which is the occasion of the most frequent and intense misery. Not 
from the consequences of sin, leaving the root of the evil undisturbed; but 
from stn itself. The salvation which Jesus Christ came to accomplish is a de- 
liverance from sinfulness, a purification from unrighteousness, a redemption 
from iniquity; in the language of Dr. A. Clarke, a * deliverance from all the 
power, guilt, and pollution of sin.' 'Less than this,' he adds, *is not,spoken 
of in the gospel; and less than this would be unbecoming the gospel."^ Matt, 
xxvi: 28; John 1: 29; Tit. ii: 14; 1 John 1: 7, 9. Salvation, then, may be re- 
garded as a change from sinfulness to holiness; 'remission of sins; emenda- 
tion of life; peace of mtnd; hope of eternal life; and endless happiness itself.' 
—Bosenmuller. Jesus denotes 'Savior.' The name appears among the He- 
brews as Oshea^ Hoshea, Jehoshua, Jeshua and Joshua, meaning Whose 
help is Jehovah, or God the Savior. The Greek Jason and Jesus are the 
same. The word is composed of yah shua, 'I shall be powerful.' This is 
the first gospel prophecy of the great work of the Christ. He was named to 
signify his character and mission,— Jesus, one who saves. 'He shall save his 
people,' that is, sinners, because they are to be saved from their sins. His 
people, then, are sinners, and as all men are sinners, all axe his people, and all 
will be saved by him, not from deserved punishment, not from 'hell,' nor any 
outward calamity, but 'from their sins."* 

Matt, i: 23. "Emmanuel, God with us. This language does not teach 
that Christ was God, but that he was divine. Godlike. It was no uncommon 
thing among the Jews to be called by names such as Enmianuel. Ithielsigni- 
fies God with me. Lemuel signifies God with them. Daniel signifies God my 
Judge. Ahiel signifies God my Father. Gabriel signifies the strong God. 
Elijah signifies God Jehovah. Now, who ever thinks that the men who once 
were designated by these names, or who now bear them, as we know some do, 
were or are the Almighty God? 

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angel directed him, and took his wife, ''and he did not know 
her till she bore a son, and he called his name Jesus. 


Luke ii: 1-7. Now it occurred in those days, that a de- 
cree was issued by Eaisar Augustus, to register all the 
inhabited [world.] 'This first registry occurred when Qui- 
rinius was pro-consul of Syria. 'And all went to be regis- 
tered, each in his own city. *And Joseph, also, went up 
from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, into 
David's city, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of 
the house and lineage of David, Ho be registered, with Mary 
his affianced, she being pregnant. "^And while they were there, 
it occurred that the days of her bearing were completed. ^And 
she brought forth her first-born son, and swathed him, and 
laid him in a manger, because there was no place for them in 
the khan. 


Luke ii: 8-20. And there were shepherds in that coun- 
try, remaining out in the fields, and keeping their flock in 
the night watches. 'And an angel of [the] Lord stood by 
them, and glory from [the] Lord shone over them, and they 
were afraid with a great fear. ^''And the angel said to them, 

"Fear not I 

For behold I bring you good news. 

Which shall be a great joy to all the people! 

"Because a Savior is born to you, to-day, 

"In the city of David, who is Christ [the] Lord, 

And this [is] the sign to you : 

Luke ii: 7. Inix is not the word. "Khan," or caravansary, conveys the 
meaning better. It was a wayside building, in which travelers found shelter, 
and furnished their own food. There was no host nor landlord in this khan 
{kuialuma). But the inn in Luke x: 34, patidokeion^ had a host.— The man- 
ger, or stall, pTiatniy trom. pateomai, I eat. 

LXTKE ii: 10. / bring you good news. The word etuingelizomai, here reu' 

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You will find the babe swathed, and lying in a manger." 
"And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of [the] 
heavenly host, praising God, and saying; 
""Glory to God in the highest, 
And on earth peace, good will among men." 
^*And it occurred, when the angels went from them, into 
heaven, the shepherds said to each other, "Let us now go to 
Bethlehem, and see this thing that has transpired, which the 
Lord has revealed to us." "And tl^y hastened, and found 
both Mary and Joseph, and the babe lying in the manger. 
i^And when they saw it, they made known the declaration that 
had been told to them, concerning this little child. "And all 
who heard wondered at the things related to them by the shep- 
herds. »»But Mary kept all these words, pondering them in 
her heart. '"'And the shepherds returned, glorifying and prais- 
ing God for all they had heard and seen, even as it had been 
told to them. 


Luke ii: 21. And when eight days were completed, [the 
time] to circumcise him, his name was called Jesus, the 

dered I bring you good newSy Is translated preach the gospel^ Luke iv: 18; 
xx: 1 ; Acts xvi: 10 in E. V. From this word are derived evangelize, to an- 
nounce good tidings; ewawe'eKsf, one who announces good tidings; evangeli- 
cal, whatever is truly good tidings. 

The precise date of the birth of Jesus is not certain. He was bom near the , 
time of Herod's death, Matt. 11: 1-6. Herod died in 750 (year of Rome) (Jose- 
phus Ant. 17. 9, 8, 3, 1). John began his ministry in the fifteenth year of 
Tiberius, Luke ill: 1-2, and Jesus was thirty years of age at that time, Luke 
ill: 23. The fifteenth year of Tiberius was A. U. 778, for he had been regent 
three years before the death of Herod, and thirty years previous would be 
A. U. 748. The time of year is less certain than the year. It was probably in 
the Autumn, say the middle of August to the middle of November. 

Luke 11: 14. The Revision reads "On earth peace among men, in whom 
he is well pleased," and in the margin as an alternative reading, " Peace, good 
pleasure among men," or, " Peace among men of good pleasure." Tregelles, in 
his alternative reading, has "Among men of good wilL" Alford and Farrar 

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name given him by the angel, before he was conceived in the 


Luke il: 22-38. And when the days of their purifica- 
tion were completed, according to the law of Moses, they 
brought him up to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord, 
"as it is written in the law of the Lord, that " Every 
male that opens the womb shall be called holy to the 
Lord;" "and to offer a sacrifice according to that which is 
said in the law of the Lord, "A pair of turtle doves, or two 
young pigeons." **And behold, there was a man in Jerusa- 
lem, whose name was Symeon, and the man was just and de- 
vout, awaiting Israers consolation, and [the] Holy Spirit was 
upon him. ""And he was informed by the Holy Spirit that he 
should not see death before he should see the Lord's Christ. 
"And he came by the spirit into the temple, and when the 
parents brought in the little child Jesus, to do according to 
that which is instituted in the law concerning him, »he also 
took him in his arms, and blessed God, and said, 

""Now, Master, dismiss thy slave, 

Li peace, according to thy word, 

**Because my eyes have seen thy salvation. 

same, i. e., "Men who »re the objects of God's good will." Polsom says, "Of 
good wIU:" assuming this as the true reading, the literal construction is 
peace to men of good will But (as says Winer, p. 191) * sometimes, and par- 
ticularly in Paul's epistles, the genitive, when placed after, is separated from 
Its governing noun by another word. Bom. Ix: 21.' (Has not the potter power 
over the clay? which lit. is. Has not power the potter of the clay ?). Although 
Winer does not quote Luke ii: 14, this comes fairly under the same principle. 
By *good will* Is meant in the Oospels, and generally in the N. T., the good 
will, or pleasure, of God. Comp. Matt, xi: 26; Luke x: 21; Eph. i: 5, 9." 
—Good wm among men. Eudokia is sustained by Origen, Eusebius, Gregory 
of Nazianzen, Titus of Bostra, and fifty-six illustrious fathers. It is probable 
that eudoJrias was accidentally corrupted by the addition of «. See Dean 
Burgon, Qu. Rev., Oct., 1881. 

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"Which thou hast prepared before the face of all the peo- 

"A light for the enHghtenment of Gentiles, 

And [thej glory of thy people, Israel. " 

s^And his father and his mother wondered at these [words] 
spoken about him. ^And Symeon blest them, and said to 
Mary, his mother, "Behold, this [child] is placed for a fall and 
rising of many in Israel, and for a sign to be spoken against; 
8*also a sword shall pierce through your own life, so that [the] 
had reasonings of many hearts may be disclosed." "And 
there was Anna, a prophetess, Phanuel's daughter, of the 
tribe of Asher, who was far advanced in many days, who had 
Hved with a husband seven years from her virginity. ^^She was 
also a widow till about eighty-four years, who did not with- 
draw from the temple, serving night and day, with fastings 
and prayers. *®And she, standing by at this hour, praised 
God, and spoke of him to all those looking for the deliver- 
ance of Jerusalem. 


Matt, ii: 1-12. Now when Jesus was bom in Bethle- 
hem, of Judea, in king Herod*s days, behold, magians came 
from the east, to Jerusalem, saying, *" Where is he that is 
bom king of the Jews, for we saw his star, at its rising, and 
have come to render him homage." ^And when the king, 
Herod, heard it, he was agitated, and all Jerusalem with 
him. ^And assembling all the high priests and scribes of 
the people, he inquired of them where the Christ should be 
bom. ®And they said to him, "In Bethlehem, of Judea, for 

MA.TT. 11: 2. "At Its rlsinflf Is the meaning, and not **in the east." Lit. the 
rising; when in the plural it signifies the east. These magians were Persian 
or Median priests. There was a remarkable conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn 
in 747, year of Rome: on May 20, Oct. 27, and Nov. 12, both planets were so 
near that they must have seemed one great star. 

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it is thus written through the prophet, 

«"And thou, Bethlehem, land of Judah, 

Art by no means least among the princes of Judahi 

For out of thee will come forth a Leader, 

Who will shepherd my people, Israel." 

^Then Herod, having privately called the magians, learned 
from them the exact time that the star appeared," and he sent 
them to Bethlehemy and said, "As you pass on your way in- 
quire exactly about the little child, and as soon as you have 
found [him], bring word to me, that I also may go and render 
him homage." 'And when they had heard the king, they 
departed ; and behold, the star that they saw at its rising, went 
before them till it stood over where the little child was. '^And 
when they saw the star they rej oiced with very great j oy . "And 
they went into the house, and saw the little child, with Mary, 
his mother, and fell down and rendered him homage; and 
opening their treasures, they offered him gifts: gold and 
frankincense and myrrh. "And being warned in a dream 
not to return to Herod, they departed to their country by 
another road. 


Matt, ii: 13-15. And when they had departed, behold, 
an angel of [the] Lord appears to Joseph, in a dream, say- 
ing, "Arise, take the Httle child and his mother, and flee into 
Egypt, and be there until I tell you; for Herod is about to 
seek the little child, to destroy him." "And he arose by night, 
and took the little child and his mother, and departed into 
Egypt; *«and was there till the death of Herod; that the 

Matt. 11 : 9. "On and on." A striking form of the Imperfect " was going." 

Matt. 11: 11. " Prostrating." The common form of hpmage paid to superiors 
by Jews and Pagans; obeisance, respect, but not worship, as we ordinarily 
use the term. The literal Is, " to kiss the hand towards." 

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16 tMjE! new COVFITANT. 

word spoken by the Lord, through the prophet, might be ful- 
filled, saying, **I called my son out of Egypt." 


Matt, ii: 16-18. Then Herod, when he saw that he had 
been deceived by the magians, was very angry, and he sent 
forth and slew all the little boys in Bethlehem, and all its 
vicinity, from two years and under, according to the time that 
he had accurately ascertained from the magians. "Then was 
fulfilled the word spoken through Jeremiah, the prophet, say- 

»«"A voice was heard in Eamah, 

Weeping and great mourning; 

Eachel lamenting her children. 

And she would not be comforted, because they were not.'* 


Matt, iiz 19-23. But when Herod was dead, lo, an angel 
of [the] Lord appears in a dream to Joseph, in Egypt, say^ 
ing, *°" Arise; take the little child and his mother, and go into 
[the] land of Israel, for they who sought the Httle child's life 
are dead. " "And he arose, and took the httle child and his 
mother, and entered the land of Israel; *^but when he heard 
that Archelaus was reigning over Judea, instead of his father, 
Herod, he was afraid to go there, and being warned in a 
dream, he departed into the district of Galilee, **and went and 
dwelt in a city called Nazareth, that the words spoken through 
the prophets might be fulfilled, that he should be called a 

Luke Ii : 3940. And when they had concluded all things, 
according to the law of [the] Lord, they returned into Gahlee, 

Matt. U: 16-18. The^opulation of Bethlehem is supposed to have been 
2,000, which wonld make fifty or fewer children slain, and not several thou- 
sand, as some have Insisted. 

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into their own city Nazareth. *»And the little child grew, 
and increased in strength, becoming full of wisdom, and 
God's favor was upon him. 


Luke ii: 41-52. And his parents, according to cusioniy went 
to Jerusalem, at the feast of the passover; *'and when he was 
twelve years of age, they went up according to the custom of 
the feast, *'and when they had completed the days, on their 
return, the boy Jesus remained in Jerusalem, and his parents 
did not know it; <*but supposing him to be in the company, 
they went a day's journey, and sought him among their 
kinsmen, and acquaintance, ^^and not finding him, they re- 
turned to Jerusalem, seeking him. «And after three days it 
occurred [that] they found him in the temple, sitting among 
the teachers, Hstening and questioning; ^^and all that heard 
him were astonished at his understanding, and answers. 
♦''And when they saw him they were amazed, and his mother 
said to him, "Child, why have you treated us thus? Behold, 
your father and I, in distress, sought you." "And he said to them 
"Why did you seek me? Did you not know that I must be in 
my Father's [courts] ?" ^And they did not understand the 
word he spoke to them. "And he went down with them, and 

Luke ii: 49. Strong, in his "Harmony and Exposition of the Gospels," 
says: " There is here apparently a studied ambiguity in the original, where, 
instead of 'business,' should rather be supplied 'in the [courts] of my Father,' 
namely, the temple, in distinction from the home of his reputed father." The 
usual reading, however, is " things," " affairs," and hence "business." Courts 
expresses the thought. Ta tou pairos mou^ may have the sense of locality, 
as house, or moral affairs. Godet: "A child is to be found at his father's." 

It is impossible to tell whether Jesus spoke Greek or Aramaic. Greek had 
for some time been the prevailing languaj^e throughout Judea. The presump^ 
tion seems to be that in his daily intercourse with the people of Galilee, he 
would not be likely to use Greek but Aramaic. And in the Gospels there are 
several indications which corroborate this presumption. But Professor Rob- 
erts, one of the revisers of the New Testament, has written with great learn- 
ing, maintaining that Christ did not use Aramaic but Greek. And Professor 
. Kennedy, of Cambridge, in reviewing the controversy, says it is a question 
that never can be settled beyond doubt. • 

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came into Nazareth, and was subject to them, and his mother 
treasured all these sayings in her heart. "And Jesus advanced 
in wisdom, and in age, and in favor with God and men. 


Matt, i: 1-17. A genealogy of Jesus Christ, son of Da- 
vid, son of Abraham: 

Abraham begot Isaac; 
^and Isaac begot Jacob; 
and Jacob begot Judah and 

his brothers; 
^and Judah begot Perez and 

Zerah of Tamar; 
and Perez begot Hezron ; 
<and Hezron begot Aram; 
£tod Aram begot Amminadab ; 
and Amminadab begot Nah- 

and Nahshon begot Salmon; 
^and Salmon begot Boaz of 

Eahab , 
and Boaz begot Obed of 


®and Obed begot Jesse; 
and Jesse begot David the 

And David begot Solomon 

of her [who was the wife] 

of Uriah; 
^and Solomon begot Eeho- 

boam ; 
and Kehoboam begot Abi- 

«And Abijah begot Asaph; 
and Asaph begot Jehosha- 

and Jehoshaphat begot Jo- 
and Joram begot Uzziah; 

Luke li : 52. " Favor" or " grace" is the meaning of chariti. 

Mati. i: 1-17; Luke iil: 23-38. Wakefield renders this, "A history of the 
llfa" Macknight, "The table of the genealogy." Campbell renders hiblion 
here "lineage." The phrase is aHebraism for "a register of the lineage," similar 
to the Septnagint, Gen. v: 1, "The record of the origin of man." There are 
two views of these somewhat differing genealogies. One is that Matthew's is 
through the father, and Luke's through the mother; that Matthew traces Jo- 
seph's and Luke Mary's ancestry. The other is, that Matthew traces the 
descent through Solomon, and that Luke traces it through Nathan, the two 
coming together in Salathiel. That Mary was of David's family, see Ps. cxxxii : 
11 ; Luke i: 32; Rom. i: 3. See Smith's Bible Dictionary on " Genealogy of 
Jesus Christ." These two accounts are doubtless copies of different records, 
kept in different places, and varying from want of precision. There is little 
need of the labored efforts so often made to render them perfectly harmoni- 
ous. The suggestion has been made that Luke spoke of individual, and Mat- 
thew of average, generations. 

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'and Uzziah begot Jotham; 

and Jotham begot Ahaz ; 

and Ahaz begot Hezekiah ; 

i^and Hezekiah begot Ma- 
nasseh ; 

and Manasseh begot Amos; 

and Amos begot Josiah; 

^^and Josiah begot Jecho- 
niah, and his brothers, 
at the time of the remov- 
al to Babylon ; 

"and after the removal to 
Babylon, Jechoniah be- 

got Salathiel; 
and Salathiel begot Zerub- 

babel ; 
^^and Zerubbabel begot Abi- 

and Abiud begot Eliakim; 
and Ehakim begot Azor; 
"and Azor begot Sadoc; 
and Sadoc begot Achim; 
and Achim begot Eliud ; 
^"and Ehud begot Eleazar; 
and Eleazar begot Matthan ; 
and Matthan begot Jacob; 

i«and Jacob begot Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom 
was bom Jesus, called the Christ. "Thus all the generations 
from Abraham to David are fourteen generations ; and from 
David to the removal to Babylon fourteen generations ; and 
from the removal to Babylon to the Christ, fourteen genera- 

Luke lii: 23-38. And Jesus, himself, when he began [to 
teach], was about thirty years of age, being, as was supposed 

a [son] of Joseph; 
the [son] of Heli; 
"the [son] of Matthat, 
the [son] of Levi; 
the [son] of Melchi; 
the [son] of Jannai; 
the [son] of Joseph; 
*^the [son] of Mattathias; 
the [son] of Amos; 
the [son] of Nahum; 
the [son] of EsH; 

the [son] of Naggai; 
«the [son] of Maath; 
the [son] of Mattathias; 
the [son] of Semein; 
the [son] of Josech; 
the [son] of Joda; 
''the [son] of Joanan; 
the [son] of Ehesa; 
the [son] of Zerubbabel; 
the [son] of Salathiel; 
the [son] of Neri; 

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s^the [son] of Melchi; 
tht; [son] of Addi; 
the [son] of Kosam; 
the [Bon] of Elmadam; 
the [eon] of Er; 
=^'^the [son] of Jesus; 
tbe [son] of Eliezer; 
the [eon] of Jorim; 
thG [Bon] of Matthat 
tlie [ion] of Levi; 
^"the [son] of Symeon; 
the [son] of Judas; 
the [son] of Joseph; 
the [son] of Jonam; 
the [Bon]of Eliakim; 
^i^the [son] of Melea; 
tlie [eon] of Menna; 
the [son] of Mattatha ; 
the [son] of Nathan; 
the [son] of David; 
3"the [son] of Jesse; 
the [son] of Obed; 
the [son] of Boas; 
the [son] of Sala\ 
the [son] of Nahshon; 
^'the [son] of Amminadab; 
the [son] of Admin; 

the [son] of Hezron; 
the [son] of Perez; 
the [son] of Judah. 
8*Uie [son] of Jacob; 
the [son] of Isaac; 
the [son] of Abraham; 
the [son] of Terah; 
the [son] of Nahor; 
35the [son] of Serucb; 
the [son] of Keu; 
the [son] of Peleg; 
the [son] of Eber; 
the [son] of Shelah; 
^the [son] of Kainan; 
the [son] of Arphaxad; 
the [son] of Shem; 
the [son] of Noah; 
the [son] of Lamech; 
sHhe [son] of Methuselah; 
the [son] of Enoch; 
the [son] of Jared; 
the [son] of Mahalaleel ; 
the [son] of Kainan; 
88the [son] of Enos; 
the [son] of Seth; 
the [son] of Adam; 
the [sonl of GOD. 

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Matt* iii: 1-12. Now in those days John the Immerser 
comes preaching in the desert of Judea, *sayi»g : "Reform, 
for the reign of the heavens has come near. Tor this is he 
that was spoken of through Isaiah, the prophet, saying: 

" *A voice crying in the desert, 

Prepare ye the way of [the] Lord; 

Make his paths straight.* '* 

Matt, iii: 1. The Greek words haptizo and baptismoSy have the meaning 
of immerse and Immersion, i. e.^ to dip, and are so rendered in this version. 
Bapto occnrs in the New Testament three times: Luke xvi, 24; John xiii, 26. 
Rev. xix, 13; and haptizo occurs seventy-nine times in E. V. ; It Is not trans- 
lated seventy-seven times, but transliterated. The English word baptize is 
ambiguous, but the Greek haptizo is susceptible of but one meaning, and that, 
"to dip," or immerse. This fact does not prove that immersion is the only 
form in which the rite should be administered ; on this point, the author of this 
version does not dogmatize, but he does not feel at liberty to withhold his as- 
sent to the position, not only of Baptist scholars, but of the best Christian 
critics of all sects, as to the meaning of the word. 

Matt, iii: 2. "Repent" does not give the full meaning of metanoeiiex it 
signifies a radical change of disposition and character. Reform, reformation, 
convey the meaning in verses 2 and 8. And the reason given is not that thus 
an escape from danger may be secured. The language is not "repent to 
escape the kingdom of Satan," but "reform, for the heavenly reign approaches." 
That is, put yourselves in condition to receive and enjoy that divine reign, 
which Jesus, the Coming One, will inaugurate. Matthew uses the phrase 
"reign of the heavens;" the other evangelists, "reign of God." 

Matt, iii: 3. The Greek hiHos is not always easy of translation. It 
may be rendered "Master," "Lord," or "Sir;" when applied to Christ, and 
euphony permits, we render it Master. In this iiistance "Lord" seems bet- 

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*And John himself had clothing of cameFs hair, and 
a leathern girdle around his loins, and his food was l6ciists 
and -wild honey. *Then went out to him Jerusalem, and 
all Judea, and all the region around Jordan, ®and were 
immersed by him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins. 
'And seeing many of the Sadducees and Pharisees coming 
to the immersion, he said to them, "Broods of vipers! who 
has admonished you to flee from the wrath about to come ? 
Troduce, then, fruit worthy of reformation! ^And pre- 
sume not to say within yourselves — *We have a father — 
Abraham;' for I say to you, that God can raise up children 
to Abraham *from these stones. ^®And already the ax hes 
at the root of the trees; therefore, every tree that does not 
bear good fruit is cut down, and cast into fire. ^^For 1, in- 
deed, immerse you in water to reformation; but he who 
is coming after me is mightier than I, whose sandals I am 
not fit to carry; he wiU immerse you in [the] Holy 
Spirit, and fire; "whose winnowing shovel is in his hand, 
and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing-floor, and gather 
his wheat into the granary; but the chaff he will consume in 
inextinguishable fire." 

Mark i: 2-8. As it is written in Isaiah the prophet, 

"Behold, I will send my angel before thy face, 

Who will prepare thy way; 

*A voice crying in the desert, 

Make ready the Lord's way; 

Make his paths straight." 

Matt, iii: 7. The strange neglect of the translators of E. V. and R. V. to 
fully render the word melld cannot be accounted for. Its meaning is "about 
to occur." The wrath here predicted was "about to come"-— was near— was 
soon to fall on the city and nation he was then addressing. "The coming 
wrath," the language in which the calamities of the wicked are described, in 
the New Testament, is almost invariably said to be then near. It was then 
"approaching" to those who heard the prophecy. 

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*Aad there came John, the Immerser, who immersed in the 
desert, and preached an immersion of reformation, to remis- 
sion of sins. *And all the coimtry of Judea, and all they of 
Jerusalem, were going out to him, and were immersed by 
him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins. "Now John 
was clothed in camel's hair, with a leathern girdle around his 
loins, and he ate locusts and wild honey. ^And he cried, 
saying: "He who is mightier than I comes after me, the 
strap of whose sandals I am not fit to stoop and loosen. *I 
have immersed you in water; but he will immerse you in 
[the] Holy Spirit." 

Luke iii: 1-18. Now in the fifteenth year of the govern- 
ment of Tiberius Kaisar, when Pontius Pilate was governor 
of Judea, and Herod tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother 
Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and the region of Trachonitis, and 
Lysanias tetrarch of Abylene, *under [the] high priests Annas 
and Kaiaphas, God's word came upon John, Zachariah's 
son, in the desert. ^And he went forth into all [the] coimtry 
about the Jordan, proclaiming an immersion of reforma- 
tion, to remission of sins. *As it is written in [the] book 
of [the] words of Isaiah, the prophet: 

"A voice crying in the desert. 

Prepare the Lord's way; 

Make his paths straight. 

^Every chasm shall be filled. 

And every mountain and hill brought low; 

And the crooked shall become straight. 

Luke ill: 3. "Immersion of reformation for remission of sins," seems pref- 
erable to "baptism of repentance." The meaning is, that the rite of baptism 
indicates the pmrpose to reform. 

Luke ill: 5. "All flesh shall see the salvation of God," is a declaration of 
the universality of Christ's reign. 

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And the rough roads smooth. 
•And all flesh shall see the salvation of God." 
'Then he said to the crowds that went out to he immersed 
by him : "Broods of vipers ! who has warned you to flee from the 
wi-ath about to come? ^Produce, then, fruits worthy of refor- 
mation ; and do not begin to say to yourselves, * We have a father, 
Abmliam.' For I tell you, that God can raise up children to 
A}>raliam from these stones. 'And the ax is already placed 
at the root of the trees. Therefore, every tree that bears 
not good fruit, is cut down, and thrown into fire." *°And the 
people asked him, saying: "What then ought we to do?" 
"And he answered and said to them, "Let him that has two 
tunicrt, share with him who has none; and he that has food, 
let him do in hke manner." "And tax-collectors also came 
to bcj immersed, and said to him, "Teacher, what ought we 
to ilo?'* "And he said, "Collect nothing more than what is 

Lusiglll:7. "Wrath to come;" "impendtiuf vengeance.**— (7a»np6eZZ. "3fei- 
Lq uanmlly means not only future, but riear. There is just such a dlf-: 
ferenc'L! bsbv^een estai and mellei esestkai, in Greek, as there is between it 
will h^. aad it is about to be, in English. This holds particularly in threats 
and ^vivrQings." Pearce says : "The punishment to come in the destruction of 
tlitsJewlEjh state." "The wrath to come was the impending destruction soon 
to toil on the Jewish nation, unless they repented and reformed, and which 
d]tlfl*i'^<ijend forty years after, overthrowing the temple, destroying millions of 
mjDQ, anil annihilating the national existence of the Jews. Those who em- 
bcacKi (Jhristianity escaped these judgments of heaven, because they believed 
in tho prophecies foretelling their approach, and fled from the country."— 

LuKC at: 9. "Good fruit," kalon, i. e., excellent, choice, fair to look upon. 
"Kaimi ia untranslatable."— Canon Farrar. "Thrown Into fire," is a prophecy 
of the woos that soon befell the Jewish nation. 

Luke 111: 11. "Two tunics."— "The inner garment worn next to the skin, 
generally with sleeves, and reaching usually to tha knees, sometimes to 
fch6 atikle^. Two tunics Indicate but small wealth. Even the poor can spare 
eomethinjjf for the still poorer."— ^66o;<. 

LLfKii: Hi : 12. "Tax collectors," "tribute takers," is the literal rendering of 
tho wor/l rendered "publicans," in E. V. The extortionate taxes levied by 
Bomo were collected by officers who were hated by all Jews. 

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required of you." "And soldiers, also, aslced him, "What also 
ought we to do?" And he said to them, "Extort by violence 
from no man ; accuse no one falsely, and be contented with 
your wages." *°And the people, expectant, all reasoned in 
their hearts concerning John whether he were the Christ. 
"John answered all, saying, "I, indeed, immerse you with 
water; but there comes one mightier than I, of whose san- 
dals I am not fit to loosen the strap; he will immerse you in 

Luke ill: 16. "Holy Spirit and fire." The good will receive of his divine 
spirit, and the bad will be overwhelmed in the desolations then approaching. 
The threshing-floor was Jerusalem; the wheat, those who accepted him; and 
the cha£F, those who rejected him. 

"Inextinguishable fire. ** Dr. Hammond, a very judicious commentator, says : 
"They put fire to the chaflf at the windward side, that creeps on and never 
giyes over, till it hath consumed all the chaff, and so is a kind of asbestonpu)\ 
here, a fire never quenchable, till it have done its work."— Com. on Matt.iii: 12. 

The fire by which the Jews were destroyed was the fire of divine judgment ; 
and as it did its work effectually, so it was unquenchable. It is for this rea- 
son that the punishment and destruction of the Jews are described in the Old 
Testament as being effected by unquenchable fire. 

' See Isaiah Ixvi: 24. "And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses 
of the men that have transgressed against me; for their worm shaU not die, 
neithershall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorring unto all 
flesh." The unquenchable fire here spoken of is in this world, as is evident 
from the phrases "new moon" and "Sabbath." 

Again, Jeb. xvii: 27. "Then will I kindle a fire in the gates thereof, and it 
shall devour the i)alaces of Jerusalem, and it shaU not be quenched." Fire 
kindled in the gates of Jerusalem, which devoured the palaces of Jerusalem, 
is said to be unquenchable. 

The phrase unquenchable fire (E. V.), is found in four places in the Estab- 
lished Version: Matt, iii: 12; Luke iii: 17; Mark ix: 43, 48. In all these 
passages the phrase should be quenchless fire. The Greek word asbestos, 
unquenchable, inextinguishable, is the original term in all the passages. The 
usage of the word will determine how Greek authors at the time of Christ 
employed it. 

Strabo [A. D. 70], speaking of the Parthenon at Athens, says, "In which 
[temple] was the inextinguishable lamp" meaning the lamp that was kept 
continually burning. [Lib. Ix, p. 606]. 

Josephus says [Jewish War, B. ii, ch. xvii : 6], speaking of a fire that used to 
bum in the temple— though at the time he wrote [A. D. 80], it had gone out and 
the temple was destroyed— "Every one was accustomed to bring wood for the 
altar, that fuel might never be needed for the fire, for it continued always un- 

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[the] Holy Spirit, and fire. "Whose wiimowing shovel is in 
his hand, to thoroughly cleanse his threshing-floor, and to 

Plutarch [A. D. 110], mentions the places "in Greece, where is afire un- 
quenchable, as at Delphi and Athens;" meaning the sacred fire of the temples, 
which, he says, in the very next sentence, had sometimes gone out. [Pint, in 
Numa, p. 262. Edit. Reiske, Lips. 1774]. 

Eusebius [A. D. 325], describing the martjrrdom of Kronen and Julian at 
Alexandria, says that "they were carried on camels throughout the whole city, 
and in this elevated position were scourged, and at last consumed in un- 
quenchable fire," though the fire burned, of course, but for a very short time. 
[Euseb. Eccl. Hist. Lib. vi, cap. 41]. 

The idea of endless duration was not in the minds of the authors of these 
terms. They used" the language to denote either literal fire that should bum 
until its object was accomplished, or as an emblem of divine judgments, 
thorough but limited. 

Canon Farrar, in "Eternal Hope," "Consequences of Sin," says, "The expres- 
sion 'quenchless fire,' — for the phrase *that never shall be quenched,* is a sim- 
ple mistranslation— is taken from Isa. Ixvl: 24, and is purely a figure of 
speech, as it is there, or as it is in Homer's Iliad., xvi: 123." In his Appendix 
to the volume he observes: "It was in answer to the bitter taunt of Celsus, 
that the God of the Christians kindled a fire in which all but the Cliristians 
should y>e burned, that Origen first argued that the fire should possess a puri- 
fying quality (katharsion) for all those who had in themselves any materials 
for it to consume. All, even Peter and Paul, must pass through this fire (Isa. 
xliil: 2) and ordinary sinners must remain in it till purged. It was, in fact, 
remorse for remembered sin, a 'figurative representation of the moral process 
by which restoration shall be effected.* " 

Matt, ill: 10; Luke ill: 9-17. Bishop Pearce says, "the punishment to come, 
in the destruction of the Jewish state;" Kenrick, "the impending punishment 
in the destruction of the Jewish state;" Dr. Clarke, "the desolation which was 
about to fall on the Jewish nation." 

But the same words may be applied to the consequences of any sinful career, 
whether of an individual or of a nation. The wrath to come is awaiting, not 
in another world, but here, in this. 

The evangelist here announces a calamity about to come on the Jewish peo- 
ple. The trees were the Jewish people, the ax the cause of their overthrow. 
Such is the use of these terms in the Old Testament. See Isa. xl: 24; Jer. x: 
2-3; xxii: 6-8. We quote the latter passage, to illustrate the Old Testament 

"For thus saith the Lord unto the king's house of Judah: Thou art Gilead 
unto me, and the head of Lebanon; yet surely I will make thee a wilderness, 
and cities which are not inhabited. And I will prepare destroyers against thee, 
every one with his weapons; and they shall cut down thy choice cedars, and 
cast them into the fire. And many nations shall pass by the city, and they 
shall say every man to his neighbor. Wherefore hath the Lord done thus un- 
to this great city?" 

Commentators of all churches apply this language to this world. 

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gather the wheat into his granary; but he will consume the 
chaflF with inextinguishable fire." *®And exhorting many 
other things, he preached good news to the people. 


Matt, iii: 13-17. Then comes Jesus from Galilee to the 
Jordan, to be immersed by John. "But he refused him, 
saying, "I have need to be immersed by you, and you come 
to me!", **And Jesus answered and said to him, "Permit [it] 
now, for it is becoming in us, thus to fulfill all righteousness." 
Then he permitted him. *®And when he was immersed, 

"We risk little in referring this to the Boman power and armies, which, as 
an ax, most vehemently cut away the very existence of the Jewish poUty and 
state."— C'aime^. 

**It was customary with the prophets to represent the kingdoms, nations and 
individuals, whose ruin they predicted, under the notion of forests and trees, 
doomed to be cut down. See Jer. xlvi: 22, 23; Ezek. xxxi: 3-12. The Bap- 
tist employs the same metaphor. The Jewish nation is the tree^ and the 
Romans the ax, which, by the just judgment of Ood, was speedily to cut it 
down."— Dr. A. Clarke. 

"In this whole verse (the 12th), the destruction of the Jewish state is ex- 
pressed in the terms of husbandmen; and by the wheat being gathered into 
the gamer, seems meant, that the believers in Jesus should not he involved in 
that calamity." — Bishop Pearce. 

"The Romans are here termed God's fan, as in verse 10, they are called his 
rw, and in chapter xxii : 7, they are termed his troops or armies. His floor- 
does not this mean the land of Judea, which had been long, as it were, the 
threshing-floor of the Lord? God says he will now, by the winnowing fan, 
(viz. : the Romans), thoroughly cleanse his floor— the wheat— those who believe 
in the Lord Jesus, he will gather into his gamer — either take to heaven from 
the evil to come, or put in a place of safety, as he did the Christians, by send- 
ing them to Pella, in Coelosyria, previously to the destruction of Jerusalem. 
But he wHl bum up the chaflf— the disobedient and rebellious Jews, who would 
not come unto Christ that they might have life."— Dr. Adam Clarke. 

Man is compared to a fruitless tree, that is destroyed because barren. No 
point of the description is literal— neither the tree, the ax, the fruit, nor the 
Are. The nation, or the individual, that does not serve God, perishes; that is, 
passes through a process of decay, destruction, as the penalty of sinfulness; 
not annihilation, nor ceaseless torment, but that moral condition for which 
the Scriptures have no better name than death. 

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tfoBus immediately ascended from the water; and behold, the 
heavens were opened, and he saw the Spirit of God, de- 
scending like a dove, coming on him. "And behold, a voice 
out of the heavens, saying, "This is my son, the beloved, 
ill whom I delight." 

Marki: 9-11. It occurred, in those days, that Jesus 
came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was immersed by John, 
in the Jordan. ^^'And, immediately ascending from the^ 
water, he saw the heavens opened, and the Spirit, like a 
dove, descending and remaining on him. "And a voice came 
from the heavens, "Thou art my son, the beloved, in whom 
I dehght." 

Lnkeiii: 21-22. And it occurred, when all thje people 
lijid been immersed, Jesus also having been immersed, and 
praying, the heaven was opened, **and the Holy Spirit de- 
scended upon him, in bodily form, like a dove, and a voice 
came out of heaven, [saying], "Thou art my beloved son, in 
thee I delight." 


Hatt. iv: 1-11. Then Jesus was impelled by 'the spirit 
into the desert, to be tempted by the accuser. *And after he 
hud fasted forty days and forty nights, he was himgry. 
"Then the tempter came to him, and said, "If you are God's 
son, speak, that these stones become loaves." *But he an- 
s^vered and said, "It is written, 

** *Man shall not hve by bread alone, 

But by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.* " 

^Then the accuser took him into the holy city, and set him 
oil the parapet of the temple, '^and says to him, "If you are 
God's son, throw yourself down, for it is written, 

" *He shall give his angels charge concerning thee, 


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They shall bear thee up on their hands, 

Lest thou strike thy foot against a stone.* " 

'Jesus said to him," Again itis written, *Thou shalt not tempt 
the Lord, thy God.' " "Again, the accuser takes him into an 
exceedingly high mountain, and shows him all the kingdoms of 
the world, and their glory, *and says to him, "I will give all 
these things to you, if you will fall down and render hom- 
age to me." ^Then Jesus says to him, "Begone, adversary I 
for it is written, 

" *Thou shalt render homage to the Lord, thy God, 

And only to him shalt thou do service.' " 

"Then the accuser left him, and behold, angels came, and 
• ministered to him. 

Marki: 12-13. And immediately the spirit drives him 
into the desert. "And he was in the desert forty days, 
tempted by the adversary, and was among wild beasts; and 
angels served him. 

Luke iv: 1-13. And Jesus, full of [the] Holy Spirit, re- 
turned from the Jordan, and was led in the spirit, in the 
desert, *forty days; being tempted by the accuser. And he 
ate nothing in those days; and when they were ended, he 
was hungry. 'Now the accuser said to him, "If you are 
God's son, command this stone to become a loaf." *And 
Jesus answered him, "It is written that on bread alone man 
shall not live. " ^And he led him up and showed him all 
the kingdoms of the inhabited earth, in a moment of time. 
*And the accuser said to him, "I will give you the control of 
all this, and their glory, for it has been bestowed upon me, 
and I will bestow it on whomsoever I please. 'If, then, you 
will render homage to me, it shall all be yours. " ®And Jesus 
answered and said to him, "It is written, 

" *Thou shalt do homage to God, thy Lord, 

And only to him shalt thou render service.' " 

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•Now he brought him to Jerusalem, and placed him on 
the parapet of the temple, and said to him, "If 'you are 
God's son, throw yourself down from this place; ^^'it is written, 

" *He will give his angels charge concerning thee, to guard 
thee,' " and 

Hi* t^hey shall bear thee up on their hands. 

Lest thou strike thy foot against a stone.' " 

*^And Jesus, answering, said to him, "It is said, 

" «Thou Shalt not tempt God, thy Lord.' " 

*^And when he had ended every temptation, the accuser 
departed from him for a season. 


John i: 1-6, 9-14, 16-18. ^In [the] beginning was the 

Matt, iv: 1-11; Mark i: 12-13; Luke Iv: 1-13. "The temptation."— This 
account is not to be taken literally. It is an allegory. That it is symbolical 
and not historical see Lange, Hase, Weisse, Olshausen, Neander, UUmann, etc. 
Jesus "was tempted, in all points as we are.** The "accuser," or the "adver- 
sary;" the devil or the satan, dlaholoSy satanaSy means false accuser, and oc- 
curs thirty times, three times plural, 2 Tim. iii: 3; 1 Tim. iii: 11; Tit. ii: 3, 
and stands for the inducements that arise out of man's animal nature to 
draw the higher nature down; animal appetite, ambition, service of evil for 
the sake of worldly good. Jesus felt all these as we feel them. They were 
without sin in him, because he put them aside and triumphed over them. 
The practical use of the aUegory is to teach us to turn a deaf ear to the in- 
ducements that beset us, exactly such as beset him. Matthew and Luke rep- 
resent Jesus as calling the tempter satan or adversary, opponent; while 
Mark calls him devil or accuser, assailant. Both stand for the same thing. 
James says, "Every man when he is tempted is drawn away by his own lusts, 
and enticed." James describes, in plain terms, what are personified and alle- 
gorized in dramatic form by the evangelists. Satan, the devil; the tempter, 
is the "law of the members," ^the animal nature, assailing the moral or spir- 
itual being. 

John i: l. The Greek logos, here rendered "word," denotes God's wisdom 
or energy. It occurs frequently in the Scriptures, with a variety of significa- 
tions. In this case it might be left untranslated, as one of the titles of Jesus : 
"In the beginning was the Logos," etc. "The Logos was toith God :" pros con- 
veys the idea of close relation ; the Word was co-operating with God. Norton 
observes : "It was his (John's) purpose, in the introduction of his gospel, to 
declare that Christianity had the same divine origin as the universe itself; 
that it was to be considered as proceeding from the same power of God. 
Writing in Asia Minor for readers, by many of whom the term Logos was more 

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Word, arid the Word was with God, and God was the Word. 

f amiliaxly used than any other, to express the attributes of God viewed in rela- 
tion to his creatures, he adopted this term to convey his meaning, because, 
from their associations with it, it was fitted particularly to impress and affect 
their minds; thus connecting the great truth which he taught with their 
former modes of thinking and speaking. But upon the idea primarily ex- 
pressed by this term, a new conception, the conception of the proper person- 
ality of those attributes, had been superinduced. This doctrine, then, the 
doctrine of an h3rpostatized Logos, it appears to have been his purpose to set 
aside. He would guard himself, I think, against being understood to counte- 
nance it. The Logos, he teaches, was not the agent of God, but God himself. 
It is so that seeing his power and Godhead is made equivalent to knowing 
God. Thus, also, our Savior, appealing to the miracles which he wrought, 
argued that the divine power or energy, manifested by them, yielded sufficient 
proof that they were not simply wrought by divine power, but truly the 
works of God." "God was the Word" is the correct form of the sentence. [See 
Luther, Wyckliffe, Tyndal, Cranmer, Vulgate, etc.] 

Logos is used by John as in the Septuagint. The author of Proverbs rep- 
resents Wisdom (Greek logqs), as saying, Prov. viii: "Jehovah possessed me 
in the beginning of his way, before his works of old. I was by him as a mas- 
ter-builder (or foster-child), and I was daily his delight, rejoicing always be- 
fore him." The author of Ecclesiasticus employs logos as John does, as a per- 
sonification of wisdom. "Wisdom shall glory in the midst of her people, in the 
congregation of the Most High shall she open her mouth: 'He created me from 
the beginning, before the world, and I shall never falL In the holy tabernacle 
I served before him. I am the mother of fair love and fear and knowledge and 
holy hope. Come unto me all ye that be desirous of me, and fill yourselves 
with my fruits. They that eat me shall yet be hungry, and they that drink 
me shall yet be thirsty* " [Ecclesiasticus xxlv : 1-22]. 

The definition of logos^ as given by Parkhtirst, is as follows: "1. A word, 
(Itfatt. vUl: 16; Luke vii: 7). 2. A sa3ring, speech, discourse, conversation 
(Matt. xU: 32; xv: 12; xix: 22; xxii: 15; xxvi: 1; John iv: 39; Acts v: 24). 
3. A report, rumor (Matt, xxviii: 15; Luke v: 15; vii: 17). 4. A saying, a com- 
mon saying, a proverb (John iv : 37). 5. The word of God, whether of the law 
(Matt, vii: 13), or of the gospel (Matt, xiii: 19-23; Markii: 2; xvi: 20; Acts 
viii: 4; 2 Tim. iv: 2). It sometimes implies the profession and practice of' 
the gospel (see Matt, xiii: 21; Mark iv: 17; John viii: 31 ; Rev. i: 9; xx: 4). 
6. Speech, eloquence (1 Cor. ii: 1; 2 Cor. xi: 6). 7. Ability to speak, utter- 
ance (Eph. vi: 19). 8. Beason, the faculty of reasoning, or discoursing (Acts 
xviii: 14). 9. An account; i. e., of one's actions or proceedings given to a su- 
perior (Rom. xiv: 12; Matt, xil: 36; Acts xix: 40; Heb. xiii: 17; 1 Pet. iv: 5). 
10. A discourse in writing, a treatise, particularly of the historical kind (Acts. 
i: 1). 11. An account, a computation of debts or expenses (Matt, xviii: 23; 
XXV : 19). 12. Account, value, regard (Acts. XX : 24). 13. An account, cause 
(Matt, v: 32; Acts x: 29). 14. Show, appearance, pretense (Col. ii: 23). 15. 
An affair, matter, thing, which may be the subject of discourse (Lukei: 4; 
Acts viii: 24; XV : 6). 16. The divine and substantial Word of God, i. e., the 
second person of the ever blessed Trinity (John i: 1, 14; 1 Johni: 1; v: 7; 
Rev. xix: 13. Comp. 2 Pet. ill: 5; Heb. iv: 12, 13; Luke i: 2)." 

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■This was in [the] beginning with God. "All things were 
done through it, and without it not even one thing was done 
that has been done. ^In it was life, and the life was the light 
of men. *^And the light shines in the darkness, and the 
darkness did not apprehend it. ^It was the true light whjch, 
coming into the world, enhghtens every man. ^''It was in the 
world, and the world was made through it, and the world did 
not know it. "It came to its own, and they who were its own 
j-eceived it not. "But as many as received it, to them it 
gave authority to become children of God, to those tliat be- 
lieve in its name; "who were not made of bloods, nor of 
tlie will of flesh, nor of the will of man, but from God. 
"And the Word became flesh, and tabernacled among us, and 
wo beheld his glory, a glory as of an only begotten of a 
Father, full of favor and truth. ^^Because we have all re- 
ceived out of his fulness, favor upon favor. "For the law 
was given through Moses; the favor and the truth came 
through Jesus Christ. ^*No man has ever seen God : the only 
begotten son, he who is in the bosom of the Father, he has 
interpreted [him]. 

John 1: 3. Ginomai, produced, become, the word is found more than 700 
times In the New Testament, and never means create. This gospel contains it 
iifty- three times, and it always denotes done, become, etc.— The neuter pro- 
noun Is preferred until the writer indicates personification. "All things were 
done through it" [the Logos]. 

JoHNi: 10, 11. "Unto his own (home) and his own (people) received him 

John i: 14. "The word became incarnate." "In the language of the syna- 
po^e, the term sar:jc was so often employed to denote a human being ^ that 
the evangelist's expression would not sound so harshly in the ears of those 
accustomed to that idiom, as the literal version of the word does in ours."— 

Norton says, "The word sai'X^ in its primitive meaning >?es7i, is often used to 
ilftTiote man. When it is said that the Logos, or the Power of God, became a 
man, the meaning is that the Power of God was manifested in and exercised 
through a man. It is afterward, by a figurative use of language, identified 
with Christ." 

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John i: 6-8, 16. There came a man named John, who 
was sent from God. 'He came for testimony, that he 
might testify concerning the Hght, that all might heheve 
through him. *He was not the hght, but [came] that he 
might testify concerning the Hght. ^^John testified concern- 
ing him, and exclaimed, "This is he of whom I said, *He 
who follows me is in advance of me, for he is my superior/ ** 

John's testimony. 

John i: 19-34:. And this is the testimony of John, when 
the Jews sent to him priests and Levites from Jerusalem, 
to ask him, "Who are you?" ^And he confessed, and denied 
not, but confessed, "I am not the Christ." "And they again 
asked him,"Who then? Are youEhjah?" And he says, "I am 
not." "Are you a prophet?" and he answered, "No." **They 
said therefore to him, **Who are you? that we may answer 
those that sent us. What do you say concerning yourself?" 
*^He said, "I am a voice crying in the desert, *Make the Lord's 
way straight,* as Isaiah the prophet, said." "And they were 
sent from the Pharisees ; *®and they questioned him, and said 
to him, "Why, then, do you immerse, if you are not the 
Christ, nor Ehjah, nor the prophet?" "'John answered them, 

John i: 18. Westcott and Hort give monogenes theos In the text, and m. 
huios in the margin. The revision places "Son" in the text, and "God" in the 
margin. It has been suggested that, originally, the word was an abbreviation 
of the Greek for "Son," which became corrupted into an abbreviation of God» 
and so was transmitted. "Begotten God" is so manifestly incorrect that it 
has generally been regarded as a corruption. In his eighth edition Tischendorf 
adopts "Son" as the authorized reading. 

John 1 : 15. The precedence here indicated is of character. Priority of time 
is not meant. 

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saying, "I immerse in water. There stands among you 
one whom you do not know; hj3 who comes after me, ^^the 
strap of whose sandal I am not fit to loosen. " ^These things 
occurred in Bethany, beyond the Jordan, where John was 
•immersing. **0n the next day he sees Jesus coming to him, 
and says, "See the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of 
the world. **This is he of whom I said, *A man comes after 
me, who is before me, for he is my superior. ^^And I did not 
know him; but that he might be manifested to Israel, be- 
cause of this I have come immersing in water. " ^And John 
bore testimony, saying, "I saw the Spirit, like a dove, de- 
scending out of heaven, and remaining on him. ^And I 
did not know him; but he who sent me to immerse in water, 
he said to me, "On whom you shall see the Spirit descending 
and remaining on him : this is he who immerses in [the] 
Holy Spirit. ^And I have seen, and testified that he is 
God's Chosen Son." 


John i: 36-61. On the next day, John was again stand- 
ing, and two of his disciples, ^and observing Jesus, as he 
walked, he says: "See the Lamb of God." *^And the two 
disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus. ^And 
Jesus turned and saw them following, and says to them, 
"What do you seek?" and they said to him, "Rabbi," which, 
translated, means teacher, "Where are you dweUing?" ^He 
says to them, "Come, and you shall see." They, therefore, 
went and saw where he dwelt, and they dwelt with him that 
day; it was about the tenth hour. *^NoWf Andrew, Simon 
Peter's brother, was one of the two who had heard from 
John and followed him. *Tirst he finds his own brother 
Simon, and says to him, "We have found the Messiah," 

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which, being translated, is Christ. *^He led him to Jesus. 
Jesus looked at him, and said, "You are Simon, the son of 
John ; you shall be called Kephas, which, translated, is Peter. 
"On the next day, he wished to go to Galilee, and he finds 
PhiHp, and Jesus says to him, "Follow me." **Now PhiHp 
was from Bethsaida, Andrew and Peter's city. *^PhUip finds 
Nathaniel, and says to him, "We have found him of whom 
Moses in the law and the prophets wrote, Jesus of Nazareth, 
the son of Joseph." **And Nathaniel said to him, "Can any 
good thing proceed from Nazareth?" PhUip says to him, 
"Come and see." *' Jesus saw Nathaniel coming to him, and 
says concerning NatJianiely "See! a genuine Israelite, in 
whom is no deceit." *^Nathaniel says to him, "How do you 
know me?" Jesus answered and said to him, "I saw you 
under the fig-tree, before Phihp called you." *^Nathaniel 
answered him*, "Rabbi, you are God*s son! You are king 
of Israel." "Jesus answered and said to him, "Do you be- 
lieve because I told you that I saw you under the fig-tree? 
You shall see greater things than these.'* "And he says to 
him, "Truly, truly, I say to you, you shall see the heaven 
opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending on 
the Son of Man." 


John ii: 1-12. And on the third day a marriage occurred 
in Kana of Galilee, and Jesus' mother was there. *And 
Jesus, and also his disciples, were invited to the marriage. 
^And they had no wine, because the wine of the marriage feast 
was exhausted. Then says Jesus* mother to him, " There is 

John i: 42.— Kephas is the Aramaic of which Peter is the Greek, meaning 
rock or stone. 

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no wine." *And Jesus says to her, "Woman, what have you 
to do with me? My hour has not yet come." *His mother 
says to the servants, "Do whatsoever he may tell you." •And 
there were six stone water- jars placed according to the mode 
of purification of the Jews, each holding two or three am- 
phoras. \ind Jesus said to them, "Fill the water-jars with 
water." And they filled them to the brim. ®And he says to 
them, "Draw, now, and carry to the ruler of the feast." And 
they carried it. "And when the ruler of the feast tasted the 
water become wine, and did not know whence it was — but 
those servants who had drawn the wa,ter knew — ^the ruler of 
the feast called the bridegroom, and says to him, **^* Every 
man places the good wine first, and when they have drunk 
freely, the inferior, hat you have kept the good wine till now." 
"This first of the signs Jesus wrought in Kana of Galilee, 
and manifested his glory. And his disciples beheved in him. 
"After this he went down into Kaphamaum, he and his 
mother, and brothers, and disciples, and remained there a 
few days. 

John il: 4. "Woman** sounds harsh to us, as addressed to his mother, by 
the Savior, but the term as used in Greek was one of great respect; something 
like our use of madam, but even more considerate and respectful 

John ii: 6. The Jewish hath^ seven and a half gallons. If this be meant, 
the amount of wine made was one hundred and twenty gallons. The act of 
changing water into wine has been regarded by many as incredible. It is easy 
to believe that it was done through the superhuman knowledge possessed by 
our Lord, who effected the transformation ; but, no doubt, by a process entirely 
in harmony with the laws of nature. 

JoHNii: 10. The word here used conveys no hint of intoxication. It is 
from nueta thuein^ to drink after sacrifice. Isaiah uses it, Iviii: 11, a weU 
watered garden. 

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John ii: 13-25. And the Jews' passover was near; and 
Jesus went up to Jerusalem. "And he found the brokers sitting 
in the temple, and those that sold sheep, and oxen, and doves. 
^^And he made a scourge of rushes, and drove them all out 
of the temple, both the sheep, and the oxen, aiid he poured 
out the brokers' coin, and overturned their tables; ^'^and said 
to those that sold doves, "Take these things hence, a7id make 
not my Father's house a house of merchandise. " "His dis- 
ciples remembered that it was written, "The zeal of thy 
house consumes me." "Then the Jews answered and said to 
him, "What sign do you show us, seeing that you do these 
things?" ^' Jesus answered and said to them, "Destroy this 
temple,*and I will raise it in three days. " ^Then the Jews said, 
"This temple was forty-six years building, and will you erect 
it in three days?" ^^But he spoke concerning the temple of tJie 
body. ^^When, therefore, he was raised from the dead, his 
disciples remembered that he said this ; and they beheved the 

JoHNil: 14, 17. The cleansing of the temple was an act of reform, which 
could hardly be condemned by any Jew, inasmuch as the presence there of 
animals and traflftc was contrary to law. Jesus used the whip of rushes to 
drive out the animals, not the merchants, say some, but the language implies 
that he made a general cleansing. 

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Scripture, and the word that Jesus had spoken. 

'^And when he was in Jerusalem, at the feast of the pass- 
over, many believed in his name, [by] beholding his signs, 
which he wrought. ^But Jesus did not trust himself to them , 
because he knew them all, ^and because he did not require 
that any one should testify concerning man, for he knew 
what was in man. 


John iii; 1-21. And there was a man of the Pharisees, 
named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews ; ^the same came to 
him by night, and said to him, "Rabbi, we know that you 
are a teacher come from God ; for no man can do these signs 
that you do imless God be with him." ^Jesus answered, 
"Truly, truly I say to you, unless a man be begotten from 
above, he cannot see the reign of God." *Nicodemus says to 
him, "How can a man be begotten when he is old? Can he 
enter a second time into his mother's womb, and be bom?" 
^ Jesus answered, "Truly, truly I say to you, unless a man be 
begotten of water and spirit, he cannot see the reign of 
heaven. ^That which is bom of the flesh is flesh, and that 
which is bom of the spirit is spirit. ^Wonder not that I said 

John ill : 3. Begotten from above, instead of bom again, is the correct read- 
ing. The phrases, "kingdom of God," "kingdom of heaven," "the kingdom," 
etc. (E. V. andB. V.), denote the reign of truth and goodness in the human 
heart, and in this world. It rarely, if ever, means the realm of holiness and 
happiness in the immortal state. Reign, signifying rule, or sway, seems bet- 
ter than kingdom, which, to the ordinary ear, carries the idea of an outward 

John iii: 5. "Verily," i. e., "truly." The word amen uttered by the Savior 
is recorded seventy- six times by the evangelists: twenty-nine by Matthew, 
fifteen by Mark, eight by Luke and twenty-four by John. Its repetition by 
them all is an incidental proof of the accuracy of their records. 

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to you, you must be begotten from above. *The Spirit 
breathes where it will, and you hear its voice, but you know 
not whence it comes, nor where it goes; so is every one that 
is bom of the Spirit." ^Nicodemus answered and said 
to him, "How can these things occur?" ^^ Jesus answered and 
said to him, ""Are you the teacher of Israel, and know not 
these things? Truly, truly I say to you, we speak what we 
know, and testify [to] what we have seen! and you do not 
receive our testimony. "If I have told you earthly things, and 
you beheve not, how will you beheve if I tell you heavenly 
things? "And no man has ascended into heaven except the 
Son of Man, he who -descended from heaven. "And as Moses 
hfted the serpent in the desert, so must the Son of Man be 
lifted, ^Hhat every one who beheves in him, may have aeonian 
life. ^'For God so loved the world that he gave the Son, 
the only begotten, that every one that beheves in him 
might not perish, but have sBonian life. "For God sent 

John iii : 8. Instead of rendering pneuma "wind," in v. 8, as does E. V., we 
prefer to render it uniformly spirit. "That which has been bom of the Spirit 
is spiritr-p^if? urnatos is pneuma. The pneuma breathes where it wills, etc. , '* 
that is, the Spirit. 

The Sinaitic adds "of the water," as in verse 5. 

John iii : 16. "iEonian life" is erroneously supposed by many to be endless 
life, in the immortal state. The adjective aionios is derived from aidn. As 
tihe latter denotes age, aeon,— and sometimes the Christian age, the former must 
mean an indefinite, yet limited period corresponding thereto. This is the gen- 
eral use in the Bible of words derived from aion. See Gen. ix : 12, 16 ; xvii : 8, 13, 
19; Numb. xxv:13; Ex. xii:14, 17; xxvii:21;xxviii:43; xxix: 28;xxx:21 ; 
xxxi: 16, 17; Lev. vi: 18, 22; vil:34, 36; x:15; xvi:29, 31, 34; xvU:7; xxUi: 
14, 31, 41; xxiv:3, 8, 9; Numb. x:8; xv:15; xvlli:8, 11, 19, 23;xlx:10< 21; 
2 Sam. xxiii:5; 1 Chron. xvi:17; Isa. xxiv:5; Ezek. xvi:60; Ps. lxxvii:5; 
Isa. Ixiii: 11; Jer. vi: 16; xviii: 15; xxii: 15; Isa. Iviu: 12;lxi: 4; Ezek. xxvi: 
20; Prov. xxii:28; xxiii;10; Ezek. xxxvi:2; xxxv:5; Isa. liv:8; Jer. v:22; 
xviii: 16; xxv:9, 12; Ezek. xxxv:9; Jer. xx:ll; xxiii:40; 11:39; Micah. ii: 
9. The land of Canaan was to be an aeonian possession to the Jews, Gea. 
xvii: 8; xlviii: 4, and yet they lost it; the hills are aeonian. Gen. xlix : 26, and 
yet they are to be destroyed, for every mountain and hill will be made low; 
the priesthood of Aaron was aeonian, Numb, xxv : 13, and yet it has been abro- 

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not the Son into the world to judge the world, but that the 
world through him should be saved. ^^He that beheves in 

gated; the Jewish law was to lie seonlan. Lev. xvi: 34, and yet it is followed 
by Christianity; Gehazi's leprosy was to last "forever," 2 Kings v: 27, eis ton 
aiona, and yet it ended at the grave; bondmen were to be servants "forever," 
and yet the year of jubilee, every fiftieth year, emancipated them; Jonah was 
in the fish "forever," ii:6, and yet he was there but three days. These and 
many other passages show that the general meaning is limited duration. 

So the phrase seonian life does not denote endless duration. It is that spirit- 
ual condition resulting from Christian faith. John ill : 36, "He that beUeves on 
me has aeonian life." See v. 16, also vi : 47, 54, xvii : 3, x ; 28, xiv : 50. This life 
may be, often is, a temporary possession. Men have it, and fall from grace, 
and lose it. Its nature is described, John v:24, "He that believeth on him 
that sent me, hath aBonian life,— is passed from death unto life." John xvii: 
3, "This is aeonian life, to know thee, the only ttue God, and Jesus Christ, 
whom thou hast sent." It is not necessarily of endless duration. 

"Ionian life," "this aeon," and "the aeon to come," are more euphonious than 
"age-long life," "this age," and "the age to come." These words are not in 
common use, yet they are the best rendering of the Greek. Tennyson uses 
the word: 

"Draw down aeonian hills, and sow 
The dust of continents to be." 

MovL is found occasionally in literature, meaning age— age-long is the sense of 
the adjective. Wherever zoen aidnion occurs in the N. T. it denotes the 
Christian life, regardless of its duration, carrying wdth the meaning of indefi- 
nite duration the sense of the quaUty of the true life. 

John ill : 16. "God so loved the world, that he gave the only begotten Son." 
Jesus did not come to perform his great work because he had prevailed on the 
Father to allow him to come; or because he desired to avert God's purpose to 
destroy his rebellious offspring. He was the agent of God, came because God 
sent him, and he labors not to render God good to his children, but to perform 
the errand on which he was sent by the Father, of his own goodness, to "recon- 
cile the world unto himself." The mission of Jesus was the effect of God's 
love, not the procuring cause of it. He came, not to purchase, but to mani- 
fest that love; not to turn away divine vrrath, but to exhibit unchangeable 
love. The idea that God regarded his children with anger, and that Jesus 
came to avert divine wrath, by the sacrifice of his own blood, is distinctly and 
positively contradicted here; and an assurance is given, that he came because 
God already loved the world. The same testimony is given by the apostles, 
Bom. v: 8; 1 John iv: 9, 10. The world here has its most extensive import, 
denoting the whole race of man. All were in equal need of the blessing, and 
the Giver is impartial.— Paige. "It was for all the world. He tasted 'death • 
for every man,' Heb. ii : 9. 'He died for all,' 2 Cor. v : 15. 'He is the propitia- 
tion for the sins of the whole world,' 1 John ii : 2."— Barnes. 

John ill : 18. Instead of condemned, we give the accurate meaning of krine- 
taii judged. This meaning is recognized and adopted in the New Revision. 

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him is not judged; he that does not beUeve has already been 
judged, because he has not believed in the name of the only 
begotten Son of God. **And this is the judgment, that the 
light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness 
rather than the hght, for their works were evil. *°For every 
one who practices vile things, hates the Hght, and comes not 
to the light, lest his works may be detected. "But he who 
does the truth, comes to the Hght, so that his works may be 
manifested; because they have been wrought in (iod." 

John's last testimony. 

John iii: 22-36. After these things Jesus and his dis- 
ciples went into the land of Judea, and there they remained 
and immersed. **And John also immersed in ^non near 
Saleim, because there were many waters there; and they 
went, and were immersed. "For John had not yet been 
thrown into prison. *^A dispute then occurred between John's 
disciples and a Jew, about purifying. **And they came to 
John and said to him, **Rabbi, he who was With you beyond 
Jordan, to whom you have testified, behold, he immerses, 
and aU men come to him." *^John answered and said, "A 
man can receive nothing unless it be given him from heaven. 
*®You yourselves bear me testimony that I said, *I am not 
the Christ, but I am sent before him.' *"The bridegroom is he 
who has the bride. But the friend of the bridegroom, he 
who stands and hears him, rejoices with joy because of the 
bridegroom's voice; this my joy is therefore completed. 
"•He must increase, but I must diminish. *^He that comes 
from above is over aU; bat he that is on the earth, is of the 

Judge, judged, etc., take the place of condemn, damn, condemned, dii,mned, in 
the E. v., as they do in this translation. 

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earth, and speaks of the earth. He that comes from heaven 
is above all ; ^^he testifies of what he has seen and heard, 
and no man receives his testimony. '"He that receives his 
testimony has set his seal that God is true. ^For he whom 
God has sent speaks the words of God; for he gives not t^e 
Spirit by measure. **The Father loves the Son, and has given 
all things into his hand. **He that beheves in the Son has 
SBonian life ; and he who disobeys the Son shall not see life, 
but the anger of God dwells on him. " 

Christ's more public ministry. 

Matthew iv: 13-16. When he had heard that John was 
delivered up, he departed into Galilee. ^'And he left Naza- 
reth, and resided in Kaphamaum by the lake- side, in the bor- 
ders of Zebulun and Naphtali, "so that the word spoken 
through the prophet Isaiah might be fulfilled, saying, 

^^"The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, 

Near the lake beyond the Jordan, 

John lil: 35. "The Father loves the Son and has given aU things into 
his hands." This is one of the statements of the great truth that ultimately 
universal sway shaU be exercised by the Redeemer, and that he shaU be Lord 
of aU. 

John ItL 36. **ShaU not see life.*' This is a simple statement of the 
effects of belief and unbelief, regardless of the duration of the consequences. 
As long as one believes, life abides with him, the aeonian life of the Gospel, 
while the unbeUever is deprived of this life. "He that beUeves has aeonian 
life," though by unbelief he may forfeit it, and regain it again by believing 
again. Such passages as these illustrate the New Testament use of the term. 
"You hath he quickened who were dead in trespasses and sins.*'— Eph. ii:l. 
The believer has "passed from death unto life."— John v:24. "We know 
that we have passed from death unto life because we love the brethren."—! 
John lii: 14. "To be carnally minded is death, but to be spiritually minded 
is life and peace."— Rom. viii : 6. 

The question of the duration of the life or the "wrath*' is not raised in this 
passage. It remains, in either case, as long as the condition remains that 
causes the life or th^ wrath. 

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Galilee of the Gentiles; 

**The people that sat in darkness 

Saw a great Ught, 

And to those sitting in [the] region and shadow of death, 

To them a light has arisen." 

Luke iv: 14-16., And Jesus returned in the power of the 
spirit into Galilee, and a report of him went out into all that 
region; ''and he taught in their synagogues, glorified by all. 

Mark i: 14-16. *And after John was deUvered up, Jesus 
came into Galilee, preaching the good news of God, ''and 
saying, **The period is fulfilled, and the reign of God has 
come nigh; reform and beheve the good newa." 

Luke iii: 19-20. But Herod, the tetrarch, being reproved 
by him concerning Herodias, his brother's wife, and concern- 
ing all the evils committed by Herod, *^added this also to 
all [the rest, that] he shut up John in prison. 


John It: 1-42, When, therefore, Jesus knew that 
the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and immers- 
ing more disciples than John — ^^though Jesus himself, indeed, 
did not immerse, .but his disciples — ^he left Judea, and re- 
turned into Galilee. *And it was necessary for him to pass 
through Samaria. 'He came therefore, into a city of Sama- 
ria, called Sychar, near by the field that Jacob gave to his 

John iv: 2. Jesus did not observe the rite of baptism. He submitted to it 
in his own person, but never administered it, and Paul thanked God that he 
had baptized only those he named. — [See I Cor. i : 14.] 

This would seem to indicate that the rite has not that vital importance 
which has been attached to it by some Christians. It cannot be "saving" to 
be thus spoken of. A beautiful and impressive symbol , the outward sign of 
an inward purpose, its value is to discharge the consciences of those observ- 
ing it. 

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son Joseph. 'And Jacob's fountain was there. Jesus, then, 
as he was fatigued from the journey, sat thus by the fount- 
ain; it was about the sixth hour. ^A certain Samaritan 
woman came to draw water. Jesus says to her, "Give me 
to drink." ®For his disciples had gone into the city to buy 
provisions. ®Then the Samaritan woman said to him, "Why 
do you, a Jew, ask drink from me, a Samaritaji woman?" 
^"Jesus answered and said to her, "If you had known God's 
gift, and who he is that says to you, •'Give me to drink,' 
you would have asked him, and he would have given you 
living water." ^^She says to him, "Master, you have no 
bucket, and the well is deep ; whence then have you the hv- 
ing water? "Are yoa greater than our father Jacob, who 
gave us the weU? He drank also of it, himself, and his sons, 
and his flocks." ^^ Jesus answered and said to her, "Every 
one that drinks of this water will thirst again. "But who- 
ever drinks of the water that I shall give him, shall not thirst 
to the aeon, but the water that I shall give him shall become 
in him a fountain of water, welling up into aeonian Hfe." 
^*Says the woman to him, "Master, give me this water, that 
I may not thirst, nor come over here to draw. " *®He says to 
her, "Go, call your husband, and come here." "The woman 
answered and said to him, "I have no husband." Jesus said 
to her, "WeU did you say, ^®*I have no husband,' for you 
have had five husbands, and he whom you have now is not 

John iv: 9. This sentence Is rejected by Tischendorf in his eighth critical 
edition: "For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans." 

John Iv : 11. "Nothing to draw with" can be pfoperly rendered, " no buck- 
et." Oriental wells had no permanent buckets, but each traveler carried his 

John iv : 14. The noun and the adjective here occur together, and the verse 
has this meaning: "Shall not thirst for the (Christian) age, but— welling up 
into the life (Christian) of the age." 

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your husband; you have truly said this." **The woman said 
to him, "Master, I see that you are a prophet, *^Our fathers 
worshiped in this mountain, and you say that in Jerusalem 
is the place where it is necessary to worship." "Jesus says to 
her, "Believe me, woman, that an hour is coming when 
neither in this moimtain, nor in Jerusalem, will you worship 
the Father. "What you worship, you know not, what we wor- 
ship, we know; because the salvation is from the Jews. ^But an 
hour is coming, and is now, when the real worshipers will 
worship the Father in spirit and truth; for the Father seeks 
Buch to be his worshipers. **God is spirit, and those who 
worship him must worship in the spirit of truth.' *^The 
woman said to him, "I know that Messiah comes, — ^he that is 
called Ohrist, — when he comes, he will tell us all things." 
* Jesus said to her, "I that speak to you am [he]." *^And 
thereupon his disciples came, and wondered that he talked 
with a woman; nevertheless, no man said to hiniy "What 
seek you?" or, **Why do you talk with her?" "The woman, 
therefore, left her water-jar, and went into the city, and said 
to the men ^•''Come, see a man who told me all that I have 
done. Is not this the Christ?" ^'They went out of the city, 
and came to him. ^*In the meantime the disciples were en- 
treating him, "Eabbi, eat." "^But he said to them, **I have 
food to eat of which you do not know." The disciples said 
to each other, ^**Has anyone brought [food] to him?" ** Jesus 
said to them, **My food is to do the will of him that sent me, 
and finish his work. '"Do you not say that it is yet four 

John 1v:24. The Sinaitlc reads, "must worship him in the spirit of 
truth. " 

John Iv : 27. The rabbinical law forbade a rabbin to speak to a woman. Is 
there not a hint in this incident of the new and just estimate placed on woman 
by Christianity? 

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months, and the harvest comes? I say to you, behold, raise 
your eyes, and survey the fields ; for they are white for har- 
vest; "already the reaper receives a reward, and gathers 
fruit for seonian Hfe; so that the sower and the reaper may 
rejoice together. ^For herein is the saying true, that one is 
the sower, and another is the reaper. *I sent you to reap 
that on which you have not labored ; others labored, and you 
have entered into their labor." ^Now many of the Samari- 
tans from that city beUeved, because of the word of the 
woman who testified, "He told me everything I have done." . 
*Theii came the Samaritans together to him, and asked him 
to dwell with them; and he dwelt with them two days. 
"And many more beheved through his word, "and they said 
to the woman, "We no longer beheve through your testi- 
mony, for we have heard him ourselves, and we know that 
tliis is truly the Savior of the world. " 

THE ruler's son HEALED. 

John iv: 43-54. And after the two days he went out 
tlieiiee into Galilee. **For Jesus himself testified that a 
prophet has no honor in his own fatherland. **When, there- 
fore, he came into Galilee, the Galileans received him, having 
seen all that he did in Jerusalem, at the feast; for they also 
went to the feast. **So they came again into Kana of 
Galilee, where he made the water wine. Now there was 
a certain courtier, whose son was sick, in Kaphamaum. 

John iv: 42. *'The Savior of the world." This Is the descriptive title of 
Jeeua Christ. He is not merely one who wishes to be the Savior of the world; 
or who tries and fails to be the Savior of the world ; but he is actually the 
Savior^ not of a portion merely, but of the world. 

John iv : 44. Fatherland. This beautiful Saxon word seems to us to come 
nefiiTer to the expressive Greek te idia pairidi—ova country, than any other 


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*'When he heard: that Jesus had come out of Judea into Gal- 
ilee, he went to him, and entreated [him] to come down and 
cure his son, for he was about to die. *®Jesus therefore said 
to him, "You will not beheve, if you do not see signs and 
prodigies." *^The courtier says to him, **Master, come down 
before my son die." "Jesus said to him, "Go, your son 
Hves." The man beheved the word of Jesus, and went his 
way. "And already, as he was going down, the slaves met 
him, and told [him] that his son hved. ^^He then inquired 
the very hour wherein he became better. Then they said to 
him, "The fever left him yesterday, at the seventh hour." 
^Then the father knew that [it was] in the very hour that 
Jesus said to him, "Your sonHves." And he believed, and 
all his house. "This is again a second sign that Jesus 
wrought, having come out of Judea into Galilee. 


Luke iv: 16-32. And he went into Nazareth, where he 
had been reared, and according to his custom on the Sab- 
bath, he entered the synagogue, and stood up to read. "And 
the volume of Isaiah, the prophet, was deUvered to him, and 
he unrolled the volume and found the place where it was 

*®"The Lord's spirit is on me. 

Wherefore, he has anointed me to preach good news to the 

He has sent me to proclaim release to captives. 

Luke iv : 16-32. If the reader will turn to the passage In Isaiah— 1x1 : 1, 2, 
read by our Lord on this occasion, he will see that he paused in the middle 
of a paragraph and rolled up the scroll, refusing to read the whole of it. What 
did he omit? "The day of vengeance of our God." He came to reveal the 
living Father, and not to teach a God of vengeance, and he refused to read the 

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And recovery of sight to the bhnd, 
To emancipate those that have been crushed, 
^•To publish [the] acceptable year of [the] Lord." 
**And he rolled up the volume, [and] returned it to the at- 
tendant, and sat down, and the eyes of all in the synagogue 
were gazing at him. "And he began to say to them, "To-day 
this Scripture is fulfilled in your ears." '"And all bore testi- 
mony to him, and wondered at the gracious words that pro- 
ceeded out of his mouth, and said, "Is not this Joseph's son?" 
**And he said to them," You will imdoubtedly utter this parable 
to me, *Heal yourself, physician ; what things we heard were 
done in Kaphamaum, do also here, in your fatherland.' " "And 
be Hiiid, "Truly I say to you: No one is an acceptable prophet 
in his fatherland. ^^But, in truth, I tell you, many widows 
were in Israel, in Elijah's days, when the heaven was shut 
up three years and six months, so that a great famine came 
over all the land. ^And to no one of them was Ehjah sent, 
except to Sarepta, of Sidonia, to a widow. ^And many lep- 
ei-s were in Israel, in [the days] of Ehsha, the prophet, and 
no one of them was cleansed, except Naiman the Syrian." 
**And all in the synagogue heard these things, and were fiUed 
with fury, "and they rose and drove him out of the city, and 
they led him even to the brow of the hill on which their city 
waa built, in order to hurl him down headlong. ^But pass- 
ing through their midst, he went away, '*and went down into 

prophetic announcement that represented him thus. See Isa. 61 : 1, 2. Says 
Cauon Farrar: "The length of the /lapiara/j,, or passage, read, might be from 
thriis to twenty-one verses; but Jesus only read the first and part of thesec- 
ouiU f^topping short in a spirit of tenderness before the stem expression, 
'Thedftyof vengeance of our God,' so that the gracious words, 'The accept- 
ablQ yciar of the Lord* might rest last upon their ears, and form the text of his 

Lime Iv: 23. Only Luke reports, "Physician, heal thyself." Luke, himsell! 
Ik pbysicjan, remembered the words. 

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Kaphamaum, a city of Galilee, and taught them on the Sab- 
baths. ^And they were astonished at his teaching, for his 
word was with authority. 

Matthew ir: 17, From that time Jesus began to^ preach, 
and to say, **Keform, for the reign of the heavens has con» 


Matthew iv: 18-22, And walking by the lake of Galilee, 
he saw two brothers, Simon, called Peter, and his brother 
Andrew, casting a seine into the lake, for they were fishers ; 
^^and he says to them, "Come after me, and I will make you 
fishers of men." *^And immediately they left the nets, and 
followed him; ^^and going on thence, he saw two other broth- 
ers, Jacob, Zebedee's [son], and his brother John, in the boat 
with Zebedee, their father, mending their nets; and he called 
them. "And they immediately left the boat and their father, 
and followed him. 

Mark i: 16-20. And as he passed along by the lake of 
Galilee, he saw Simon, and Andrew, Simon's brother, cast- 
ing nets here and there, into the lake, for they were fishers. 
*^And Jesus said to them, "Come after me and I will m^ke 
you fishers of men." **And immediately they left the nets, 
and followed him; *®and proceeding further he saw Jacob, 
Zebedee's [son], and his brother John, who also were in the 
boat, mending the nets. ^And he immediately called them, 
and leaving their father, Zebedee, in the boat with the hired 
servants, they followed him. 

Luke t: l-ll. Now it occurred, as the crowd was press- 
ing upon him and heard the word of God, he was standing 
by the lake Gennesaret, *and he saw two boats standing by 
the lake, but the fishermen had left them, and were washing 

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their nets. *And he entered into one of the boats, which 
. was Simon's, and asked him to put off from the land a Httle, 
and he sat down in the boat, and taught the crowds from the 
boat. >Ajid when he ceased from speaking, he said to Simon, 
4*Put out into deep [water], and let down your nets for a 
haul." *And Simon answered and said, "Master, we have 
toiled through the entire night, and have taken nothing, but 
at your word I will let down the nets. " ® And when they had 
done this, they inclosed a great multitude of fishes, and their 
nets were breaking; ^and they beckoned to their companions 
in the other toat, to come and help them, and they came and 
filled both boats so as [almost] to sink them. ®And Simon Peter 
seeing this, fell down at Jesus' knees, saying, "Depart from 
me. Master, for I am a sinful man." 'For he was amazed, 
and all those who were with him, at the haul of fishes that 
they had taken; ^°and in hke manner, Jacob and John, 
Zebedee's sons, who were Simon's companions. And Jesus 
said to Simon, "Fear not, from now you shall capture men." 
"And having brought the boats to the land, they left all, and 
followed him. 


'Mark i: 21-28. And they journeyed into Kaphamaum, 
and he went immediately into the synagogue on the Sabbath, 
and taught. ^And they were amazed at his teaching, for he 
taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes. 
''And immediately there was in their synagogue a man with 

Mabk 1:23. Unclean spirits, demons and evil spirits were supposed to 
possess the bodies of epileptics, lunatics, paralytics and others diseased. 
Jesus did not controvert the opinions of those he healed. In fact, he did as the 
most skillful physicians do to-day ; he acquiesced in their whims and delu- 
sions. His mission was not to teach medical science, but to heal the sick. 24. 

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an unclean spirit, and he cried out, "saying, "What have you 

[1.] Those possessied with demons are manifestly included under the general 
terms diseased and tormented: lunatics were distinguished from demoniacs, 
because the Insanity of the former was supposed to be occasioned by the 
moon. And those who were relieved, or restored to health, are represented as. 
healed^ made whole y or cured 2^» it a disease had been removed. See Matt, 
xv: 28; xvill: 16, 18; Lukevi: 18; vii: 21; viii: 2. [2.] The evangelists ascribe 
the symptom or action indiflferently to the man or to the demon, using some- 
times the singular and sometimes the plural number in speaking of the same 
case. Of the Gadarene demoniac, Matthew and Luke say the demons besought 
Jesus; but Mark says, he (the demoniac) besought him. Markv: 10. See 
also ver. 2, 13, 15, 16, 18, of this chapter. The demoniacs likewise speak 
sometimes in their own i>ersons, and sometimes as the supposed demons. 
"What have we to do with thee? Art thou come to destroy us? I know thee,'' 
Ac. Mark i: 24. So the Gadarene maniac exclaims, ''My name is Legion, for 
we are many." Mark v: 9. Thus do the sacred historians impute the same 
words and actions to the demoniac or demons indifferently; showing thereby 
that when they say this or that was done by an evil spirit, it is only another 
way of saying the insane person himself did it. See also Mark ill : 11. [3. J The 
conduct of the possessed is what we should expect of epileptic or insane per- 
sons. Convulsions always accompany epilepsy; and the wandering and filthy 
life among the tombs and mountains, the fierceness, shouting, <fec., are all in 
harmony with madness. The whimsical answer of the Gadarene demoniac, 
"My name is Legion," is in perfect keeping with the rest of his behavior, and 
shows clearly the confused and furious state of his mind. To suppose that 
he was actually possessed with a legion, that is, about five or six thousand evil 
spirits is too great an outrage uiwn reason and common sense; whereas if he be 
regarded as a madman, his reply is perfectly characteristic of insanity. And 
his request that the demons might \ye sent into the swine is just such a freak 
as might be exi)ected of a madman. Believing himself possessed, and casting 
his eyes around, he discovered the herd of swine; and the thought flashed 
into his disordered mind, to ask that the demons might be sent into them, 
and immediately the request is made. The Savior perhaps permitted the 
madness to be transferred from the demoniac to the animals, as the leprosy of 
Naaman was transferred to Gehazi, 2 Kings v: 27. See note on ver. 13. 
This Is much more reasonable than to suppose that evil spirits would ask to 
be sent into the swine, and then act so foolishly after their request was 
granted. [4.] The physicians of that age, and others best qualified to judge, 
affirmed that those who were vulgarly supposed to be possessed were affected 
by natural diseases. Aristotle maintained that possession was the effect of 
melancholy. The great Hippocrates wrote a book to prove that epilepsy was 
not a "sacred disease," or in other words, supernatural, but arose from nat- 
ural causes. Plotinus, a Platonic philosopher of the third century, says that 
the vulgar only believed that diseases were caused by demons, but that men of 
sense agreed that all disorders proceeded from physical causes. Orlgen in- 
forms us that the physicians of his time accounted in a natural way for 
those diseases imputed to demons. Philostorgius mentions Posldonius, the 
most eminent physician of his age, as affirming that insanity was not owing 
to demons, "but to a redundancy of peccant humors. " Many other physicians 

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52 't'llE NEW COVEKANT, 

to do with us, Jesus, Nazarene, do you come to destroy us? 
I know you who you are, the holy one of God." *^And Jesus 
reBuked it, saying, **Be silent, and come out of him." 
**And the unclean spirit came out of him, convulsing him, 
and crying with a loud voice. ^And they were all astonished, 
so that they debated among themselves, saying, "What is 
this? a new teaching; he even commands the unclean spirits 
with authority, and they obey him." *®And the report of him 
went out immediately, in every direction, into Galilee. 

Luke iv: 33-37, And there was a man in the synagogue 
who had an unclean demon's spirit, and he cried out with a 
loud voice, ^"Ah, ha! what have you to do with us, Jesus, 
Nazarene, have you come to destroy us? I know you who 
you are, the holy one of God." '^^And Jesus rebuked him, 
saying, "Be silent, and come out of him." And having 
thrown him down among them, the demon came out of him, 
without hurting him. ^'And amazement came upon all, and they 
talked to each other, saying, "What word is this? For with 
authority and power he commands the unclean spirits, and 
they come out. *' ^^And a report concerning him went out in- 
to every place in the surrounding coimtry. 

Peter's mother-in-law cured. 

Mark i: 29-31. And when he had come out of the syn- 

are also cited by Wetateln, on Matt, iv: 24. Snch testimony deserves con- 
sideration. Being physicians, or those best acquainted with the nature, con- 
struction and operations of the human frame, and having opportunity to ex- 
amine those said to be possessed, it is reasonable to conclude that they would 
more correctly understand the subject than the Ignorant and superstitious 

For a more full examination of the subject, Farmer on Demoniacs, Lardner, 
Jahn and Wetstein may be profitably consulted.-— Paige. 

Luke iv: 35, 36, 38. The words Wpsan, hlnpsan, sunekomene^ pureto- 
megaloy are peculiar medical terms. 

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agogue, he went directly into the house of Simon and An- 
drew, with Jacob and John. "And Simon's mother-in-law 
lay sick of a fever, and they at once spoke to him about her. 
^*And he came and took her by the hand, and raised her, and 
the fever left her, and she served them. 

Luke It: 38-39. And having gone up from the syna- 
gogue, Jems entered Simon's house, and Simon's mother-in- 
law was seized with a great fever, and they asked him in her 
behalf. ^And he stood above her, and rebuked the fever, and 
it left her, and she inamediately arose and served them. 
^ Matthew viii: 14-1 6, And when Jesus had come into 
Peter's house, he saw his mother-in-law lying sick of a fever; 
**and he touched her hand, and the fever left her, and she 
arose and served him. 


Mark i: 32-39. And at evening, when the sun had set, 
they brought to him all those that were sick, and those de- 
monized. ^And the whole city was assembled at the door. 
^And he healed many sick of various diseases, and exorcised 
many demons, and permitted not the demons to speak, be- 
cause they knew that he was the Christ. ^And rising early, 
before the morning, he went out into a desert place, and there 
prayed. *And Simon, and those with him, followed him. 
^And they found him and say to him, "All seek you." *And 
he says to them, "We must go elsewhere, into the adjoining 
towns, that I may preach there, also, because for this I have 
come out." ^And he went, preaching in their synagogues, 
and throughout all Gahlee, and exorcised the demons. 

Matthew iv: 23-25. And he went about in all Galilee, 
teaching them in their synagogues, and preaching the good 
news of the reign, and healing every disease and every malady 

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among the people. ^And his renown went out into all Syria, 
and they brought to him all the sick, having various disor- 
ders, and seized with torments, demoniacs, and epileptics, 
and paralytics ; and he cured them. ^And great crowds fol- 
lowed him from Galilee, and DecapoHs, and Jerusalem, and 
Judea, and beyond the Jordan. 

Matthew Tlii: 16-1 ?• And when evening came, they 
brought many demoniacs to him, and he expelled the spirits 
by a word ; and he healed all that were sick, "so that what 
was spoken through Isaiah, the prophet, might be fulfilled, 
saying, , ., 

"He took our infirmities; 

And bore our diseases." 

Luke It: 40-44:. And afc sundown all those that had any 
that were afflicted with various diseases, brought them to 
him, and he healed them, each one of them, by placing his 
hands on them. *^And demons also came out of many, cry- 
ing out, and saying, "You are the Son of God." And rebuk- 
ing them he permitted them not to speak, because they 
knew him to be the Christ. "And when it was day, he retired 
to a desert place, and the crowds sought him, and came to 
him, and urged him not to leave them. *^But he said to them, 
"I must preach the good news of the reign of God to other 
cities, also, because for this was I sent forth." **And he 
preached in the synagogues of Judea. 


Mark i: 40-45. And a leper comes to him, beseeching 
him and saying to him, "Master, if you will, you can cleanse 
me." "And he, being moved with pity, extended his hand, 
touched him, and said to him, "I will; be cleansed." "And 
immediately the leprosy departed from him, and he Vfm 

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cleansed. "And having strictly enjoined him, he forthwith 
sent him away, **and said to him, **See that you speak not to 
any man, but go, show yourseK to the priest, and offer for 
your purification the things which Moses enjoined for a tes- 
timony to them." *^But he went out and began to proclaim 
much, and spread the word abroad, so that he was no longer 
able to enter the city openly, but was without in desert 
places; and they resorted to him from all parts. 

Luke t: 12-16. And it occurred when he was in one of 
the cities, behold, a man full of leprosy; and when he saw 
Jesus, he fell on his face, and entreated him, saying, "Mas- 
ter, you can cleanse me, if you will." **And extending the 
hands^ he touched him, saying, "I will; be cleansed.". And 
the leprosy instantly departed from him. "And he com- 
manded him to tell no one; but, [said he], "Go, show yourself 
to the priest, and offer on account of your cleansing, as 
Moses enjoined, for a testimony to them." ^^But the word 
concerning him circulated the more, and great crowds came 
together, to hear and to be healed of their infirmities. ^''But 
he retired into the deserts, and prayed. 

Matthew viii: 1-4. And when he had descended from 
the mountain, great crowds followed him. *And behold, a 
leper approached, apd bowed himself, saying, "Master, if 
you will, you can cleanse me." *And extending the hand he 
touched him, saying, "I will; be cleansed." And his leprosy 
was immediately cleansed. *And Jesus said to him, "See 
[that] you teU no man ; but go, present yourself to the priest, 
and offer the gift which Moses commanded, for a testimony to 


Matthew ix: 3-8. And behold, they brought a paralytic 

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to him, lying on a couch ; and perceiving their faith, Jesus 
said to the paralytic, "Take courage, child, your sins are for- 
given." ^And behold, some of the scribes said among them- 
selves, ***This man blasphemes." And perceiving their 
thought, Jesus said, **Why think you evil in your hearts? 
Tor which is easier to say, *Your sins are forgiven,' or to say, 
'Arise, and walk?' 'But that you may know that the Son of 
Mln has authority on the earth to forgive sins — then he says 
to the paralytic — Arise, take up your couch, and go into 
your house. ^And he arose, and departed to his house. 
•And when the crowds saw it they were afraid, and praised 
God, who had given so great authority to men. 

Luke T. 17-36, And it occurred, on one of those days, 
that he was teaching, and the Pharisees and teachers of the 
law were sitting by, having come out of all the villages of 
Galilee and Judea, and from Jerusalem; and the^ Lord's 
power was on him to heal. "And behold, men brought a 
paralytic, lying on a couch, and they endeavored to bring him 
in and place him in his presence. "And not finding how 
they might bring him in through the crowd, they ascended to 
the roof, and lowered him through the tiles, with the couch, 
into the midst, before Jesus. ^'And seeing their faith, he 
said, "Man, your sins are forgiven." "And the scribes and 
Pharisees began to reason, saying, "Who is this that speaks 
blasphemies? Who can forgive sins except God only?" "But 
Jesus perceiving their reasonings, answered [and] said to 
them, "Why do you reason in your hearts? *^ Which is easier, 
to say, 'Your sins are forgiven;' or to say, 'Arise, and walk?' 
"But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority 

LuKB V : 18. Hos en pa ralelumenos. No other evangelist uses this med- 
ical term. 

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on the earth to forgive sins — he said to the paralytic — I say 
to you, arise, take up your couch, and go into your house." 
*^And he instantly arose before them, and hfied that on which 
he had been lying, and went into his house, praising God. 
^And amazement seized all, and they \vere filled with awe, 
and glorified God, saying, "We have seen unaccountable 
things to-day." 

Mark ii: 1-12. And after a few days, when he again en- 
tered into Kaphamaum, it was rumored that he was in a 
house. *And many were assembled, so that not even the 
places near the door could accommodate them ; and he spoke 
the word to them. ^And they came bringing a paralytic to 
him, carried by four. *And being unable to bring him to 
him, in consequence of the crowd, they removed the roof 
where he was; and having digged through, they let down the 
pallet, upon which the paralytic was laid. *And seeing their 
faith, he says to the paralytic, "Child, your sins are for- 
given." ®But some of the scribes were sitting there, and 
reasoning in their hearts, ^ "Why speaks this man thus? He 
blasphemes. Who can forgive sins but one, — God?" ®And 
immediately perceiving in his spirit that they reasoned among 
themselves, Jesus says to them, "Why do you thus reason in your 
hearts? * Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, *Your sins 
are forgiven,' or to say, * Arise, take up your pallet and walk?' 
*°But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority 
on earth to forgive sins, — ^he says to the paralytic — "I say 
to you, arise, take up your pallet and go into your house. " 
"And he immediately arose, and took up the pallet and went 
out in the presence of all, so that all were astonished, and 
praised God, saying, "We never saw the like." 


Matthew ix: 9. And as he passed thence, Jesus saw a man 

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named Matthew, sitting at the custom house; and he says to 
him, "Follow me;" and he arose and followed him. 

Mark ii: 13-14:- And he went out again to the lake-side, 
ftnd \\\\ the crowd resorted to him, and he taught them. "And 
as he passed along he saw Levi, Alpheus's [son], sitting at 
the custom house, and he says to him^ "Follow me;" and 
he arose and followed him. 

Luke t: 27-28. And after these events he went out, and 
Kiiw a tax-collector, named Levi, sitting at the custom house, 
luid he said to him, "Follow me*" "and he forsook all, and 
aroao and followed him. 

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John t: 1-47. After these things there was the feast of 
the Jews, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. *Now in Jeru- 
salem there is a pool by the sheep [gate] which is called in 
Hebrew, Bethesda, having five porticoes. ''In these a multi- • 
tudeof sick were lying, bhnd, lame, withered, ^* * * and there 
was a certain man who had been in infirmity thirty-eight 
years. ®When Jesus saw him lying, and knew that he had 
already been thus a long time, he says to him: "Do you 
wish to be made whole? " The sick one said to him, 
"Master, when the water is agitated, I have no man to put 
me into the pool ; but while I am coming another goes down 
before me." 'Jesus says to hira, **Rise, take up your pallet, 
and walk;*' 'and the man immediately became whole, and 
took up his pallet, and walked. And that day was the 
Sabbath. ^'^Then the Jews said to him who had been cured, 
"It is [the] Sabbath; and it is unlawful for you to carry the 

John v : 2. The word "market" is not in the Greek. Dr. Bobinson says that 
Bethesda is the upper pool of Siloam, whose gaseous waters he saw in motion. 
Part of verse 3 and verse 4 are not in S. or V. or most of the older MSS., i. e., 
"Waiting the motion of the water; for, at a certain season an angel went down 
in the pool, and agitated the water; he who first stepped in, after the agitation 
of the water, was cured of (any) disease that held him." The passage is in 
the A. Peschito, Vulgate and Jerome, but not iu the two oldest MSS. 

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pallet.'* "But he answered them, **He who made me whole 
said to me, "Take up your pallet and walk/' "They asked 
him, "Who is the man who told you to take up [the pallet] 
and walk?" "But he who had been cured knew not who it was, 
for a crowd being present Jesus turned aside. "Afterwards 
Jesus met him that had been healed, in the temple, and said to 
him, "Behold, you have become whole; sin no longer, lest 
something worse befall you." ^'"And the man went away and 
told the Jews that it was Jesus that had made him whole. 
^«And the Jews persecuted Jesus on account of this, because 
he did these things on [the] Sabbath. "But he answered 
them, "My I'ather works till now, and I work." "For this 
the Jews endeavored the more to kill him, because he not 
.only broke the Sabbath, but also called God his own Father, 
making himself [they said] equal with God. *^Then Jesus 
answered and said to them : 

"Truly, truly, I say to you, the son can do nothing of him- 

JoHN v: 17. My Father works hitherto (on the Sabbath), and I work (on 
the Sabbath), seems to be the meaning. 

John v : 1 8. The charge of making himself equal with God, which the Jews 
brought against Jesus, he expressly denies by saying (v. 19), "The son can 
do nothing of himself," and that the power to judge had been given to the son 
by the Father. Thus he refutes their charge by declaring that all his powers 
were derived from God. What did they mean by saying that he made himself 
"equal to God?" This expression, in and out of the Scriptures, is always used 
in a bad sense. See Gen. ill: 5, "Ye shall be like God"; Is. xlv: 1-1, "I will be 
like the Most High" : Dan. xl : 36, "He shall exalt himself above every god" ; 2 
Mace. Ix : 12, "One who is mortal should not proudly meditate to be like God" ; 
2 Thess. U: 4, "Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God 
or is worshiped, so that he sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that 
he Is God" (spoken of Antichrist in the person of the Jewish high-priest and 
representative of the hierarchy). From the classics Wetstein quotes, "Let no 
one of speech-endowed creatures ever se^ to be also a god" (Anth. 11: 48, 2). 
Phlloalso (AUeg. 1: 15, vol. 1, p. 148, Mangey's ed.; also vol. 1, p. 64, Bohn's) 
has the following,— "Selfish and godless is the mind thinking to be equal to 
God." The phrase was used to denote extreme presumption and impiety, in- 
ordinate ambition, selfish cupidity. 

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self, except what he sees the Father do, for whatever he does, 
these things the son also does, in like manner. ^For the 
Father loves the son and shows him all that he himself does ; 
and he will show him greater works than these, that you may 
wonder. "For as the Father raises, and makes ahve the 
dead, so also the son makes ahve whom he pleases. '^Forthe 
Father does not even judge any one, but has given all judg- 
ment to the son, *^so that all may honor the son, even as 
they honor the Father. He who does, not honor the son, 
does not honor the Father who sent him. ^'Truly, tnily, I 
say to you, he who hears my word, and beheves him who 
sent me, has aBonian life, and does not come into judgment, 
but has passed out of death into the life. ^Truly, truly, I 
say to you, that an hour comes, and is now, when the dead 
shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and when they hear 

John v : 25-29. This is one of the passages that have been as generally mis- 
understood as any part of the Bible. It is not descriptive of a post-mortem 
general judgment of all human souls, a final assize, whose verdict is to con- 
sign to endless happiness or endless suffering, but it is that judgment which 
Jesus came into this v/orld to establish. He himself says,-"For judgment have 
I come Into this world ;" "The hour comes and Is now when the dead shall hear 
the voice of the Son of God, and live;" that is, rise from the death In which they 
now are. The phrase, "The hour is coming" {ercliatai hora), occurs in six 
other places in John's Gospel, in every one of which it relates to .events very 
near at hand— John iv : 21-23 ; xvi : 2-4, 25-32. Of course such a death must 
be a moral, or figurative one, and the life must correspond. Manifestly the 
language denotes that moral awakening which Jesus came to produce. Hence 
he says, "Wonder not at this, because an hour comes in which all those in the 
tombs will hear his voice, and will come forth ; those that have done good things 
to a resurrection of life, and those that have practised evil things, to a resurrec- 
tion of condemnation." That this language does not refer to any "final judg- 
ment," is evident from the fact that it does not include all souls. In the final 
resurrection all souls are to be raised. But this account refers to less than 
one-half of mankind. "All who are in the graves shall hear his voice and come 
forth." If asked, "Does not all mean all?" we answer yes, it means all who are 
meant, but we must complete the sentence in order to see what the scope of 
the word is. If we should say, "AH the people in a certain house above ten 
years of age number five hundred," and there should be a hundred children 
there under ten, it would not be accurate to represent us as saying there were 

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they shall live. ^•For as the Father has life in hiniself ; even 
so he gave to the son to have life in himself. ^And he gave 

but five hundred persons there, when there were six hundred In all. The word 
"all" means just what the rest of the sentence explains it to mean. Look at 
the rest of the sentence, "All who are in the graves shall hear his voice and 
come forth. " And who are the all ? " They that have done good and they that 
have done evil."' The all. then, is defined as including those who have done 
Rood and those who have done evil,— no more and no less. What, then, be- 
comes of that immense nupiber, more than half of the human family, that dies 
without doing either good or evil? Idiots and infants are Included in the one- 
^ half that has never done good or eviL If we say this passage refers to the final 
resurrection, we utterly exclude from immortality every infant that ever died, 
and deny a resurrection to all children that die in infancy. 

If to escape this difficulty, we say that aU are meant, children and all man- 
kind, by "all who are in the graves," we then occupy the position that after all 
mankind are raised, the good are sent one way and the evil another, and the 
children are left between heaven and hell, with no place provided for them I 
These considerations are conclusive evidence that the text has no reference 
whatever to the final resurrection, but does relate to the moral awakening that 
Jesus came to bring. It is a similar resurrection^to that described in Ezek. 
xxxvil^ where the House of Israel is said to come forth from the Valley of 
Dry Bones. The prophet says : 

"Then he said unto me. Son of man, these bones are the whole house of 
Israel Behold they say. Our bones are dried, and our hope is lost, we are cut 
oflf for our parts ; therefore, prophesy, and say unto them. Thus saith the Lord 
God, Behold, O my people, I will open your graves, and cause you to come up 
out of your graves and bring you into the land of Israel, and ye shall know 
that I am the Lord, when I have opened your graves, O my peoi)le, and 
brought you up out of your graves, and shall put my spirit in you and ye shall 
live, and I shall place you in your own land" 

Now, here is a detailed description of the resurrection of human bodies, when 
nothing of the kind is taught; and, had not the author explicitly said :— "This 
valley of dry bones is the whole house. of Israel," it would be i)erf ectly easy for 
any reader to imagine that such a doctrine was taught. But, on the contrary, 
a national, moral rising or improvement was denoted. The Jewish people had 
rebelled against God's laws, and had experienced woe and disaster until their 
condition was one of national death. The prophecy that they should come out 
of this condition meant that the foot of the conqueror should be lifted from 
their necks, and that they should be brought out of captivity and restored to 
their own country and clime, and placed in a better and more exalted condi- 
tion. And yet, this language is far more like an account of a literal resurrec- 
tion from physical death, than is the language under notice. 

A careful examination of the language of Jesus will show that he used it in a 
similar sense to that employed by Ezekiel, only that he alluded to the condition 
of mankind at large, instead of to the Jews. He described, under thft figure of 
the resurrection, the coming forth of men from the lethargy an^i torpor of 

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liinr> authority to execute judgment, because he is Son of Man». 
*®Wonder not at this, because an hour comes in which all 

ignorance, superstition and sin, in which they were, in obedience to the caU of 
his religion. Those who obeyed its demands received life, but those who, 
having heard it, disregarded it, were to experience the consequences of unbe- 
lief and sin— called in the New Revision condemnation. 

Jesus had just cured the impotent man at the pool of Bethesda, and declared 
that he had derived his power from God. "For as the Father raiseth up the 
dead and makes them alive, even so the Son makes alive whom he will," and 
he then continues to talk of a moral quickening or spiritual resurrection, then 
about to occur. 

In V : 29, E. Y., it is the same Greek word that is translated "condemnation" 
in the 24th, and "judgment" in the 27th. Jesus was repeating the substance of 
Daniel xii: 2, "And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall 
awake, some to everlasting life and some to shame and everlasting contempt;" 
words that are fulfilled in Eph. ii : 1. "And you hath he made alive, who were 
dead in trespasses and in sins." 

It was a moral awakening that occurred in consequence of the annunciation 
of Christianity. Those who were quickened into a perception of the truth, 
and disregarded the heavenly message, experienced a resurrection from their 
death in trespasses and sins, but it was to condemnation, and thus to the 
"second death." 

This interpretation is not a dernier res sort of ours. It is accepted by the 
best and most learned critics, of aU schools of theology, who have written con- 
cerning it. 

Says Dr. George Campbell, a learned "orthodox" divine, in his "Notes" on the 
Four Gospels, vol. 11, p. 113: 

"The word anastasin, or rather the phrase anasiasis ton, nekrou^ is Indeed 
the common! term by which the resurrection, properly so called, is denomi- 
nated in the IsJew Testament. Yet this is neither the only nor the primitive im- 
port of the word anastasis; It denotes simply being raised from Inactivity to 
action, or from obscurity to eminence, or a return to such a state after an in- 
terruption. The verb anistemi has the like latitude of signification ; and both 
words are used in this extent by the writers of the New Testament, as well as 
by the LXX. Agreeably, therefore, to the original import, rising from a seat 
is properly termed anastasis: so is waking out of sleep, or promotion from an 
inferior condition." 

Lightfoot observes: ^ "These words might also be applied to a spiritual res- 
urrection, as were the former (and* so, coming out of graves meaneth, Ezek. 
xxxvll : 12), the words of the verse foHowlng being only translated and glossed 
thus : and they shall come forth, they that do good, aft-er they hear his voice in 
the gospel, to the resurrection of life; and they that do evil, after they hear 
the gospel, unto the resurrection of damnation. But they are more gener- 
ally understood of the general resurrection," etc.— Harm. Evang. Part Hi- 
John V : 28. 

Dr. Doddridge says : "I am something doubtful whether it may not refer to 

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those in the tombs will hear his voice, and will come forth; 
"•those that have done good things to a resurrection of life, 
and those that have practised evil things to a resurrection of 
judgment. **Ican do nothing of myself; as I hear I judge; 
and my judgment is just, because I seek not my will, but 
the will of him that sent me. ^^If I testify concerning myself, 
my testimony is not true. *" There is another who testifies 
concerning me, and I know that the testimony which he tes- 
tifies about me is true. *^You have sent to John and he has 
testified to the truth. '"But I receive not the testimony from 

the conversion of sinners by Christ's ministry, rather than the resurrection of 
a few by his miraculous power. It Is well known that sinners are often repre- 
sented in the Scriptures as dead; and if the expression hoi akousantes is to be 
taken as we render it, with the most literal exactness, for they that hear, or 
they and they alone, that so attend unto the voice of Christ, it will then liinit 
it to this sense, which seems also favored by verse 24, where death plainly sig- 
nifies a state of sin and condemnation." 

The famous Dr. Whitby gives a similar application of the passage. He re- 
marks : "ffoi nekroiy the dead, in Scripture doth often signify not those who 
in a natural state are dead by dissolution of the soul and body, but those who 
are spiritually so, as being alienated from the life of God, and dead in tres- 
passes and sins, as when the apostle saith :— ' The widow that liveth In pleasure 
is dead while she Uveth.'— 1 Tim. v : 6. And Christ unto the church of Sardis : 

* Thou hast a name to live, but art dead.'— Rev. iii : 1. And when he speaks to 
one of his disciples thus :— ' Follow thou me and let the dead bury their dead.'— 
Matt, viil : 22. This is a phrase so common among the Jews that, as Maimoni- 
des informs us, they proverbially say, 'The wicked are dead,' even while they 
are alive. * For he,' saith Philo, * who lives a life of sin, is dead as to a life of 
happiness , his soul is dead and even buried in his lusts and passions, and be- 
cause the whole Gentile world lay more especlaUy under these most unhappy 
circumstances (whence the apostle styles them sinners of the Gentiles), it was 
proverbially said by the Jewish doctors, ' the heathen do not Uve.' Hence the 
apostle said to the Ephesians and Colossians (ii: 1 andii: 13), that they are 
*dead in trespasses and sins,' and brings In ^od as speaking to the Gentiles, 

* Awake, thou that sleepest, arise from ^e dead, and Christ shall give thee 

AU readers ought to see that, as the time of the rising from the grave was 
then, ''now is," and as the literal resurrection of no* one took place then, no 
other statement is needed to sustain the position that this and the preceding 
verse relate to that moral and spiritual apathy in which men were, and from 
which they were to be aroused, by the voice of Christ, and the power of his 

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a man, but I say these things that you may be saved. *^He 
was the Hghted and shinmg lamp ; you were willing for an 
hour to rejoice in his Hght. "But I have the testimony 
greater than John ; for the works which the Father gave me, 
that I might finish them, these works that I do testify con- 
cerning me, that the Father has sent me. "And the Father, 
he who sent me, has testified concerning me, though you 
have not at any time heard his voice, nor seen his form. 
^And you have not his word abiding in you, because you be- 
lieve not him whom he sent. ^You search the Scriptures, 
because yo\i think you obtain aBonian life in them; and [yet] 
they are those that testify concerning me. ^And you are not 
willing to come to me, that you may have life. "I do not 
receive glory from men, "but I know you that you have not 
the love of God in yourselves. "I have come in my Father's 
name, and you do not receive me ; if another should come in 
his own name, you will receive him. "How can you beHeve 
who receive glory from each other, while you do not seek 
that glory which is from the Only One? *^Do not think that 
I will accuse you to the Father; your accuser is Moses, in 
whom you have hoped. *®For if you beheved Moses, you 
would beheve me, for he wrote about me. *^But if you do 
not believe his writings how will you beheve my words? " 


Mark ii: 23-28. And it occurred that he was passing 
through the grain-fields, on the Sabbath, and his disciples 
began, as they made their way, to pluck the heads of grain. 

Mabe ii: 23. The true nature of the Sabbath Is here described. It is for 
man's benefit. It is the day for rest and worship. 

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'*And the Pharisees said to him, "Behold, why do they what 
is unlawful, on the Sabbath? " ^And he said to them, *'Have 
you never known what David did, when he and those with 
him needed, and were hungry? ""How he went into the 
house of God, in the days of Abiathar the high priest, and 
ate the loaves of the Presence, which none but the priests 
could lawfully eat, and also gave to those with him? " *'And 
he said to them, ♦'The Sabbath was made on man's account, 
not man on account of the Sabbath, "so that the Son of Man 
is master even of the Sabbath." 

Luke vi: 1-5. And it occurred, on the Sabbath, 
that he passed through grain-fields, and his disciples 
plucked and ate the heads of grain, rubbing them m their 
hands. 'And some of the Pharisees said, ''Why do you that 
which is unlawful on the Sabbath? " ^And Jesus answered 
them and said, * 'Have you not even read this, what David 
did, and those with him, when he was hungry, ^how he 
entered the house of God, and took and ate the loaves of the 
Presence, and gave also to those with him, which it is not 
lawful for any but the priests to eat?" ^And he said to them, 
*'The Son of Man is master of the Sabbath." 

Matthew xii: 1-8. At that season Jesus passed through 
the grain-fields on the Sabbath, and his disciples were hun- 
gry, and began to pluck heads of grain, and to eat. ^And the 
Pharisees, when they saw it, said to him, -Behold, your dis- 
ciples are doing that which it is unlawful to do on the Sab- 
bath." =*But he said to them, "Have you not read what David 
did, when he and those with him were hungry, *how he en- 
tered into the house of God, and they ate the loaves of the 
Presence, a tUnrf which it was not lawful for him to eat, nor 
for those with him, but solely for the priests? ^Or have you 
not read in the law, that on the Sabbath the priests in the 

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temple violate the Sabbath, and are blameless? *6ut I say 
to you that something greater than the temple is here. ^But 
if you had known what this is, *I desire mercy, and not sac- 
rifice,' you would not have condemned the blameless, *for 
the Son of Man is master of the Sabbath." 


Mark iii: 1-6. And again he entered a synagogue, and 
a man was there having a withered hand. *And they watched 
him closely [to see] if he would heal him on the Sabbath, 
that they might accuse him. ^And he says to the man with 
the withered hand, "Stand up among them." *And he says 
to them, "Is it lawful to do good on the Sabbath, or to do 
ill, to save life, or to kill? " But they were silent. ^And 
when he had looked round on them with displeasure, being 
grieved at the obduracy of their heart, he says to the man, 
"Extend your hand." And he extended it, and his hand was 
restored. *'And coming out, the Pharisees immediately con- 
sulted with the Herodians against him, how they might de- 
stroy him. 

Matthew xli: 9-14. And he departed thence and went 
into their synagogue. *^And behold there was a man who 
had a withered hand, and they asked him, saying, "Is it law- 
ful to heal on the Sabbath? " that they might accuse him. 
"And he said to them, "What man among you who shall 
have one sheep, if it fall into a pit on the Sabbath, will not 
seize and extricate it? "How much more valuable, then, is 
a man than a sheep? Therefore it is lawful to do well on tlie 
Sabbath." "Then he says to the man, "Extend your hand;" 
and he extended it, and it was restored, whole like the other. 
"Then the Pharisees went out, and consulted against him 
how they might destroy him. 

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Luke yi: 6-11. And it occurred, on ahother Sabbath, 
that he entered the synagogue and taught. And a man was 
there, whose right hand was withered. 'And the scribes and 
th€ Pharisees watched him [to see] whether he would heal on 
the Sabbath, that they might find an accusation against him. 
^But he knew their purposes, and said to the man having the 
witliered hand, "Arise, and stand among them." And he 
arowe and stood. *Now Jesus said to them, "I ask you 
wliether it is lawful on the Sabbath to do well, or to do ill, 
to save life, or destroy? " ^^'And he looked round on them all 
and aaid to him, **Extend your hand;'* and he extended [it], 
and his hand was restored. "And they were filled with mad- 
ness, find conversed with each other [of] what they should 
do ^^^th Jesus. 


Matthew xii: 15-31. But Jesus knowing [it], withdrew 
tlieiice, and many followed him. ^®And he healed them aU, 
and charged them that they should not make him known, 
^'Bo that what was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, might 
be fulfilled, saying: 

""Behold my servant, whom I have chosen, 

My beloved, in whom my life is dehghted ; 

I will put my spirit upon him, 

Aud he shall declare judgment to the Gentiles; 

^'He shall not strive, nor cry aloud. 

Nor shall any hear his voice in the pubhc squares; 

^'He shall not break a reed that has been bruised, 

And he shall not extinguish a dimly-burning wick. 

Till he sends forth judgment to victory; 

^^And the Gentiles shall hope in his name." 

Mark iii: 7-12. And Jesus withdrew to the lake, with 
hia disciples, and a great crowd followed from Galilee, and 


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Judea, *and Jerusalem, and Idumea, and beyond the Jor- 
dan ; about Tyre and Sidon — a great crowd, hearing what 
great things he had done, came to him, "and lie directed 
his disciples that miall boats should accompany him, because 
of the crowd, that they might not impede him; ^''for he had 
healed many; so that as many as had diseases crowded to 
him, that they .might touch him; "and the impure spirits 
when gazing on him, fell before him, and cried, saying, 
"Thou art the Son of God." ^*^And he charged them repeat- 
edly that they should not make him known. 


Mark iii: 13-19. And he ascended the mountain, and 
called whom he would, and they went to him. "And he ap- 
pointed twelve whom he also named apostles, that they 
should accompany him, and that he might send them forth 
to preach, "and to have authority to exorcise demons; ^*and 
he appointed twelve, Simon, whom he surnamed Peter, "and 
Jacob, Zebedee's [son], and John, Jacob's brother; he added 
to their names Boanerges, that is, "sons of thunder:" *®and 
Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and 
Thomas, and Jacob, Alpheus's [sonj, and Thaddeus, and Si- 
mon the Kananaean, *®and Judas Iskariot, he who betrayed 

Luke Vi: 12-19. And it occurred in these days that he 
went out into the mountain to pray, and passed the night in 
God's oratory; "and when it was day, he called to his 

Luke vi : 12. The E. V. and R V. fail to give the full and beautiful meaning 
of this verse. Jesus is not merely said to have passed the night in the atti- 
tude, or act of prayer, but aj?rosf?wc7ie was a large, unroofed building, with 
seats, used as a place of worship, in a solitary place, where there was no syna-^ 
gogue. It may weU be caUed God's oratory. 

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disciples, and having selected twelve from them, whom he 
named apostles : — "Simon, whom he also named Peter, and 
his brother Andrew, and Jacob, and John, and Phihp, and 
Bartholomew, ^^and Matthew, and Thomas, and Jacob, Al- 
pheus's[son], and Simon who was called [the] zealot, ^® Judas, 
Jacob's [brother], and Judas Iskariot, who became a traitor; 
"and descending with them, he stood on a leyel place, and a 
great crowd of his disciples, and a great multitude of people 
from all Judea, and Jerusalem, and Pereoy and the maritime 
section of Tyre and Sidon, they came to hear him and to be 
healed of their diseases. ^®And those who were distressed by 
unclean spirits were cured. ^^And all the crowd endeavored 
to touch him, for power went out from him, and healed all. 
Matt x: 2-4. Now the names of the twelve apostles are 
these — first, Simon, called Peter, and his brother Andrew, 
and Jacob, Zebedee's son, and his brother John, Phihp and 
Bartholomew, ^Thomas, and Matthew the tax-collector, Jacob, 
Alpheus's son, and Thaddeus, *Simon the Kananaean, and 
Judas Iskariot, who also betrayed him. 


Matthew V, vi, vii. And seeing the crowds, he ascended 
into the mountain, and when he had seated himself, his disci- 
ples came up, 'and he opened his mouth, and taught them, 

"'Happy the poor in spirit; because theirs is the reign of 

the heavens. 

Matt, v: 3, etc. "Happy" rather than blessed is the word employed by our 
Lord to designate the condition of those described in the beatitudes. Ma- 
karioi means happy; blessed is eulovemenos. The word is used with its 
highest meaning, to denote the joy that flows into the soul, from obedience to 

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"*Happy the meek; because they shall inherit the earth. 

"^Happy the mourners, now; becisiuse they shall be comforted. 

"'Happy they who hunger and thirst for righteousness; be- 
cause they shall be filled. 

"'Happy the merciful; because they shall receive mercy. 

"^Happy the pure in heart; because they shall see God. 

"®Happy the peacemakers; because they shall be called sons 
of God. 

"^^Happy they that have been persecuted on account of 
righteousness ; because theirs is the reign of the heavens. 

""Happy are you when they reproach you, and persecute 
you, and utter every evil [word] against you, falsely, on my 
account. "Rejoice and exult; for great is your reward in the 
heavens, for thus did they persecute the prophets who were 
before jou. 

"*^You are the salt of the earth ; but if the salt become taste- 
less, with what shall it be salted? It is then worthless, ex- 
cept to be thrown away, and trodden under foot by men. 
"You are the light of the world. A city set on a hill cannot 
be concealed; **nor is a lighted lamp to be placed under a 
modius, but on the candelabrum, and it shines to all who are 
in the house. "Thus let your light shine before men, that 
they may see your good works, and glorify your Father in the 

*"'Do not think that I have come to destroy the law, or the 

the laws of the soul. "The word blessed means happy, referring to that which 
produces felicity, from whatever quarter it may come."— Baimes. 

The Beatitudes,— "These eight beatitudes are, as it were, 'the eight 
paradoxes of the world ' ; for the world and philosophers place happiness in 
riches, not in poverty; in sublimity, not in humility: in fullness, not in hun- 
ger; in joy, not in monming "—Edimrd Leigh. 

Matt, v: 17. The law is not abrogated, it is interpreted, expanded, and 
its principles sublimated and universally applied. The law is a sketch which 
Jesus filled out. 

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prophets. "I have not come to destroy, but to complete; 
for, truly 1 say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one 
iota, or one letter-curve shall by no means pass from the law, 
till all things be accompHshed. "Whoever, therefore, shall 
violate one of the least of these commands, and teach men thus, 
he shall be called least in the heavenly reign ; but whoever 
shall do and teach them shall be called great in the heavenly 
reign. *^For I say to you that unless your righteousness ex- 
cel [that] of the scribes and Pharisees, you shall by no means 
enter into the heavenly reign. 
""You have heard that it was said to the ancients, *Thou 

MATT, v: 18. The Greek amen^ from the Hebrew amen. It has the force of 
petition and solemn asseveration : "So may it be, so shall it be." It is qnoted 
from the Savior 32 times by Matthew, 15 times by Mark, 8 times by Luke, 
and 51 times by John. It is translated by the word "verily," in most cases in 
E. V, and R. V., and left "amen" in others. John records it as spoken twice, 
"verily, verily," on each occasion when it was used, but one, and then it is 
"amen," at the end of a sentence. It is a prefix, when rendered "verily," and 
a suffix when untranslated. It is impossible to employ it uniformly in all 
cases. At the end of the Lord's Prayer "verily" does not express as much as 
does "amen." In the t^xt above, "For amen, I say to you," would be less ex- 
pressive and elegant than "verily," or, as we prefer, the more modem word 
"truly." The word is left untranslated "amen," in aU the places in the N. T. 
where it occurs, out of the Gospels, 46 times. It is also used as a noun (Rev 
lii: 14) and applied to Christ: "These things saith the Amen." 

Matt, v : 21. "The judgment." Each city had a court composed of presby- 
ters, who had power to decide matters of small importance. There were three 
in small, and twenty-three in large cities. Jesus teaches that those angry 
with others shall, under his rule, be exposed to a penalty corresponding to the 
penalties inflicted by the Jewish minor courts. And whoever shall exercise 
contempt towards others, by employing the Syriac word raca, "shaUow-pate," 
shall deserve a severer penalty, corresponding to the punishments that the 
Sanhedrin could inflict, while those who should employ the worst terms of 
bitterness and reproach, signifying "fool, "some say "rebel, "should deserve the 
severest fate of all, corresponding to that of being cast into the fiery Gehenna, 
or the Gtehenna of fire. "Raca" means vain man, and "mureh" is a Hebrew term, ^ 
for which the modem Greeks employ more^ a mere exclamation. To-day one 
hears the call across the fields in the Peloponnese, more adelphe!—S&vhe- 
drin is a transliteration of sunedrion. 

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shalt not kill, and whoever shall kill, shall be liable to 
the judgment/ *^But I say to you that every one who 

Matt, v: 22. Gkhenna. This was a well-known place, a valley, called the 
valley of Hinnom, Chaldee Gehennom, Arabic Gahannam, Gre^ Gehenna. 
It was a narrow gulch, on the south of Jerusalem, where formerly the Jews 
celebrated the worship of Moloch. Here children were roasted in the arms of 
a heated brass idol. This place is referred to in the Old Testament. Josh.xv : 
8:xviii:6;2Klngsxxiii:10; Ezek. xxiii: 37-39: 2 Chron. xxviil: 3; Lev. 
xviii: 21; xx: 2; Jer. vlii: 32; xix: 6. Dr. Campbell, Schleusner and others 
fully describe it. Says Campbell: "The word Gehenna is derived, as all 
agree, from the Hebrew words ge hinnom; which, in process of time, passing 
into other languages, assumed diverse forms; e. g., Chaldee Gehennom, Ara- 
bic Gahannam, Greek Gehenna. The valley of Hinnom is a part of the 
pleasant wadl or valley which bounds Jerusalem on the south. Josh, xv : 8 ; 
xviii: G. Here, in ancient times, and under some of the idolatrous kings, the 
worship of Moloch, the horrid idol-god of the Ammonites, was practised. To 
this idol children were offered in sacrifice. 2 Kings xxiii : 10 ; Ezek. xxiii : 37- 
39; 2 Chron. xxviii: 3; Lev. xviii: 21 ; xx: 2. If we may credit the Rabbins, 
the head of the idol was like that of an ox; while the rest of the body resem- 
bled that of a man. It was hollow within; and, being heated by fire, children 
were laid in its arms and were literally roasted alive. We cannot wonder, then, 
at the severe terms in which the worship of Moloch is everywhere denounced 
in the Scriptures. Nor can we wonder that the place itself should have been 
called TopheU i. e., abomination, detestation (from tosth, to vomit with 
loathing.)" Jdr. viii: 32; xix: 6; 2 Kings xxiii: 10; Ezek. xxiii: 36, 39. 

Says Schleusner: ''Gehenna, originally a Hebrew word, which signifies the 
valley of Hinnom, is composed of the common noun, gee, valley, and the 
proper name Hinnom, the owner of this valley. The valley of the sons of 
Hinnom was a delightful vale, planted \vith trees, watered bv fountains, and 
lying near Jerusalem, on the southeast, by the brook Kidron. Here the Jews 
placed that brazen image of Moloch, which had the face of a calf, and extended 
its hands as those of aman. It is said, on the authority of the ancient Rabbins, 
that, to this image, the idolatrous Jews were wont not onlv to sacrifice doves, 
pigeons, lambs, rams, calves and bulls, but even to offer their children. 1 
Kings Ix: 7; 2 Kings xv: 3-4. In the prophecy of Jeremiah (Ch. vii: 31), 
this valley is called Tophet, from toph, a drum; because the administrators 
in these horrid rites beat drums, lest the cries and shrieks of the infants who. 
were burned, should be heard by the assembly. At length, these nefarious 
practices were abolished by Josiah, and the Jews brought back to the pure 
worship of God. 2 Kings xxUi: 10. After this, they held the place in such 
abomination, it is said, that they cast into it all kinds of filth, together with 
the carcasses of beasts, and the unburied bodies of criminals who had been 
executed. Continual fires were necessary, in order to consume these, lest the 
putrefaction should infect the air; ana thars were always worms feeding on 
the remaining relics. Hence it came, that any severe punishment, especiallv 
a shameful kind of death, was denominated Gehenna." 
Stuart says: "In the valley of Hinnom ((^e/ie/ina), perpetual fire was kept 

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is angry with his brother, shall be liable to the judg- 
ment; and whoever shall say to his brother * Shallow-pate/ 

up, in order to consume the offal which was deposited there; and, as the same 
offal would breed worms, hence came the expression—* where their worm dieth 
not and their fire is not quenched.' " 

Dr. Parkhurstadds: "Our Lord seems to allude to the worms which con- 
tinually preyed on the dead carcasses that were cast out into the valley of 
Hlnnom igehenna), and to the perpetual fire kept up to consume them." 

As we trace the history of the locality as it occurs in the Old Testament, we 
learn that it should never have been translated by the word Hell. It is a 
proper name of a well-known locality, and ought to have stoodGefiennaj as it 
does in the French Bible, in Newcome's and Wakefield's translation, in the Im- 
proved Version, etc. Babylon might have been translated Hell with as much 
propriety as Gehenna. 

It is fully described in numerous passages in the Old Testament, and is ex- 
actly located on earth. 

"And the border went up by the valley of the son of Hinnom unto the south 
side of the Jebusite; the same is Jerusalem, and the border went up to the top 
of the mountain that lieth before the valley of Hinnom westward." Joshua 
XV : 8. "And he (Joshua) defiled Tophet, which is in the valley of the children 
of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or daughter to pass through the 
fire to Moloch." 2 Kings xxiii: 10. "Moreover, he (Ahaz) burnt incense in the 
valley of the son of Hinnom, and burnt his children in the fire, after the 
abominations of the heathen." 2 Chron. xxviii: 3. "And they (the children 
of Judah) have built the high places of Tophet, which is in the valley of the 
son of Hinnom, to bum their sons and their daughters in the fire; which I 
commanded them not, neither came it into my heart. Therefore, behold, the 
days come, saith the Lord, that it shall no more be called Tophet, nor the val- 
ley of the son of Hinnom, but the valley of slaughter; for they shall bury In 
Tophet till there be no place." Jer. vii : 31-32. "And go forth into the valley 
of the son of Hinnom, which is by the entry of the east gate, and proclaim 
there the words that I shaU tell thee.* Therefore, behold, the days come, saith 
the Lord, that this place shall no more be called TopheU nor the valley of the 
son of Hinnom, but the valley of slaughter." Jer. xix : 2-6. 

Thfese and other passages show that Gehenna was a well-known valley, near 
Jerusalem, in which the Jews in their idolatrous days had sacrificed their 
Children to the idol Moloch, in consequence of which it was condemned to re- 
ceive the offal and sewage of the city, and into which the bodies of malefac- 
tors were cast, and where, to destroy thfe odor and pestilential influences, con- 
tinual fires were kept burning. Here fire, smoke, worms bred by the corrup- 
tion, and other repulsive features, rendered the place a horrible one, In the 
eyes of the Jews. It was a locality with which they were as well acquainted 
as they were with any place in or around the city. After these horrible prac- 
tices, King Josiah polluted the place and rendered it repulsive. 

In Dr. Bailey's English Dictionary, Gehenna is defined to be "a place in the 
valley of the tribe of Benjamin, terrible for two sorts of fire in it, that wherein 
the Israelites sacrificed their children to the idol Moloch, and also another 

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shall be liable to the sanhedrin, [and] whoever shall say 
* Fool, ' shall be hable to the fiery Gehenna. *^If, therefore, 

kept continually burning to consume the dead carcasses and filth of Jerusa- 

But in process of time Gehenna came to be an emblem of the consequences 
of sin, and to be employed figuratively by the Jews to denote those conse- 
quences. Hut always in this irorld. The Jews never used it to mean tor- 
ment after death, until- long after Christ. That the word had not the mean- 
ing of post-niortetn torment when our Savior used it, is demonstrable. Jose- 
phus was a Pharisee, and wrote at about the time of Christ, and expressly says 
that the Jews at that time (corrupted from the teachings of Moses) believed in 
endless punishment, but he never employs Gehenna to denote the place of 
punishment. He uses the word Hades, which the Jews had then obtained 
from the heathen, but he never uses Gehenna, as he would have done, had it 
possfessed that meaning then. This demonstrates that the word had no such 
meaning then. In addition to this neither the Apocrypha, which was written 
from *280 to 100 B. C, nor Philo, ever uses the word. It was first used in the 
modern sense of Hell by Justin Martyr, one hundred and fifty years after 

Dr. Thayer concludes a most thorough excursus on the word thus, (see his 
"Theology") : 

"Our inquiry shows that it is employed in the Old Testament in Its literal or 
geographical sense only, as the name of the valley lying on the south of Jeru- 
salem—that the Septuagint proves it retained this meaning as late as B. C. 
150 — that it is not found at all in the Apocrypha; neither in Philo, nor in Jo- 
sephus, whose writings cover the very times of the Savior and the New Testa- 
ment, thus leaving us without a single example of contemporary usage to de- 
termine its meaning at this period— that from A. D. 150-195, we find in two 
Greek«authors, Justin and Clement of Alexandria, the first resident in Italy 
and thelast in Egypt, that Gehenna began to ba usod to designate a place of 
punishment after death, hnt not endless punishment, since Clement was a be- 
liever in universal restoration— that the first time we find Gehenna used in 
this sense in any Jewish writing is near the beginning of the third century, in 
the Targum of Jonathan Ben Uzziel, two hundred years too late to be of any 
service in the argument— and lastly, that the New Testament usage shows that 
while it had not wholly lost its literal sense, it was also employed in the time 
of Christ as a symbol of moral corruption and wickedness ; but more espe- 
cially as a figure of the terrible judgments of God on the rebellious and sinful 
nation of the Jews." 

The Jewish Talmud and Targums use the word in the sense that the Chris- 
tian Church has so long used it, though without attributing endlessness to it, 
but none of them are probably older than A. D. 200. One of the oldest is the 
n-anslation of Jonathan'Ben Uzziel, which was written, according to the best 
of authorities, between A. D. 200 and A. D. 400. "Most of the eminent critics 
now agree that it could not have )>een completed till sometime between two 
hundred and four hundred years after Christ."— Univ. Expos, vol. 2, p. 868. 

At the time of Christ the Old Testament existed in Hebrew, and in the Sep- 
tuagint translation of it, made between two hundred and four hundred years 

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you bring your gift to the altar, and there recollect that your 
brother has aught against you, **leave there your gift before 

before his birth. In both, Gehenna is never used as the name of a place of fut- 
ure punishment. A writer in the Vniversalist Expositor remarks (Vol. 2) : 

"Both the Apocrypha and the works of Philo, when compared together, af- 
ford circumstantial evidence that the word cannot have been currently em- 
ployed, during their age, to denote a place of future torment. And we cannot 
discover in Josephus, that either of these sects, the Pharisees or the Essenes, 
both of which believed the doctrine of endless misery, supposed it to be a 
state of fire, or that the Jews ever alluded to it by that emblem." 

The Apocrypha, B. C. 150-500, Philo Judseus, A. D. 40, and Josephus, A. D. 
70-100, all refer to future punishment, but none of them uses Gehenna to de- 
scribe it, which they would have done, being Jews, had the word been then in 
use with that meaning. Were it the name of a place of future torment then, 
can any one doubt that it would be found repeatedly in their writings? And 
does not the fact that it is never found in their writings demonstrate that it 
had no such use then, and if so, does it not f oUow that Christ used it in no 
such sense? 

Canon Farrar says of Gehenna (Preface to "Eternal Hope") : "In the Old 
Testament it is merely the pleasant valley of Hinnom (Ge Hinnom)^ subse- 
quently desecrated by Idolatry, and especially by Moloch worship, and defiled 
by Josiahon this account. (See 1 Kings, xi: 7; 2 Kings xxiii: 10; Jer. vii: 31 ; 
xix: 10-14; Isa. XXX : 33; Tophet). Used according to Jewish tradition, as 
the conmion sewerage of the city, the corpses of the worst criminals were 
flung into it unburied, and fires were lit to purify the contaminated air. It 
then became a word which secondarily implied (1) the severest judgment 
which a Jewish court could pass upon a criminal— the casting |orth of his un- 
buried corpse amid the fires and wonris of this poUuted valley ; and (2) a pun- 
ishment—which to the Jews as a body nether meant an endless punisjj^ment 
beyond the grave. Whatever may be the meaning of the entire passages in 
which the word occurs, "hell" must be a complete mistranslation, since it at- 
tributes to the tei-m used by Christ a sense entirely different from that in 
which it was understood by our Lord's hearers, and therefore entirely differ- 
ent from the sense in which he could have used it. Origen says (c. Celsus vi : 
25) that Gehenna denotes (1) the vale of Hinnom, and (2) a purificatory fire 
{eis ten metahasanon katliarsin.) He declares that Celsus was totally igno- 
rant of the meaning of Gehenna. " 

Gehenna is the name given by Jews to hell. Rev. H. N. Adler, a Jewish 
rabbin, says: "They do not teach endless retributive suffering. They hold 
that it is not conceivable that a God of mercy and justice would ordain infi- 
nite punishment for finite wrong-doing." Dr. Deutsch declares: "There is 
not a word in the Talmud that lends any support to that damnable dogma of 
endless torment." Dr. Dewes in his "Plea for Rational Translation," says that 
Gehenna is alluded to four or five times in the Mishna, thus : "The judgment 
of Gehenna is for twelve months." "Gehenna is a day in which the impious 
shall be burnt." BartoUoci declares that "the Jews did not believe in a mate- 
rial fire, and thought that such a fire as they did believe in, would one day be 
put out." Rabbi Akiba, "the second Moses," said : "The duration of the pun- 

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the altar, and go, first be reconciled to your brother, then 
come, present your gift. ^Agree with your opponent, at once, 

Ishment of the wicked In Gehenna is twelve months." Adyoth ill : 10. Some 
rabbins said that Gehenna only lasted from Passover to Pentecost. This was the 
prevalent conception. (Abridged from Excursus v, in Canon Parrar*s "Eter- 
nal Hope." He gives in a note these testimonies to prove that the Jews to 
whom Jesus spoke, did not regard Gehenna as of endless duration. Asarath 
Maamaroth, f. 85, i : "There will hereafter be no Gehenna." Salkuth Shimoni, 
f. 46, i: "Gabriel and Michael wiU open the eight thousand gates of Gehenna, 
and let out Israelites and righteous Gentiles." A passage in Othoth (attrib- 
uted to B. Akiba) declares that Gabriel and Michael wiU open the forty thou- 
sand gates of Gehenna, and set free the damned, a^d in Emek Hammelech, f . 
138, 4, we read : "The wicked stay in Gehenna till the resurrection, and then 
the Messiah passing through it redeems them." See Stephelius's Rabbinical 

Rev. Dr. Wise, a learned Jewish Rabbin, says : "That the ancient Hebrews 
had no knowledge of heU is evident from the fact that their language has no 
term for it." 

The word should stand untranslated like any other proper name. Jesus 
transfers it from the Hebrew, and does not translate. We should follow his 
example. It was a well-known place in this world, and was used by our Savior 
as a type or emblem of calamities in this world. It has no reference to pun- 
ishment in the immortal world. 

IMPOBTANT Facts.— 1. Gehenna was a well-known locality near Jerusa- 
lero. See Josh, xv : 8 ; 2 Kings xvii : 10 ; 2 Chron. xxviii : 3 ; Jer. vii • 31-32 • 
xix: 2. 

2. Gehenna is never employed in the Old Testament to mean anything else 
than the locality with which every Jew was familiar. 

3. The word should have been left untranslated as it is in some versions, 
and it would not be misunderstood. It should no more be rendered heU than 
should Babylon. It was not misunderstood by the Jews to whom Jesus ad- 
dressed it. Walter Balfour well says: "What meaning would the Jews who 
were familiar with this word, and knew it to signify the valley of Hlnnom, be 
likely to attach to it, when they heard it used by our Lord?" 

4. The French Bible, the Emphatic Diaglott, Improved Version, Wake- 
field's Translation, and Newcome's retain the proper noun, Gehenna, the name 
of the well known place. 

5. Gehenna is never mentioned in the Apocrypha as a place of future pun- 
ishment, as it would have been, had such been its meaning before and at the 
time of Christ. 

6. No Jewish writer contemporary with Christ, such as Josephus, or 
Philo, ever uses it as the name of a place of future punishment, as would have 
been done had such then been its meaning. 

7. No classic Greek author ever alludes to it, and, therefore, it was a Jewish 
locality, purely. 

8. The first Jewish writer who ever names it as a place of future punish- 

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while you are with him on the road [to court], lest the 
opponent deUver you to the judge, and the judge to the offi- 

ment, is Jonathan Ben Uzzlel, who wrote, according to various authorities, 
from the second to the eighth century, A. D. 

9. The first Christian writer who calls hell Gehenna, is Justin Martyr, who 
wrote about A. D. 150. 

10. Neither Christ nor his apostles ever named it to Gentiles, but only to 
Jews, which proves it a locality only known to Jews, whereas, if it were a 
place of punishment after death for sinners, it would have been preached to 
Gentiles as well as Jews. 

11. It was only referred to twelve times, on eight occasions, in all the min- 
istry of Christ and the apostles, and in the Gospels and Epistles. Were they 
faithful to their mission, to say no more, on so vital a theme as an endless 
hell, if they intended to teach it? 

12. Only Jesus and James ever named it. Neither Paul, John, Peter nor 
Jude ever employed it. Would they not have warned sinners concerning it, 
if there were a Gehenna of torment after death? 

13. Paul says he "shunned not to declare the whole counsel of God," and 
yet, though he was the great preacher of the Gospel to the Gentiles, he never 
told them that Gehenna was a place of after-death punishment. Would he 
not repeatedly Jiave warned sinners against it, were there such a place? 

Dr. Thayer remarks : "The Savior and James are the only persons in all the 
New Testament who use the word. John the Baptist, who preached to the most 
wicked of men, did not use it once. Paul wrote fourteen epistles, and yet 
never once mentions it. Peter does not name it, nor Jude; and John, who 
wrote the gospel, three epistles, and the Book of Revelations, never employs 
It in a single instance. Now if Gehenna or hell really reveals the terrible fact 
of endless woe, how can we account for this strange silence? How ^s it pos- 
sible, if they knew its meaning, and believed it a part of Christ's teaching, 
that they should not have used it a hundred or a thousand times, instead of 
never using it at all; especially when we consider the infinite interests in- 
volved? The Book of Acts contains the record of the apostolic preaching, and 
the history of the first planting of the church among the Jews and Gentiles 
and embraces a period of thirty years from the ascension of Ciirist. In all this 
history, in all this preaching of the disciples and apostles of Jesus, there is no 
mention of Gehenna. In thirty years of missionary effort, these men of God, 
addressing people of all characters and nations, never, under any circum- 
stances, threaten them with the torments of Gehenna, or allude to it in the 
most distant manner. In the face of such a fact as this, can any man believe 
that Gehenna signifies endless punishment; and that this is a part of divine 
revelation, a part of the gospel message to the world?" 

14. Jesus never uttered it to unbelieving Jews, nor to anybody but his dis- 
ciples. If it were the final abo'de of unhappy millions, would not his 
warnings abound with exhortations to avoid it? 

15. Jesus never warned unbelievers against it but once in aU his ministry 
(Matt, xxiii: 33), and he immediately explained it as about to come in this 

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cer, and you be cast into prison. **Truly I say to you, you 
will by no means come out thence, till you have paid the last 

"^'You have heard that it was said, *Thou shalt not commit 
adultery; * but I say to you, "that everyone gazing on a 
woman, to cherish impure desire, has already debauched her 
in his heart. **And if your right eye offend you, tear it out, 
and cast it from you; it is profitable for you that one of your 
members should perish, and not [that] your whole body be 
cast into Gehenna. ^And if your right hand offend you, cut 
it off, and cast it from you; it is profitable for you that one of 

16. If Gehenna is the name of heU then men's bodies are burned there as 
weU as their souls. —Matt, v : 20 ; xviii : 9. 

17. If it be the place of endless torment, then literal fire is the sinner's pun- 
ishment.— Mark ix: 43-48. 

1 8. Salvation is never said to be from Gehenna. 

19. Gehenna is never said to be of endless duration, nor spoken of as des- 
tined to last forever, so that even admitting the popular ideas of its existence 
after death, it gives no support to the dogma of endless torment. 

20. Clement, one of the earliest Christian fathers, was a Universalist, and 
yet he uses Gehenna to describe the sinner's punishment, showinja: that then 
the word did not denote endless punishment. 

21. A shameful death, or a severe punishment, in this life, was, at the time 
of Christ, denominated Gehenna (Schleusner, Canon Farrar and others), and 
there is no evidence that Gehenna meant anything else, at the time of Christ. • 

Matt, v: 26. "Last quadrans." Says Schaff, "Roman Catholic expositors 
understand this passage [as referring to] purgatory ; Universalists use it in sup- 
port of their view of final restoration; . . . the inexorable rigor of divine 
justice against the impenitent sinner." 

The adversary here is a legal one, the language refers to those who were op- 
posed to the disciples in some way, as is evident from the references to a 
"judge," an "oflftcer" and a "prison." If God were the adversary, as is some- 
times claimed, and the prison is after death, then limited punishment is cer- 
tainly taught, for when "the uttermost farthing" is paid, then deliverance from 
the prison f oUows. But it has no such reference. The language has a local 
reference to the times of the disciples, and relates entirely to legal opponents. 

Matt, v : 27-30 : Mabk ix : 43. These passages mean that it is better to accept 
Christianity, and forego some worldly privilege, than to possess all worldly 
advantages, and be overwhelmed in the destruction then about to come upon 
the Jews, when multitudes were literally cast into Gehenna. Or it may be 
figuratively used, as Jesus probably used it, thus: It is better to enter the 

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80 ^^^ ^^W COVENANT. 

your members should perish, and not [that] your whole body 
be Qast into Gehenna. ^^And it was said, ^Whoever discards 
his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement; ' ^but I 
say to you that whoever discards his wife, except on account 
of unchastity, causes her to commit adultery, and whoever 
marries the discarded one, commits adultery. 

"^Again you have heard that it was said to the ancients, 
*Do iiot perjure thyself, but perform thine oaths to the Lord.' 
^But I say to you, Swear not at all, not even by the heaven, 
for it is God's throne; *^nor by the earth, for it is the foot- 
stool of his feet; neither toward Jerusalem, for it is the city of 
the great King; ^nor may you swear by your head, for you 
canfiot make one hair white or black; ^^but let your word be 
* Yes,' * Yes,' * ^o,' * No,' for whatever exceeds these is of the 

**^You have heard that it was said, * Eye for eye, and tooth 
for tooth ; ' %ut I say to you, resist not the evil, but who- 
ever shall strike you on the right cheek, turn to him the oth- 

Christian life destitute of some great worldly advantage, comparable to a right 
hand, than to live in sin, with all worldly privileges, and experience that 
moral death which is a Gehenna of the soul. In this sense it may be used of 
men now as then. But there is no reference to an after-death suffering, in 
any proper us© of the terms. The true idea of the language is this : Embrace 
the Christian life, whatever sacrifice it calls for. The latter clause carries out 
the idea in speaking of the undying worm. 

"Where the worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched." Undoubtedly 
Jesus had reference to the language of the prophet: "And it shall come to 
pass, that from one new moon to another, and from one Sabbath to another, 
shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the Lord. And they shall go 
forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men that have transgressed against 
me: for their worm shall not die, neither shaU their fire be quenched: and they 
shall be an abhorring unto all flesh."— Isa. Ixvl: 23, 24. 

The prophet and the Savior both referred to the overthrow of Jerusalem, 
though by accommodation we may apply the language generally, understand- 
ing by heU or Gehenna, that condition brought upon the soul, in this world, 
by sin. But the application by the prophet and the Savior was to the day 
then soon to come. See Hanson's "Bible Hell." 

Matt, v : 37. "The evil." See exposition of the Lord's Prayer, Matt, vl : 13. 

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er, also; **^and to one purpoging to sue you, to take your 
tunic, surrender to liim the mantle, also; "and whoever 
shall force you to go one mile, accompany him two. **Give 
to one sohciting you, and do not repulse one wishing to bor- 
row [money] of you. 

""You have heard that it was said, * Thou shalt love thy 
neighbor, and hate thine enemy; * **but I say to you. Love 
your enemies; and pray for those who persecute you, **that 
you may be sons of your Father in [the] heavens, for he 
makes his sun rise on evil and good, and sends rain on just, 
and unjust. **For if you love [only] those that love you, what 
reward have you? Do not even the tax-collectors the same? 
*'And if you salute your brothers only, in what do you excel ? 
Do not the Gentiles the same? **You shall therefore be per- 
fect, as your heavenly Father is perfect. 

Matthew vi: "Take care that you do not perform your 
religious duties in the presence of men, to be seen by them 
otherwise you will obtain no reward from your Father who 
is in the heavens. *When, therefore, you bestow charities, 
do not sound a trumpet before you, as do the hypocrites in the 
synagogues, and in the streets, that they may have glory from 
men; truly, I say to you, they have their reward. ^Butwhen 
you render charities, let not your left hand know what your 
right hand does, *so that your charities may be private, and 
your Father who sees in the secret [place] will recompense 

"*And when you pray, you shall not be like the hypocrites, 
for they love to pray standing in the synagogues, and in the 
comers of the open squares, that they may be seen by men. 

Matt, v : 44-45. "Bless those who persecute you, do good to those who hate 
you," and "And it rains on just and unjust," are not In oldest MSS. 


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Truly, I say to you, they have their recompense. "But when 
you pray, enter into your private room, and, locking your 
door, pray in the secret [place] to your Father, and your Fath- 
er who sees in the secret [place] will recompense you. 'But 
[wheuj praying, babble not, Hke the Gentiles, for they imagine 
that they shall be heard for their wordiness. ^Therefore, do 
not imitate them, for God, your Father, knows what things 
yon need before you ask him. ®Thus, then, pray you: 

©ur Jfather, toh^ [art] in thje heaben^, 

^allotoeb be thg name ; 


^\\^ toillbe accom^lighjcb, a0 in keaben, 350 on earth; 

"(Sine n0 tx)-bag 0ttr ^vMcizni breab ; 

"^nb f ^r^ibe n0 jonr iebt^, a0 toe kabe f orgib en oxxx iebt^rg; 

Ma TT. vi : 10. "Thy will be done," i. e., perfected, accomplished. See xxvi : 
A 2t— " Af^ in heaven, so on earth ;" hos en ouranou^ kai epi ges. Heaven is the 
i^timtlxLTd to which earth should conform. 

M ATT vl : 11. "Daily" in Vularate and Wickliffe, Luther, and oldest English 
versiyiu*; Douay Bible says "supersubstantial;** Syriac, "of ourneed;" Coptic, 
WBtfltf^fn, "to-morrow." 

Tlioluck says that epiousion ("daUy") occurs nowhere else in theNewTesta- 
m^nu nor in any one of all the 1,200 Greek works extant. It seems to indi- 
cate e«Hential, necessary, sufficient bread for the day. 

Doddridge says : "I can see no reason for changing our received translation, 
and otinnot but acquiesce in Mr. Mede's remark, that thft original signifies 
what is sufficient for our pi^eseni support and subsistence: so that this peti- 
tion in noarly parallel to that of Agur, and a most excellent lesson to teach us; 
on the one hand, moderation in our desires, and, on the other, an humble de- 
pendence on Divine Providence for the most necessary suppUes, be o^ur pos- 
sefHifsua or abilities ever so great." 

Matt, vi: 12. The aorist aphekamen^ Instead of the present aphiemeut is 
f ounrl in S. and other ancient codices, and in the Peschito Syriac, Origen, Greg- 
oT>^ ot Kyssa, Basil, <fec. The latter was probably the work of a copjrist, who 
wiHli^il to make the passage conform to the parallel in Luke. ,The correct 
farm i:^ the better, inasmuch as it demands a forgiving disposition, antecedent 
tu tho petition for forgiveness. 

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"^nb briufl tt0 ti0t int0 tennjtati^n. 
Jpttt 0ab^ tt0 from the jebil. 

Matt, vi: 13. "Bring us not into temptation." Me eisenegkes. It is 
a Hebraism, in which God ia said to do what he permits. "Suffer us not to be 
led, as Augustine noteth; because God, as James saith, tempt^th no man, 
though for our sins, or for our probation and crovm, he permit us to be 
tempted."— ii/iemi.s/i Test. 

Matt, vi: 13. "Deliver us from the evil one," says the Bevised Version. 
"Oi*^" is in italics, to teach the reader that there is no Greek for the word. 
Nor is the idea expressed or implied. "The evil" denotes evil in the abstract, 
and not an evil person. The phrase is at least as likely to be the genitive of 
the neuter toponeroriy evil, as of the masculine ho poneros, the evil. Camp- 
bell well says that the general, in all doubtful cases, is to be preferred to the 
less extensive. The fact that evil in the abstract covers all the ground from 
which deliverance Is desirable, should exclude the reviser's translation. That 
evil is meant, and not an evil person, see Matt, xiii: 39: Eph. vi: 16; 2 Thess. 
iii: 3. 

However, it cannot be absolutely known whether apo ton ponerou^ from 
the evil, is from the nominative to ponerony or ho poneros. It therefore 
grammfitically admits the neuter or the masculine rendering, that is, abstract 
evil or an evil person. In favor of the masculine form. Prof. Schaffsays: 

"The reference to Satan has in its favor (1.) the majority of passages where 
ho poneros undoubtedly is a designation of Satan, who Is emphatically the 
evil or wicked one, the author of all sin and misery in the world (see Matt, xiii: 
19-38: John xvii: 15; 1 John ii: 13, iii: 12, v: 18-19), while only in two pas- 
sages ton ponerou is used as a neuter noun (Luke vi: 45; Rom. xii: 9). (2.) 
The unanimous consent of the Greek commentators (Origen, Chrysostom, «fec.), 
who were, upon the whole, better exegetes than the Latin fathers, most of 
whom depended on the Itala or Vulgate. To the testimony of the Greek fa- 
thers must be added the ancient Greek liturgies and the oldest Latin fathers, 
Tertullian and Cyprian. (3.) The majority of the Calvinistic and the strictly 
grammatical commentators (as Fritzsche and Meyer). The Heidelberg Cate- 
chism (which translates vom, Bosen) has given it, the mascidine rendering, 
popular currency in all the German Reformed Churches. Luther follows Au- 
gustin (a inalo) in his translation of the Bible (vom UeheW, but in his larger 
Catechism he distinctly refers the word to Satan. (4.) The close connection 
of the two clauses of the sixth petition by me and alia favors the rendering of 
the revisers. * Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the tempter,* 
Such deliverance involves at the same time deliverance from all sin and evil. 
The petition goes to the root of all evil. We may, also, add that Christ had, 
shortly before the Sermon on the Mount, come out of the great conflict with 
the prince of darkness." But it should be said that Greek usage permits the 
neuter rendering (see Judges ii : 11, iii: 12; 1 Kings xi: 6, viii: 18; Matt, v: 
39; Luke vi: 45; Rom. xii: 9); and, what ought to be decisive, "evil one" nar- 
rows the scope of the petition to a real or imaginary person, whUe "deliver us 

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**"For if you forgive men their offenses, your heavenly 
Father will also forgive you; "but if you forgive not men, 
their offenses, neither will your Father forgive your offenses. 

**"And when you fast, be not like the hypocrites, of a mel- 
ancholy face; for they disfigure their faces, so that they may 
appear to men [to be] fasting. Truly I say to you, they have 
their recompense. "But, when you fast, anoint your head. 

from evil'* covers the entire ground of man's need of deliverance. The article 
before evil has no force, as the reader unfamiliar with Greek might suppose. 
The definite article "the," in Greek, is found before nouns where English 
usage does not allow it. It carries no implication of personality. Besides, as 
the phrase is susceptible of either rendering, that ought to prevail which does 
not call for a supplied word. "Deliver us from the evil o/ie" is more than the 
original contains. Deliver us from the evil. Evil, all evil, is far better, and is 
equaUy well sustained by the originaL Besides, we may suppose even if the 
masc. is meant that it is evil personified, not an actual personage, but a per- 
sonification. The evidence is clear to our own mind that all evil and not an evil 
person, is referred to in this petition. 

The doxology, "Thine is the Kingdom," &c., is not genuine. Prof. 
Schaflf remarks: "The doxology is omitted. The revisers could not 
do otherwise, if they were to be true to their sense of duty and the 
facts In the case, for the foUowing reasons: (1.) The doxology is omit- 
ted in the oldest and best uncial MSS. (S. V.), in the old Latin and Vul- 
gate versions, and in the oldest comments on the Lord's Prayer, by Origen, 
Tertullian, and Cyprian, all of the third century. The whole Latin church, 
following the Vulgate of Jerome, omits it. (2.) It is omitted by all authori • 
ties in the parallel passage in Luke. (3.) Its insertion in the text, from litur- 
gical usage, can easily be explained; but the omission of it, if it was a part of 
the original text, cannot be explained, for it is entirely unobjectionable and 
appropriate. There is a similar doxology in David's prayer, 1 Chron. xxix, 10 
("Thine, O Lord, is the greatness, and the power, and the glory, and the vic- 
tory and the majesty. . . . Thine is the kingdom"). It is quite natural 
that, when the Lord's Prayer came into use as a form of devotion, the Chris- 
tians should add a doxology, which then found its way into manuscripts and 
the Syriac Version, first as a marginal gloss and afterward in the body of the 
t«xt. AU critical editors take this view of the case and treat the doxology as 
an interpolation. "There can be little doubt," says Dr. Hort, "that the dox- 
ology originated in liturgical use in Syria, and was thence adopted into the 
Greek and Syriac Syrian texts of the New Testament. It was probably de- 
rived ultimately from 1 Chron. xxix, 11 (Heb.); but it may be through the 
medium of some contemporary Jewish usage." Very venerable though it is, 
it was not uttered by Jesus, and must be relinquished from the record with 

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and wash your face, so that you may not appear to men to be 
fasting, "but to your Father who is in the secret [place], and 
your Father who sees in the secret [place] will recompense 

**"Do not lay up treasures on the earth, where moth and 
rust consume, and where thieves dig through and steal, %ut 
lay up treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust con- 
sumes, and where thieves do not dig through nor steal, **for 
where your treasure is there your heart will be also. ^The 
eye is the lamp of the body; if your eye is sound, your whole 
body will be enlightened, **but if your eye is evil, your whole 
body will be dark. If, then, the light in you is darkness, 
how great the darkness I 

**"No one can serve two masters ; for either he will hate the 
one, and the other he will love, or he ^xdll cling to one, and 
shght the other. You cannot serve God and Mammon. 
For I say this to you: Be not anxioun for your life, what 
you may eat, or what you may drink, uor yet for your body, 
what you may wear. Is not the life more than the food, and 
the body than the clothing? *Mark well the birds of the 
heaven ; for they sow not, nor reap, nor gather into gran- 
aries, but your heavenly Father feeds them. Do you not 
greatly excel them? "And which of you by being anxious 
can prolong his age one span? **And why be anxious con- 
cemino; clothing? Mark well the liHes of the field, how they 
grow; they labor not, nor spin; "but I say to you that not 
eyen Solomon, in aU his glory, was clothed liko one of these. 

Matt, vl: 25. The word here rendered life (psuche), has do exact repre- 
sentative in English. It is not mere physical existence izoe), nor the immor- 
tal spirit (pneuma), but it is that sentient principle that constitutes our 
identity. Soul, as it is sometimes rendered, Is inaoourate. l4fo seemo it9 
nearest representative. 


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"'If then, God so clothes the grass of the field, to-day exist- 
ing, and to-morrow cast into the oven, not much more you, 
oh you of little faith? '^Be not, therefore, anxious, saying, 
« What may we eat,* or * What may we drink,* or *What may 
we wear.* "For all these the Gentiles seek, and your heav- 
enly Father knows that you have need of all these things. 
"But seek first his righteousness and reign, and all these 
things shall be added to you. "Be not anxious, therefore, 
about to-morrow, for to-morrow shall be anxious for itself; 
enough for the day is its own trouble. 

Matthew vii: **Do not judge, that you may not be judged; 
'for with what judgment you judge, you shall be judged, 
and by the measure that you measure, it shall be measured 
to you. ^And why see the speck that is in your brother's 
eye, but perceive not the stick in your own eye? *0r how 
will you say to your brother, 'Permit me to extract the 
apeck from your eye,* and behold the stick in your own 
eye? '^Hypocrite! first extract the stick from your own eye, 
and then you will see clearly to extract the speck from your 
brother's eye. 

**'Give not that which is holy to the dogs, neither cast 
your pearls before the swine; lest they should trample them 
under their feet, and turn and rend you. 

*^'Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and you shall find; 
knock, and it shall be opened to you, — ®for every one that 
aeks receives, and' he who seeks finds, and to him who 
knocks it is opened. 'Or what man is there of you, who, if his 
son ask him for a loaf, will give him a stone, *°or if he ask 
for a fish will give him a serpent? "If, you, then, evil 
[though you are], know how to give good gifts to your child- 
ren, how much more will your heavenly Father give good 
[gifts] to those that ask him? "All thingi therefore which 

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you desire that men should do to you, do you the same to 
them ; for this is the law and the prophets. 

'''"Enter in through the narrow gate, for wide is the gate 
and broad is the road that leads to destruction, and many are 
they going through it! "How narrow is the gate, and diffi- 
cult the road that leads unto life, and few are they who find it! 

**^*Beware of the false prophets, who come to you in sheep's 
clothing, but they are rapacious wolves within; "by their 
fruits you shall know them. Do [men] gather grapes from 
acanthuses, or figs from brambles? "So every good tree bears 
good fruit, but the corrupt tree bears evil fruit. "A good 
tree cannot bear evil fruit, neither a corrupt tree good fruit. 
*®Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and cast 
into fire. ^'Therefore, you shall know them by their fruit. 
Not every one saying to me * Master,' * Master,' shall enter 
into the heavenly reign, "but he that does the will of my 
heavenly Father. **Many will say to me in that day, * Master, 

Matt, vii : 1 3-1 4. "Is the gate" is doubtf uL 

Matt, vil: 13-14. "The narrow gate." The Savior referred, by the strait 
gate, to the exacting natnre of his religion. The road was narrow, and 
difficult to follow, and but few then foUowed it, while the many avoided it, 
and pursued <he broad road of error and sin. The words have the same appli- 
cation to-day, weU expressed by good Dr. Watts: 

"Broad is the road that leads to death, 

And thousands walk together there. 

But wisdom shows a narrow path. 

With here and there a traveler." 
To refer the passage to the future world, is to teach that heaven will only 
contain a few souls, while the great majority will be damned. Dr. A. Clarke 
says: "Enter in through this strait gate, i. e., of doing to every one as you 
would he should do unto you; for this alone seems to be the strait gate." 

"Observe, the gate is put before the way (Matt, vli: 14). It is not, therefore, 
the gate out of life, at the end of the pilgrimage, but the gate into the Chris- 
tian life, as Bunyan represents it in Pilgrim's Progress. As here used, the 
gate is not equivalent to the door in John x : 2. The strait gate is the spirit 
of real and hearty allegiance to Jesus Christ, by which we enter unto hinL"— 

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Master, have we not prophesied by your name, and by 
your name exorcised demons, and by your name performed 
many wonders?' *^And then I will declare to them. Because 
1 never knew you, depart from me, workers of iniquity! 
**Whoeyer, therefore, hears these words of mine, and does 
them, resembles a prudent man who built his house upon the 
rock. ^*And the rain fell, and the streams came, and the 
winds blew, and beat against that house, and it fell not, for 
it was founded on the rock. '^And every one who hears these 
words of mine and does them not, resembles a foolish man, 
who built his house on the sand, ^^and the rain fell, and the 
streams came, and the winds blew, and dashed against that 
house, and it fell, and great was its fall." 

^And it occurred, when Jesus had finished these words, 
[that] the crowds were astonished at his teaching, ^for he 
taught them as [one] possessing authority, and not as their 

Lnke vi: 20-49. And he raised his eyes on his disciples, 
and said: 

"Happy [are] you poor, for yours is the reign of God. 

""Happy [are] you that hunger now, for you shall be 

"Happy [are] you that weep now, for you shall laugh. 

""Happy [are] you when men hate you, and when they sepa- 
rate you, and revile, and cast out your name as evil, on account 
of the Son of Man. *^Rejoice in that day, and leap [for joy], 
for behold your reward [is] great in the heaven, for thus 
did their fathers to the prophets. "But alas for you, the 
rich, for you have received your comfort. **Ala8 for you that 

LuKB vi : 25. "Alas." This word la improperly rendered "Woe" in E. V. and 
R. V. It is not, as uttered by Jesns, an imprecation, or denunciation. It is 
rather an expression of pity and sympathy. 

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are full now, for you shall be hungry. AJas [for you] that laugh 
now, for you shall mourn, and weep. *"Alas [for you] when 
all men speak well of you, for their fathers did the same to 
the false prophets. ^^But to those who are hstening, I say, 

**Love your enemies, do good to those that hate you, 
^bless those that curse you, pray for those that traduce you. 
^To him that strikes you on the [one] cheek, offer the other, 
also, and hold not back your tunic from him that takes your 
mantle from you. *Give to all those that ask you, and de- 
mand not back what is yours from him that takes it away. 
"And just as you desire that men should do to you, do to 
them hkewise. ^And if you love those that love you, what 
thanks arer due to you? for even sinners love those that love 
them. ^For if also you do good to those that do good to you, 
what thanks are due to you? sinners also do the same. ^And 
if you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what 
thanks are due to you? even sinners lend to sinners that they 
may receive an equivalent. '^But love your enemies, and do 
good, and lend, despairing of no man, and your reward shall 
be great in heaven, and you shall be sons of the Highest, for 
he is kind to the imgrateful and evil. *Be compassionate, as 
your Father is compassionate. ^And judge not, and you 
will not be judged, and condemn not, and you will not be 
condemned, release and you shall be released, ^give, and it 
shall be given to you ; good measure, pressed, shaken, and 
running over, shall be given into your lap, for with the same 
measure that you measure it shall be measured to you again." 

"Now he spoke also a parable to them, "Can the bUndlead 
the blind? *^Will not both fall into a pit? A disciple is not 
above the teacher, but every one shall be perfected as his 
teacher. *^And why see you the speck that is in your broth- 
er's eye, but do not perceive the stick that is in your own eye? 

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^^And how can you say to your brother, 'Brother, let me 
extract the speck that is in your eye,' yourself not perceiving 
the stick in your own eye? Hypocrite! first extract the stick 
from your own eye, and then you will see clearly to extract 
the speck that is in your brother's eye. "For there is no good 
tree bearing corrupt fruit, nor again a corrupt tre^, bearing 
good fruit. **For every tree is known by its fruit. For men 
ila not gather figs from the acanthuses, nor a cluster of 
grapes from a bramble. "The good man, out of the good 
treasure of his heart, brings forth the good, and the evil out 
of the evil, produces the evil ; for out of the overflow of the 
heart his mouth speaks. 

"*'And why do you call me * Master,' * Master,'* and do not 
what 1 say? *^Every one that comes to me, and hears my 
words, and dpes them, I will show you whom he is like : 
*4ie resembles a man building a house, who digged, and went 
deep, and laid a foundation on the rock, and a flood having 
come, the torrent dashed against that house, but was unable 
to shake it, because it had been well built. *'But he who 
hears and does not, resembles a man who built a house on 
the earth, without a foundation, against which the stream 
dashed, and immediately it collapsed, and the ruin of that 
house was great." 

THE centurion's SLAVE CURED. 

Lnke vii: 1-10. And when he had finished all his words 
in the ears of the people, he entered into Kaphamaum, *and 
a certain centurion's slave who ^was very dear to him 

LUKE vi: 48-49. P^mmwres (flooding), jjroscrezen (collapsing), sunepe- 
sun (bursting of veins), regma (rupture), are all medical terms, exclusively 
used by Luke. 


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was sick, and was about to die ; ^and when he heard of Jesus, 
he sent presbyters of the Jews to him, requesting him to come 
and save his slave. *And having gone to Jesus, they ef^r- 
nestly besought him, saying, "He is worthy for whom you 
should do this, *for he loves our nation, and has built the 
synagogue for us." ®And Jesus went with them, and now 
being not far from the house, the centurion sent friends, say- 
mg to him, "Master, do not trouble yourself, for 1 am im- 
worthy that you should enter under my roof; 'therefore 1 did 
not deem myself worthy to come to you ; but speak a word, 
and my boy shail be healed; *for I am a man appointed under 
authority, having soldiers under me, and I say to this one 
* Go,' and he goes; and to another * Come,' and he comes, 
and to my sl^ve, * Do this,' and he does it." '^And 
when Jesus heard these [words] he wondered at him; 
and turned, and said to the crowd that followed him, "I tell 
you I have not found such great faith, even in Israel." ^^And 
those who had been sent, having returned to the house, found 
the slave well. 

Matthew viil: 5-13. And when he had entered Kaphar- 
naum, a centurion came to him, imploring him, •and saying, 
"My boy lies in the house, a paralytic, greatly distressed." 
'He says to him, ^^ Follow me; I will go cure him." ^Butthe 
centurion answered and said, "Master, I am unworthy for 
you to enter under my roof, but only utter a word, and my 
boy will be cured; *for I am a man appointed imder authority, 
having soldiers under me, and I say to this one * Go,' and 
he goes, and to another *Come;' and he comes, and 
to my slave * Do this,' and he does it." '°And when 
Jesus heard [this] he was astonished, and said to those 
that followed, "Truly I say to you I have found so great 

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faith with no man in Israel, "and I say to you, that many 
will come from the east, and west, and will recline with 
Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the heavenly reign, *^but 
the Hons of the reign shall go out into the outside darkness; 
ther^^willbe the weeping and the gnashing of the teeth." 
"Aiiii Jesus said to the centurion, "Go, let it be done to you 
as you have believed." And the centurion (joing to his house, 
in that same hour, found the slave whole, 


Luke vii: 11-18. And it occurred on the next day that 
he went to the city called Nain, and his disciples; and a 
great crowd went with him. "And as he approached the 
gflt*' of the city, behold one dead was being carried out, [the] 
oaly fc^on of his mother, and she was a wicfow; and a, great 
crowd from the city was with her. "And when the Master 
saw her he had compassion on her, and said to her, "Weep 
not," "And, approaching, he touched the bier, and the 
bearers stood still, and he said, **Yoimg man, I say to you, 
arise J " *®And the dead sat up, and began to speak, and he 
gave Mm to his mother. **And awe seized all, and they 
pmised God, saying, **A great prophet has risen among us;" 
andj **God has visited his people." . "And this report of him 

MAi-r. vlii: 11 ; Luke xill: 28. The "reign of God" Is the sway of Christ, a 
BpiritiiHl realm of truth, and goodness, and consequent happiness. It was "at 
iiftnfl ' when Chrlstlanltv was first announced.— Matt. Hi: 2. It is "not of this 
world. "—John xviii: 36. It came to the people when Jesus spoke (Matt, xii: 
128 K and men pressed into it (Luke xvi: 16). It was taken from the Jews and 
ffivien to the Gentiles (Matt, xxi: 43) and Jesus declared: 

"And many shall come from the east and- the west, and sit down with Abra- 
ham. I?aac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven," but the "children of the 
k1ni:<tcim," the Jews, "shall be cast out into darkness, where there shall be 
w&t^pltiti and gnashing of teeth."— Matt, vlil: 11. 

TlitH was when the Savior's prophecy was fulfilled,- Luke xiii: 34-35,— 
"O Jt'nisalem, Jerusalem, which killest the prophets, and stonest them that 
toQ sea t unto thee ; bow often would I have gathered thy children together, as a 


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fir£ NEWlCOVK^AlitT. 08 

went out into all Judea, and all the adjacent country; "and 
John's disciples told him about all these things. 

John's message to chbist, fbom pbison. 

Matthew xi: 2-6. And when John heard in the prison 
of the works of the Christ, he sent by his disciples, *and 
said to him, **Are you the Coming One, or may we expect a 
different one?" *And Jesus answered and said to them, 
**Go, relate to John what you hear and see; "[the] blind re- 
ceive their sight, and [the] lame walk, lepers are cleansed, 
and [the] deaf hear, and [the] dead are raised, and good 
news is addressed to [the] poor, *and happy is he who shall 
not be offended in me." 

Luke vii: 19-33. And having called certain two of his 
disciples, John sent them to the Master, saying, "Are you 
the Coming One, or are we to expect a different one? " ^And 
when the men came to him, they said, ** John the Immerser 
sent us to you, saying, *Are you the Coming One, or are we 

hJen doth gather her brood under her wings, and ye would not! Behold, your 
house is left unto you desolate." 

But this was not to be final, for he adds : "Verily I say unto you, ye shall 
not see me until the time shall come when ye shall say, Blessed is he th^,t 
cometh in the name of the Lord. " 

Dr. Whitby gives the correct view when he says : "To lie down with Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven, doth not signify to enjoy ever- 
lasting liappiness in heaven with them, but only to become the sons of Abra- 
ham through faith (Gal. lit : 7), and so to be blessed with faithful Abraham 
coming on them, that they may receive the promise of the spirit (verse 14), 
through faith in Christ to be the seed of Abraham and heirs, according to the 
promise (verse 29), viz.: the promise made to Abraham (Gten. xii: 3), re- 
newed to Isaac (Gen. xxvl: 4), and confirmed to Jacob (Gen. xxviii: 14), and 
to be, according to Isaac, the children of promise." (Gal. iv : 28.) 

The gnashing of teeth denotes the vexation and wrath of the spiritually 
proud Jews, when they should find themselves outside the kingdom, while 
the Gentiles they had so despised, were within. The parable of the rich man 
and Lazarus (Luke xvi:) pictures the two classes, and exhibits the wide con- 

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94 y^^ ^^^ COVENANT. 

to expect a different one? ' "In that hour he cured many of 
diseases, and scourges, and evil spirits, and gave sight to 
many hhnd. ^And he answered, and said to them, **Go, 
and relate to John what you have seen and heard; [the] 
blind see, [the] lame walk, [the] lepers are cleansed, and [the] 
deaf hear, [the] dead are raised, and [the] poor are addressed 
with [the] good news; ''and happy is he who shall not be of- 
fended in me." 


Matthew xi: 7-24. And as these departed, Jesus began 
to say to the crowds concerning John, "What went you out 
into the desert to see? A reed shaken by the wind? ^But 
why went you out? To see a man clothed in soft [garments] ? 
Behold, those wearing soft garments are in kings' houses. 
'But why went you out? To see a prophet? I say to you, 
yes, and much more than a prophet. *^This is [he] concern- 
ing whom it is written : 

** *Behold, I send my messenger before thy face. 

Who shall prepare thy way before thee.' 

""Truly I say to you, there has not risen among the offspring 
of women a greater than John the Immerser; yet the 
least in the heavenly reign is greater than he. "And 
from the days of John the Immerser till now, the heavenly 
reign has been invaded, and the invaders seize it. "For all 
the prophets and the law prophesied till John. **And if you 
are willing. to receive [it], this is the Elijah about to come. 
"He who has ears, let him hear. "But to what shall I com- 
pare this generation? It resembles boys sitting in markets, 
and calling to others, saying: *^*We have played on the flute 
to you, and you have not danced; we have sung a lament, 
but you have not beat the breast.* "For John came neither 

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eating nor drinking, and they say, * He has a demon;' "the 
Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, * Be- 
hold a gluttonous man, and a wine-drinker, a lover of tax- 
collectors, and sinners;' but Wisdom was justified by her 
works. " 

'^Then he began to reprodch the cities in which most of his 
powers were wrought, because they did not reform. ""Alas 
for you, ChorazinI alas for you, Bethsaidal for if the powers 
wrought in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they 
would long ago have reformed, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 
^'But I say to you. It will be more endurable for Tyre and 
Sidon, in a day of judgment, than for you. "And you, Ka- 
pharnaum, shall you be exalted to heaven? You shall be 

Matt, xi: 23; Luke x: 15. "Exalted to heaven; brought down to Hades." 
Of course, a city never went to a place of torment after death. The word is 
used here just as in Isa. xlv:, where Babylon Is said to be brought down to 
Sheol or Hades, to denote debasement, overthrow, a prediction fulfilled to the 
letter. Dr. Clarke's interpretation is correct: "The word here means a state 
of the utmost woe, and ruin, and desolation, to which these impenitent cities 
should be reduced; for, in the wars between the Romans and the Jews, these 
cities were totally destroyed; so that no traces are now found of Bethsaida, 
Chorazin or Cai)emaum." He observes : "The day of judgment of Sodom and 
Gomorrah was the time in which the Lord destroyed them by fire and brim- 
stone, out of heaven." In a day of judgment, en hemera kriseos a day of trial. 

Hammond : "I assure you, the punishment or destruction* that will light 
upon them will be such, that the destruction of Sodom shaU appear to have 
been more tolerable than that." 

Wakefield : "In the day of vengeance, punishment or trial. This is un- 
doubtedly the genuine sense of the phrase, which has not the least reference 
to the day of general judgment. All that our Savior intends to say is, that 
when the temporal calamities of that place come upon it, they will be even 
worse than those of Sodom and Gomorrah. See this phrase employed in pre- 
cisely the same meaning by the LXX., in Prov. vi: 34." Hades is found in the 
N. T. ten times: Matt, xi: 23, xvi: 18; Luke x: 15, xvi: 23; Acts ii: 27, 31 ; 
Rev. i: 18, vi:8; xx:13,14. 

"As to the word Hades, which occurs in [ten] places in the New Testament, 
and is rendered hellin all, except one, [all] where it is translated grave, it is quite 
common in classical authors, and frequently used by the Seventy in the trans- 
lation of the Old Testament. In my judgment, it ought never in Scripture 
to be rendered hell, at least in the sense wherein that word is universally un- 
derstood by Christians. In the Old Testament, the corresponding word is 

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broughti aown to Hades, for if the powers which are being 
wrought in you had been wrought in Sodom, it had remained 
till this day. ^*But I say to you, that it will be more endur- 
able in the land of Sodom in a day of judgment, than for 

Luke yii: 24-35. And when John's messengers had 
departed, he began to say to the crowds concerning John, 
"What did you go out into the desert to see? A reed shaken 
by wind? *^But what did you go out to see? A man clothed 
in soft garments? Behold, those in soft clothing, and 
Hving in luxury, are in kings' palaces. "But what did you 
go out to see? A prophet? Yes, I say to you, and much 
more than a prophet. ^^This is he concerning whom it is 
writtep : 

" *Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, 

Who shall prepare thy way before thee.' 

^®"I say to you, there is none greater than John, among the 
offspring of women; but the least in the reign of God is 
greater than he. " "And all the people, and the tax-collectors, 
when they heard, justified God, having been immersed with 

Slieol, which signifies the state of the dead in general, without regard to the 
goodness or badness of the persons, their happiness or misery. In translatina: 
that word, the Seventy have almost invariably used Hades. This word is also 
used sometimes In rendering the nearly synonymous words or phrases, bor 
and ahne hor^ the pit, and stones of the pit; tsal moth^ the shades of 
death; duineh, silence. The state is always represented under those figures 
wliich suggest something dreadful, dark, and silent, about which the most 
prying eye and listening ear can acquire no information. The term Hades is 
well adapted to express this idea. To this the word helU ia its primitive sig- 
nification, perfectly corresponded. For, at first, it denoted only what was secret 
or concealed. This word is found, with little variation of form, and precisely 
in the same meaning, in all the Teutonic dialects.** — (Jamphell. 

Luke yii : 24. The word rendered "messengers" in this instance, is the same 
that is elsewhere rendered anarels (angelon). It does not seem euphonic to 
translate it uniformly, and I have therefore sometimes rendered it by one, and 
sometimes by the other word. 

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the immersion of John. ^But the Pharisees and the lawyers 
rejected for themselves the purpose of God, not having been 
immersed by him. 

"[He said], «*To what then shall I compare the men of this 
generation? And what are they Hke? "They resemble 
children that sit in a market, and call to each other, saying, 
*We have played on the flute for you, and you have not 
danced; we have mourned, and you have not wept.' "'For 
John the Immerser has come, neither eating bread, nor drink- 
ing wine, and you say *He has a demon.' "^The Son of Man 
comes eating and drinking, and you say, * Behold a glut- 
tonous man, and a wine-drinker, a lover of tax-collectors and 
sinners. *And Wisdom was justified by all her works" 


Lnke vii: 36-60. And one of the Pharisees asked him 
to eat with him. And he entered the Pharisee's house and 
reclined at the table. ^And behold [there was] a woman 
who was in the city, a sinner, and when she knew that he 
reclined in the house of the Pharisee, she brought an alabas- 
ter flask of ointment, '"and standing at his feet, behind [him], 
weeping, she began to wet his feet with tears, and wiped 
them with the hair of her head, and tenderly kissed his feet, 
and anointed them with the ointment. "'But the Pharisee 
who had invited him, observed this, and spoke within him- 
self, saying: **Thi8 man would have known, if he were the 

Luke vii* 35. The Sinaitio says "works," instead of "children," thus agree- 
ing with Matthew's account. 

Luke vii : 36-50. This flask was a long narrow -necked bottle, sealed. In 
her devotedness she broke it, and lavished the precious contents on the object 
of her adoration. 

Luke vii : 38. This woman was "a sinner," probably only as she was a Gen- 
tile. As Jesus reclined at table, on the couch, his feet were easily reached, as 
ene came behind him. 


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prophet, who and what the woman is, who touches him, 
that she is a sinner." *®And Jesus answered and said to him, 
" Simon, I have something to say to you. " And he says, "Teach- 
er, say it." **"A certain creditor had two dehtors; one owed 
five hundred denaries, and the other fifty. ^'^They not hav- 
ing [wherewith^ to pay, he forgave both; which gf them, 
therefore will love him more? ** **Simon answered and said, 
**I suppose that [one] to whom he forgave more." And he 
said to him, "You have judged correctly." **And turning to 
the woman, he said to Simon, **Do you see this woman? I 
came into your house; you gave me no water for my feet; 
but she has wetted my feet with her tears, and wiped them 
with her hair. *®You gave me no kiss, but since I came in 
she has not ceased from tenderly kissing my feet. *®You 
did not anoint my head with oil; but she has anointed my 
feet with ointment. ^'Therefore, I say to you, *Her many 
sins are forgiven,' because she loved much; but he loves 
Httle to whom Httle is forgiven." **And he said to her, 
"Your sins are forgiven." *^And those reclining at the table . 
began to say among themselves, "Who is this that even for- 
gives sins? " ^And he said to the woman, " Your faith has 
saved you; go in peace." 


Matthew xi : 25-30. At that time Jesus answered and said, 
"I praise thee, Father, Lord of the heavens and the earth, 
because thou hast concealed these things from the wise and 
sagaoious, and hast revealed them to babes. ^®Yes, Father, 
for that was well pleasing in thy sight. ^AU things have 

LuKEvli:41. "500 denaries." This amount was about $70.00. Yitty de- 
riariesy $7.00. 

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been given to me of the Father; and no one knows the son, 
except the Father; neither knows any one the Father, except 
the son, and he to whom the son is wiUing to reveal [him]. 
"Come to me, all toiling and heavy-burdened ones, and I will 
give you rest. •'Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me, 
for I am meek and lowly in heart, and you shall find rest to 
your lives. **For my yoke is easy and my burden light." 


Lnke viii: 1-3. Audit soon afterwards occurred, that 
he traveled through every city and village, pubhshing and 
proclaiming the good news of the reign of God, and the 
twelve with him, 'and certain women who had been healed 
from evil spirits and infirmities — Mary, called the Magdalene, 
from whom seven demons had gone out, ''and Joanna, the 
wife of Chuza, Herod's steward, and Susanna, and many 
others, who ministered to them from their possessions. 


Matthew xii: 22-46. Then they brought a demoniac to 
him, bhnd and mute, and he healed him, so that the mute 
spoke, and saw. *^And all the crowds were amazed, and said, 
**Can this be David's son ?" "And when the Pharisees heard 

LUKB vlil: 2. "The Magdalene.** Few are the passages of the N. T. that 
have been more misconstrued than those relating to Mary of Magdala. Ren- 
dered Magdalene, she has been represented to have been of abandoned charac- 
ter, before conversion, and this misrepresentation of her has even been per- 
petuated In Institutions for fallen women. There is no proof that she was 
other than a saintly woman from Magdala. "Mary appears to have belonged to 
the village of Magdala, or Migdola (the Tower), about three miles north of 
Tiberias, on the water's edge, at the south-east comer of the plain of Genes- 
areth. It is now represented by the few wretched hovels which form the 
Mohammedan village of El-Mejdel, with a solitary thorn- bush beside It, as the 
last trace of the rich groves and orchards, amidst which It was. doubtless, em- 
bowered In the days of our 'liOr6^.''—Geikie. 

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it, they said, "This man could not exorcise demons except 
by Beelzebul, ruler of the demons." **And he, knowing their 
thoughts, said to them: "Every kingdom divided against 
itself is desolated; and every city or house divided against 
itself will not stand ; "and if the adversary exorcises the ad- 
versary, he is at variance with himself; how, then, will his 
kingdom stand? "And if I exorcise the demons by Beelzebul, 
through whom do your sons exorcise them? Therefore they 
shall be your judges. *®But if, by the spirit of God, I exor- 
cise the demons, then has God's reign come among you. **0r 
how can any one enter the house of the strong [one] and plun- 
der his goods, unless he first bind the strong [one], and then 
he will plunder his house. ^He is against me who is not 
with me ; and he who does not gather with me, scatters me 
abroad. "Therefore, I say to you. All sin, and blasphemy 

Matt, xii : 31, 33 ; Mabk ill : 28-30 ; Luke xll : 10. The sin against the Holy 
Spirit. This sin consisted in attributing the works of Jesus to an unclean 
spirit, or Beelzebul. It has been supposed that It Is an unpardonable sin, 
but a careful consideration of the language will show that such an opinion is 

If we take the language literally, we must hold that all other sinners, of 
every character and kind, will be saved, because just as positively as the Script- 
ure declares that these blasphemers shall never be forgiven, it declares that 
all others literally and absolutely shall be forgiven. "Verily I say unto you 
all sins shallbe forgiven unto the sons of men, and blasphemies wherewith 
soever they shall blaspheme." The sin against the Holy Spirit is the only 
sin that shall not be pardoned. All other sinners, thieves, liars, murderers, 
aU except that very small number that accused Jesus of receiving diabolical 
help, shall be forgiven. Does not this show that the terms of the passage are 
not to be taken literally? Does it not appear that men must either believe 
that all kinds of shiners, and all of them, except this smaU number, must be 
pardoned, or else that the rest of the language is not to be taken literally? 

If the "shall- and "shall not" are to be understood literally, then the number 
of the damned is entirely limited to the very few who actually saw Christ's 
miracle«<, and ascribed them to Beelzebul. No one since, and no one hereafter 
can be damned, for all other sin but that shall be forgiven. This saves all man- 
kind except those few persons who said, "He [Christ] hath an unclean spirit." 
This reduces hell to a mere mote in the universe, and excludes all now living, 
or who hereafter shall live, from any exposure to it. 

What does the language mean? Campbell says this is "a noted Hebratsm;" 

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shall be forgiven to men, but the blasphemy of tiie Spirit 
shall not be forgiven. ^And whoever may speak a word 

that is, a term of speech common among the Jews, to teaoh that one event is 
more likely to occur than another, and not that either shall or shall not occur. 

Dr. Newcomesays: "Itis a common figure of speech in the oriental lan- 
guages, to say of two things that the one shall be and the other shall not be, 
when the meaning is that the one shall happen sooner, or more easily, than the 

Grotius and Bishop Newton are to the same purport. For illustration, when 
Jesus says, "Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass 
away,** he does not mean that heaven and earth shall actually pass away, but 
that they will sooner fail than his words. It is a strong method of asserting 
that his words shall be fulfilled. This is common in the Bible. 

Matt, vi: 19-20: "Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where 
moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal; but 
lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth 
corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal. " Luke xi v : 1 2-1 3 : 
"Then said he also to him that bade him. When thou makest a dinner or a sup- 
per, call not thy friends, nor thy brethren, neither thy kinsmen, nor thy rich 
neighbors ; lest they also bid thee again, and a recompense be made thee. But 
when thou makest a feast, call the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind." 
John vi : 27 : "Labor not for the meat that perisheth, but for that meat which 
endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of Man shall give unto you; for 
him hath God the Father sealed." 

The plain meaning is, all other sins are more easily forgiven than this. The 
words "never," "neither in this aeon nor the aeon to come," do not change the 
sense, but only strengthen and intensify the Savior's meaning that this is of 
all sins the worst. 

The popular impression that "the aeon to come" here means the life after 
death is an error. 

Dr. Clarke well observes: "Though I follow the common translation, yet I 
am fully satisfied the meaning of the words is, neither in this dispensation, 
viz. : the Jewish, nor In that which Is to come. Olmn. ha- ho, the world to 
come, is a constant phrase for the times of the Messiah, in the Jewish writers. " 

And it should be added that the word "never" Is no part of the original 
Greek. The exact English is "not," instead of "never," That is, not under 
either dispensation, or age, will this inexcusable sin be less than the greatest 
of transgressions. 

Clarke says: "Any penitent may find mercy through Christ Jesus; for 
through him any kind of sin may be forgiven to man, except the sin against 
the Holy Ghost, which I have proved no man can now commit." 

These are all "Orthodox" commentators, whose opinions were certainly not 
formed by prejudice in favor of our views of the passages in question. They 
agree with what seems the meaning of the Savior, that this sin is of all others 
most inexcusable. But that any sin is literally unpardonable, by a God and 
Father of infinite love and mercy, is nowhere expressed or implied in the Bible. 

Oilpin, an approved commentator, to the same point: "Nobody can sup- 

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against the Son of Man, it shall be forgiven him; but whoever 
may speak against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, 

pose, considering the whole tenor of Christianity, that there can be any sin 
which on repentance may not bo forgiven. This, therefore, seems only a 
strong way of expressing the difficulty of such repentance, and the impossi- 
bility of forgiveness without it. Such an expression occurs (Matt, xix: 24), 
* It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man 
to enter the kingdom of heaven ; ' that is, it is very difficult. That the Pharisees 
were not beyond the reach of forgiveness, on their repentance, seems to be 
plain from ver. 41, where the repentance of Nineveh is held out to them for an 

Bishop Pearce, of the Church of England, the intimate friend of Sir Isaac 
Newton, and one of the fltst scholars of his age, gives the following explana- 
tion of this passage: "NeWier in this world nor in the world to come,:— 
rather, neither in this dgeuox in the age to come; i. e., neither in this age 
when the law of Moses subsists, nor in tliat also when the kingdom of heaven, 
which is at hand, shall succeed to it. This is a strong way of expressing how 
difficult a thing it was for such a sinner to obtain pardon. " He annexes to this 
comment the following long note : "The word aion seems to signify a^e here 
as it of ten does in the New Testament (see chap, xiii: 40, and xxiv: 3, Col. 
1: 20, and Eph. iii: 5, 21), and according to its most proi^er signification. 
If this be so, then this age means the Jewish one, the age while their law sub- 
sisted and was in force; and the age to come (see Heb. vi: 5, and Eph. ii: 7) 
means that under the Christian dispensation. Under the Jewish law, there 
was no forgiveness for wilful and presumptuous sins : concerning them it is 
said in Numb, xv: 30-31, The soul lohich doeth aught presnmpttiously^ the 
same reproacheth the Lord; and that soul shall be cut off from, among his 
people, because he hath despised the word of the Lord, and hath broken his 
commandments. See to the same purpose. Numb. xxxv. 31, and Lev. xx: 10, 
and 1 Sam. ii: 25. With regard to the seculumfuturnm, the age to come, or 
the Christian dispensation, no forgiveness could be expected for such sinners 
as these Pharisees were ; because, when they blasphemed the Holy Spirit of 
God, by which Jesus wrought his miracles, they rejected the only means of 
forgiveness, which was the merit of his death applied to men by faith, and 
which under Christianity was the only sacrifice which could atone for such a 
sin: in this sense (as things then stood with them) their sin was an unpardon- 
able one. But, then, it is not to bo concluded from thence, that, if they repented 
of this blasphemy, they could not obtain forgiveness. The observation of 
Athanasius (vol. i: p. 237, ed. Col.) is very material. He says, "Christ does 
not say, To him that blasphometh and repenteth; but. To him th^it blaspfte- 
nieth; and therefore he means, to him that coutinueth in his blasphemy; for 
with God there is no sin that is unpardonable." And the truth of this obser- 
vation will appear from the following instances : Jesus said, in Matt, x : 33, 
Whosoever shall deny we before wen, him will I deny before wy Father; 
where the threatening is as strong as this in the case of blasphemy against the 
Holy Ghost : and yet, when Peter shortly afterwards denied Jesus before i 

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neither in this 8Bon, nor in that about to come. **Either make 
the tree good, and its fruit good; or make the tree corrupt 

three times, joining other curses with his denials, yet upon his repenting and 
weeping bitterly, he was not only forgiven, but continued in his apostleship. 
Again, when Jesus was on the cross, some of the rulers denied him, saying^ 
He saved others: let him save himself if he be Christ, the chosen of God, 
(Luke xxlii: 35). By which word it appears that they acknowledged Jesus to 
have wrought miracles, and yet rejected him, denying that he wrought them 
by the Holy Spirit of God: and yet Jesus prayed to his Father that they might 
be forgiven. (Luke xxiU: 31.) To this may be added, that in this chapter, 
verses 38, 39, 40, these Pharisees who had blasphemed against the Holy 
Ghost, asked for a sign, and our Savior gave one to them, viz. : the sign of the 
prophet Jonas : and what could this sign be given for, unless for their convic- 
tion, and for disposing them to repent, and in consequence of this, to be for- 
given? From all which it may, I think, be concluded, that to speak against 
the Holy Ghost, as those Pharisees did, was not, therefore, to be forgiven in 
that age, or in the age to come, because no means of obtaining forgiveness for 
it was to be found either in the Jewish law, or under the Christian dispensa- 
tion; but that, however, upon their repentance, they might be forgiven and 
admitted to the divine tavor."— Commentary on the Four Gospels, in loco. 

Dr. Hammond, another divine of the English Church, and one of the best 
reputed of the old commentators, thus paraphrases the text : "For this speech 
of yours (that I work by Beelzebub) let me tell you, Pharisees (v: 24), that this 
malicious resisting and holding out against the invisible work of God, and de- 
spising the miracles that I have wrought by the spirit and power of God 
(v: 2S), is such a crime, of so deep a dye, that it shall to them that continue 
In it, be irremlssible. Whosoever shall say this against the Son of Man, that 
is, shall not receive me as I am, the Son of Man, or before I am sufficiently 
manifested by the spirit or finger of God to be the Msssias, he may by want of 
light or manifestation, be excusable, and by a general repentance of all his 
sins of Ignorance, may receive pardon. But he that shall resist the spirit of 
God, manifestly shining in these miracles wrought by Christ, to the astonish- 
ment and conviction of all but Pharisees (v: 23), and shall impute those mira- 
cles to the devil, which, by what hath been said sufficiently appears to be 
the works of God's own power, if he repent not particularlv of this, and come 
inand acknowledge Christ, thus revealed and manifested to him, there is no 
pardon or mercy to be had for him, neither in this age, nor at the coming of the 
Messias (by them supposed yet future) ; or, neither in this life where he shall 
be punished with spiritual death, God's withdrawing of gra<5e, nor in the other, 
where eternal death expects him.."— Commentary on the New Testameyit. 
The Doctor translates the phrase, "neither in this world nor in the world to 
come," as follows; "Neither in this age, nor in that to come." He likewise 
adds a long note to prove the propriety of the foregoing paraphrase, and to 
show that according to the tenor of the whole New Testament there is no sin 
whatever that may not be repented of, and then forgiven. See his note. 

The celebrated Dr. Campbell here translates the phrase this irorld Siua the 
world to come, by the terms this state and the future; and says, in a note on 

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and its fruit corrupt, for the tree is known by the fruit. 
'"Broods of vipers 1 how can you, being evil, speak good? for 

the passage, that it is uncertain whether by these two states are here meant 
the Jewish dispensation and the Christian, or the present life and the life to 
come. Four Gospels. lYansluiion and Note in loco. 

It is not always noticed that "this age [aeon],** and "the coming age [seon]," are 
constant discriminations in the N. T. ThissBon, or age, is filled with anxiety 
(Mark iv: 19), has good and bad (Matt, xiii: 24, 30, 36, 43), with persecutions 
Mark x : 30), will crucify the Lord (1 Cor. ii : 8), will end (Matt, xiii : 39, 40, 49 ; 
Matt, xxiv: 3, xxviii: 20). The coming age wiU see the Lord's glory (Tit. ii: 
13; 1 Cor. xv: 23), the resurrection from the dead (Luke xx: 35), the age-long 
life (Mark x: 30), Luke xvlii: 30), and the appearance of the righteous in the 
kingdom (Matt, xxv : 36-1:3). The conjunction of the ages (Heb. ix : 26), ends 
of the ages (1 Cor. x : 11). Dr. J. H. Morison remarks in his commentary: 

" 'In this world, neither in the world to come.' The word {(eo7i) can be ren- 
dered by no corresponding word in our language. It means a period of time, 
an age, or a dispensation. In 2 Tim. i: 9 we read, * before the times of the 
ages, (Bons.* In 1 Cor. ii: 7 we read of the wisdom 'which God ordained to our 
glory before the aeons', ages, or dispensations. These passages imply in the 
past a succession of aeons, ages, or dlsi)ensations. Jesus speaks more than once 
(Matt, xiii: 39, 40, 49) of 'the end of the aeon, 'or the winding up or consum- 
mation of the aeon, the age, or dispensation then existing. In Heb. ix: 26, we 
read, ' in the consummation of the ages.' As the word aeon, in its applica- 
tion to the past and present condition of things implies only a limited dura- 
tion of time, the natural inference is that in its application to the future con- 
dition of things, it does not necessarily involve the idea of endless duration. 
As the word is applied to the past in the plural number, and thus denotes a 
succession of aeons in the past, so when applied to the future in the plural 
number (Eph. ii: 7, 'in the aeons, or ages which are to come '), it in like man- 
ner denotes a succession of aeons. These aeons thus extend from the past into 
the future, each one at its completion giving way to that which is to succeed, 
and each, whether in the past or the future, being only one in the succession 
tif ages. When, therefore, we read in the passage before us of a sin which shall 
l>e forgiven neither in this aeon, nor the aeon to come, we find in the language 
nothing that necessarily involves the idea of eternity, since the age to come 
may, like each of those which have gone before, at length fulfil its purpose and 
srlve place to a yet higher dispensation beyond." 

Never forgiveness^etei^nal damnation. These phrases do not occur in 
Matthew, and deserve notice. (1.) If, by never forgiveness, it be denoted, 
Htrictly speaking, that the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall never be 
forgiven, then there is a direct contradiction between this verse and vet 28 ; 
fur there it is positively asserted, without any limitation or exception, that, 
'Mil sins shaU be forgiven unto the sons of men, and blasphemies wherewith 
i^ot'ver they shall blaspheme." See note on Matt, xii: 31-32. (2.) The phrase 
translated never forgiveness is equivalent to the declaration of Matthew, that 
the sin in question shall not be forgiven, "neither in this world, neither in the 
world to come" (Matt, xii : 32), which language is explained in the note on tl|at 

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the mouth speaks out of the overflow of the heart. **The 
good man brings forth the good things out of the good treas- 
ure, and the evil man brings forth the evil, out of tiie evil 
treasure. *But I say to you that every idle word that men 
may utter, they shall render an account concerning it, in 
a day of trial. Tor by your words you shall be acquitted, 
and by your words you shall be condemned." 

^Then certain of the scribes and Pharisees answered him, 
saying, "Teacher, we desire to behold a sign from you." 
*But he answered, and said t/> them, "An evil and adulterous 
generation demands a sign, and a sign shall not be given to 

passage. The only difference is in the translation, which does not properly 
express the similarity of the two passages in the original. A literal translation 
would be, "hath not forgiveness to the age;" eis ton aidna, and the sense in 
which this age should be understood, is illustrated by Pearce and others, 
quoted under Matt, xii : 31-32. The remarks on that passage may suffice also 
for this. And the same remarks, substantially, apply to the phrase eternal 
damnation^ or rather "eternal puiiishment," as Campbell translates it. For 
the word rendered eternal is aionion^ an adjective derived from the noun 
used in the former phrase, and of stmUar signification. It indicates an in- 
definite period, and might properly be translated age-lasting. It is applied 
to subjects which are strictly endless, and also to those which are not. Its ap- 
plication, therefore, does not determine the precise duration. The adjective 
and the noun from which it is derived, "being ambiguous, are always to be 
understood according to the nature and circumstances of the things which 
they are applied to."— Mac knight. See p. 107. 

Matt, xii: 36. This language in E. V. reads the day of judgment, but the 
article is not in the original. It is "a day of trial" or judgment. Which is to 
say, that men are known by their language, they are judged and gauged by 
their words; when any trial comes, their words decide their character, for the 
mouth speaks out of the heart's contents. But if every act, and word, and 
thought, whether good or evil, is judged, and so punished or rewarded, it is 
plain enough that judgment must foUow hand in hand with conduct, and can- 
not be deferred. And it is plain enough that the endless future cannot be de- 
termined by the last hours of life. The Biblical language of a throne and a 
day of judgment are figurative descriptions of the unfailing decisions of the 
great judge who "every morning doth bring his judgment to light" (Zeph. iii: 
5) ; and who never fails to bring upon each one for his good, just what he de- 
serves; so that God's judgments "are more to be desired than fine gold, and 
are sweeter to the taste than honey and the honey-comb," to all who perceive 
their beneficent purpose. 

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it, except the sign of Jonah the prophet; *®for just as Jonah 
was in the sea-monster's belly three days and three nights, so 
will the Son of Man be in the earth's heart three days and 
three nights. "Men of Nineveh shall stand up in the judg- 
ment , against the men of this generation, and condemn it; 
for they reformed at the preaching of Jonah, and behold a 
greater than Jonah is here. *"A southern queen shall rise up 
in the judgment against this generation, and shall condemn 
it, for she came from the ends of the earth, to hear Solomon's 
wisdom, and behold a greater than Solomon is here. *^But 
when the unclean spirit has gone out from the man, it roves 
through arid places, seeking a resting place, and finds it not. 
"Then it says, * I will return into my house whence I came;' 
and when it comes, it finds it empty, swept, and set in order. 
**It then goes, and takes with itself seven other spirits, more 
evil than itself, and they entei:, and dwell there, and the last 
of that man is worse than the fii:st. Thus will it also be 
with this evil generation." 

Mark lii: 19-30. And he went into a house, *^and again 
a crowd assembled, so that they could not even eat bread. 
^^And when his friends heard it, they went out to restrain 
him, for they said, "He is beside himself." ''^And the scribes, 
those that came down from Jerusalem, said, "He has Beel- 
zebid," and, "He exorcises the demons by the ruler of the 
demons." ^^And he called them to him, and said to them, 
n\ parables, "How can the adversary exorcise the adversary? 
^''And if a kingdom be divided against itself, that kingdom 
cannot stand. ^And if a house be divided against itself, that 
house cannot stand. ^'And if the adversary has risen against 
liimself, and is divided, he cannot stand, but has an end. 
■"^But no man can enter the strong [man's] house, to plunder 
his furniture, if he does not first bind the strong [man], and 


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then he may plunder his house. "Truly I say to you that all 
their sins shall be forgiven to the sons of men, and their blas- 
phemies with which they blaspheme. '•But whoever may 
blaspheme against the Holy Spirit, has not forgiveness to the 
aeon, but is guilty of an aBonian transgression;'* — '"because 
they said, "He has an unclean spirit." 

Lake xi: 14-36. And he was exorcising a mute demon, and 
it occurred, when the demon had departed, [that] the mute 
spoke, and the crowds wondered. ^*But some of them said, 
"He exorcises demons through Beelzebul, the prince of the 
demons." He answer.ed and said, "How can the adversa)^ ex- 
orcise the adversary / " ^®But others, trying [him] , sought of 
him a sign from heaven. "But he, knowing their thoughts, 
said to them, "Every kingdom divided against itself is brought 
to desolation; and a house [divided] against a house, falls. 
**And if, also, the adversary is divided against himself, how 
shall his kingdom stand? Why do you say that I exorcise 
demons through Beelzebul? '''For if I, through Beelzebul 
exorcise demons, by whom do your sons exorcise them? 
Therefore they shall be your judges. -"^But if I exorcise the 
demons by God's j&nger, then the reign of God has come 
to you. "When the armed strong [one] guards his palace. 

Mabk iii: 28-29. See Matt, xxi: 31-33. Of the word rendered damna- 
tion in E. v., it is sufficient to say, it is the same which occurs in 
John iU: 19, v: 22-30, vii: 24, viii: 16, xii: 31; Acts viii: 33; 1 Tim. 
v: 24; in all of which places it is rendered jndginenty except the first, 
where it is condeniuntlon in E. V. It occurs also in 2 Pet. ii: 11, and is trans- 
lated accusation. By an examination of the places referred to, it will evi- 
dently appear that this word, though the translation here be so terrific to 
many, has no necessary connection with a state of misery perpetual in dura- 

V. reads "transgression," or "sin." Griesbach gives aniarteinatos ("sin"), as 
the reading preferred by the best critics. The Vulgate, Coptic, Armenian 
and Gothic, and a large number of codices, coincide. See p. 105. 

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his possessions are in peace. "But as soon as one stronger 
than he shall come upon him, and overcome him, he takes 
away the weapons in which he confided, and distributes his 
spoils. ^He who is not with me, is against me, and he who 
gathers not with me, scatters me. "When the unclean spirit 
has come out of the man, it roams through arid places, seek- 
ing a resting place, and not finding [it] . Then it says, * I 
will return into my house, whence I came out.* "^And com- 
ing, it finds it empty, swept, and garnished. *Then it goes, 
and takes Seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they 
enter, and dwell there ; and the last of that man is worse 
than the first. 

^'And it occurred, while he was saying these things, a 
certain woman from the crowd lifted her voice, and said to 
him, "Happy the womb that carried you, and the breasts 
that you have sucked. " ^But he said, "Yes ; but happier 
they who hear and observe the word of God." 

*^And when the crowds gathered about him, he began to 
say, "This generation is an evil generation; it demands a 
sign, but no sign shall be given it, except the sign of Jonah. 
^As Jonah became a sign to the Ninevites, so, also, will the 
Son of Man be to this generation. ^^A southern queen will 
rise in the judgment with the men of this generation, and 
will condemn them ; because she came from the extremities 
of the earth, to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and behold 
here, a superior to Solomon. ^Men of Nineveh will stand 
up in the judgment with this generation, and will condemn 
it, because they reformed at the preaching of Jonah, and be- 

LUKB xl: 31. The men of Nineveh were less sinful than the Jews, and the 
Jews should therefore expect a severer punishment than that experienced by 
the Ninevites. So the queen of the south was more to be praised than those 
to whom Jesus spoke, for she regarded Solomon, while they disregarded a* 
greater than Solomon. (See Matt, xl: 22). 

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THE imw COVENANT. 109 

hold, here, a superior to Jonah. ''And no one,having Ugh ted 
a lamp, sets it in a secret place, neither under a modi- 
us, but on the candelabrum, that those who enter may 
seethe Hght. "The lamp of the body is your eye; when 
your eye is sound, your whole body is enHghtened, but when 
it is evil, your whole body, also, is darkened. **Take care, 
then, that the Hght that is in you is not darkness. ^'If, there- 
fore, your whole body is illuminated, having no part dark, 
the whole wiU be_ illumined, as when the lamp, by its 
brightness, illuminates you." 


Matt, xii: 46-50. While he was yet talking to the crowds, 
behold, his mother and his brothers stood outside, seeking to 
speak to him. * * * * *®But he answered and said to 
him who informed him, "Who is my mother, and who are 
my brothers? " "And he extended his hand toward his dis- 
ciples, and said, "Behold my mother and my brothers; 
•^for whoever shall do the will of my heavenly Father, he is 
my brother, and sister, and mother." 

Mark iil: 31-35. And his mother and his brothers 
came, and standing outside, they sent to him, calling him. 
"And a crowd sat about him, and they say to him, "Behold, 
your mother, and your brothers, and your sisters are outside, 
seeking you." ^And he answered them, and said, "Who 
are my mother and brothers? " "And looking about on those 
sitting in a circle around liim, he said, **Behold my mother 
and my brothers. ^Whoever shall do the will of God, these 
are my brother, and sister, and mother." 

Luke viii: 19-21. Then his mother and brothers came 
towards him, and could not get near him on account of the 
crowd. ^''And it was told him, "Your mother and your 

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brothers stand outside, desiring to see you." **But he answered 
and said to them, ***My mother and my brothers are those 
who hear and obey God's word." 


Luke xi: 37-54. And while he was speaking a Pharisee 
incited him to dine with him, and he entered and recHned at 
table. ^And when the Pharisee saw it he wondered, because 
he had not first immersed himself before the dinner. ^And 
tho Master said to him, **Now you Pharisees cleanse the 
oiitaide of the cup, and of the platter, but within you are full 
ofe^Ltortion and wickedness. *°0 unwise! Did not he who 
made the exterior also make the interior? "But give, in 
eliarity, the interior things, and behold, all things are clean 
to you. "But alas, for you, Pharisees I because you tithe 
mint, and rue, and every garden herb, but neglect the judg^ 
meat, and the love of God ; you should have done these, and 
not have omitted those. *^Alas, for you, Pharisees ! because 
you love the first seat in the synagogues, and salutations in 
the markets. Alas for you, because you are like those unseen 
tombs, over which men unconsciously walk. " * * 

And one of the doctors of the law answered and said to 
him, "Teacher, in saying this, you reproach us also." *®And 
he said, "Alas, also, for you lawyers, for you impose op- 
pressive burdens on men, and you will not touch the burdens 
with one of your fingers. *'Alas for you, for you build the tombs 
of the prophets, and your fathers killed them. *®Thus you are 
witnesses and consent to the deeds of your fathers, for they 
killed them and you build [their tombs]. *'And because of this 
the wisdom of God said: * I will send prophets and apostles 
to them, and [some] of them they will kill, and persecute, 
"^so that the blood of all the prophets shed from thefoundatioD 


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TffS ^EW COtmAtfT. Ill 

of the world, shall be required from this generation, "from 
the blood of Abel, to the blood of Zachariah, who perished 
between the altar and the house/ Yes, T say to you, it will 
be required of this generation. "Alas, for you, lawyers! be- 
cause you have taken the key of knowledge; you entered not 
yourselves, and hindered those who were entering." "^^And 
as he went thence, the scribes and Pharisees began to urge 
. and to question him guilefully about more things, watching 
to catch something from his mouth. 


Luke xii: 1-12. At that time the crowd having assem- 
bled by myriads, so that they trampled on each other, he be- 
gan to say to his disciples : "First of all, keep yourselves 
from the Pharisees* leaven, which is hypocrisy. *But there is 
nothing concealed which will not be revealed, nor secret, which 
will not be divulged. ^Therefore, what you have spoken in the 
dark will be heard in tlie light, and what you have whispered 
in inner chambers will be uttered publicly, on the house-tops. 
*And I say to you, my friends, be not afraid of those who kill 
the body, and after this can do no more. ^But I will warn 
you whom you should fear. You should fear him who after 
he has killed, has authority to cast into Gehenna. Yes, I tell 
you, fear him. *Are not five sparrows sold for two assarions? 
And yet, not one of them is forgotten in the presence of God. 
'But even the hairs of your head have all been counted. 
Fear not, for you are more valuable than many sparrows. 
®And I tell you, whoever shall acknowledge me in the presence 
of men, the Son of Man will acknowledge him in the presence 
of the angels of God. •But he who has denied me In the 
presence of men, will be denied in the presence of God*s 

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angels. ^°And whoever shall speak a wbrd against the Son 
of Man, it shall be forgiven him; but to him who blasphemes 
the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven. "And when they 
bring you before the synagogues, and the rulers, and the 
authorities, be not anxious how or what you shall answer, or 
what you may say, ^*for the Holy Spirit will jteach you in 
that hour, what you ought to say." 


Luke xii: 13-14. And one of the crowd said to him: 
"Teacher, speak to my brother, to divide the inheritance with 
me." "But he said to him, "Man, who appointed me judge 
or divider over you? " 


Lnke xii: 15-34. And he said to them: "Watch and 
avoid aU covetousness, for a man's hfe does not consist in the 
abundance bf his possessions." ^® And he spoke a parable to 
them, saying: "The farm of a certain rich man yielded 
plentifully. "And he reasoned with himself, saying, * What 
shaU I do, because I have nowhere to gather my fruits? ' 
"And he said, * I will do this : I will pull down my granaries, 
and build greater; and I will gather there all my wheat and 
my goods, "and 1 will say to my life, Life, you have many 
good things, laid up for many years; rest, eat, drink, be glad.' 
*But the Lord said to him, »*Foolish man; this night they 
will require your life of you; and whose shall be what you 
have prepared?' "This is he who hoards treasures for him- 
self, and is not rich towards God." 

"And he said to his disciples: "Therefore, I tell you, be 
not anxious for life, what you may eat, nor for your body, 
what you may wear; *^or the life is more than food, and 
the body than clothing. "Mark well the ravens; for they 

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SOW not, nor reap, have no storehouse nor granary, and God 
feeds them. How much more valuable are you than the 
birds. ^And which of you by being anxious can add one 
span to his age? **If, then, you cannot do the least, why are 
you anxious concerning the remainder? *'Mark well the lihes, 
how they grow; they labor not, nor spin, but I tell you [that] 
not even Solomon, in all his glory, was clothed like one of 
these. ^And if God so clothes the grass of the field, existing 
to-day, and cast into an oven to-morrow, how much more 
you, 0, weak of faith ! ^And seek not what you shall eat, and 
what you shall drink, and be not anxious. *For all these 
things do the nations of the world seek, and your Father knows 
that you have need of these things. "But seek the reign 
of Godf and these shall be added to you. "Fear not, little 
flock, for the Father was pleased to give you the reign. 
""Sell your possessions and give in charity; make for 
yourselves purses that do not grow old, a treasure exhaust- 
less in the heavens, where thief does not approach, nor 
moth destroy. **For where your treasure is, there will your 
heart be also." 


Luke xil: 35-59, and'xiii: 1-9. **Let your loins be 
girded, and your lamps burning. ^'And be like men looking 
for their master, when he shall return from the nuptial feast; 
that when he comes and knocks it may immediately open to 
him. '^Happy are those slaves who, when their master comes, 
he shall find watching. Truly I tell you that he will gird 
himself and cause them to recline, and he will come near 
and minister to them. ^And if he comes in the second or 
the third watch, and finds [them] thus, happy are they. **But 
take note of this : had the householder known in what hour 
the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not 


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have permitted him to dig through into his house. *®Be you 
also prepared, because in the hour you think not, the Son of 
Man comes." "And Peter said, "Master, do you tell this 
parable to us, or to all? " **And the Master said, "Who then 
is the faithful, the prudent servant, whom the master made 
ruler over his domestics, to dispense the proper portion of 
food in its season? *^Happy that slave, whom his master at 
his coming, shall find thus employed ; ^truly I tell you that 
he will appoint him over all his possessions. **But if that 
slave shall say in his heart, < My master delays to come,' and 
shall begin to beat the men-servants, and the maid-servants, 
and to eat, and drink, and be drunken; **the master of that 
slave shall come in a day when he does not expect him, and 
at an hour of which he is not aware, and shall cut him asun- 
der, and appoint his part with the unfaithful; *^and that 
slave who knew his master's will, and was not prepared, and 
did not according to his will, shall be beaten with many 
[stripes] ; *®but he who was ignorant and did things deserv- 
ing stripes, shall be beaten with few. And from him to whom 
much is given, much will be required; and to whom much 
has been entrusted, of him the more will they exact. **I 
came to cast fire into the earth, and what will I if it were 
already kindled? "^But I have an immersion to be immersed 
with; and how am I distress 3d till it be accomplished. "Do 
you think 1 came to give peace to the earth? I tell you, no, 
but rather discord. '^Tor from now five in one house shall 
be separated, three against two, and two against three; they 
shall be separated, 'father asjainst son, and son against 
father; and mother against daughter, and daughter against 
the mother; mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law, and 
daughter-in-law against the mother-in-law.** 

"And he said also to the crowds, "When you see a cloud 

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rising in the west, yon say at once, * A shower comes,* and 
so it occurs. "And when a south wind blows, you say, 
* There comes burning heat,' and it occurs. '^Hypocrites I 
you know how to explain the aspect of the earth, and the 
heaven, but how is it that you can not explain this season? 
'^^And why, even of yourselves, do you not judge what is right? 
"For when you go with your legal opponent before a magis- 
trate, labor on the road to be released from him, lest he drag 
you to the judge, and the judge dehver you to the exactor, 
and the exactor cast you into prison. '^^I say to you, you 
will by no means be released thence, till you have paid the 
last lepton." 

Luke xiii: 1-9. And at that time some were present 
who informed him concerning the Galileans, whose blood 
Pilate mingled with their sacrifices. ^And he answered and 
said to them : "Do you suppose that those Galileans were sin- 
ners above all the [other] Galileans, because they have suffered 
these things? ''I tell you, no, but unless you reform, you will 
all perish in like manner. *0r those eighteen on whom fell 
the tower in Siloam, and killed them; do you suppose that 
they were debtors above all those men dwelling in Jerusalem? 
'^I tell you, no, but unless you reform, you will all perish in 
like manner." 

Luke xiii: 1-5. Many readers of the Bible suppose that the word perish 
always relates to the immortal soul, and that it means to suffer torment with- 
out end. But It Is only necessary to consult the language to perceive that 
Jesus was referring to nothing of the sort. There were "some who told him 
of the Galileans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices," and of 
a certain eighteen "upon whom the tower of Siloam fell, and slew theuL" 
"Think ye that they were sinners above aU men that dwell in Jerusalem? I 
tell you, nay; but except ye repent ye shall all likewise perish." That is, be 
slain as they were. No better explanation of these words can be given than In 
the language of commentators. 

Says Dr. Clarke (Methodist) : " 'Te shall all likewise perish.' In a like way, 
In the same manner. This prediction of our Lord was literally fulfilled. 
When the city was taken by the Romans, multitudes of the priests, etc, who 

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•And he spoke this parable: "A certain man had a fig- 
tree planted in his vineyard, and came seeking fruit on it, 
and found none. 'And he said to the vine-dresser, * Behold, 
I come these three years seeking fruit on this fig-tree, and find 
none; cut it down; why does it even render the place use- 
less? ' *And he answered and said to him, * Master, leave 
it this year, also, till I dig about it, *and manure it, and per- 
haps it may bear fruit after tliat; bnt, if not, you may cut it 
down/ " 


Matthew xiii: 1-9. On that day Jesus departed from 
the house, and sat by the lake- side. ^And great crowds were 
gathered about him, so that he entered a boat, and was 
seated; and all the crowd stood on the beach. *And he dis- 
coursed to them much, in parables, saying : "Behold, the 
sower went out to sow, *and, in sowing, some [seeds] fell on 
the path, and the birds came and ate them; '^and others 
fell on the ledgy ground, where they had not much soil, and 
immediately sprang up through not having depth of earth. 
®And the sun having arisen, they were scorched, and from 
lack of root, withered away. ^And others fell among the acan- 

were going on with their sacrifices, were slain, and their blood mingled with 
the blood of their victims; and multitudes were buried under the ruins of the 
walls, houses and temple." * 

"The word likewise here means not also, but tVi like manner. Such is the 
Import of the original. Because the words repent and perish are here used, 
many honest Christians have vainly imagined that our Lord referred to a state 
of endless misery. You shall all be destroyed in a similar manner. Here he 
had reference, no doubt, to the calamities that were coming upon them, when 
thousands of the people perished. Perhaps there was never any reproof more 
delicate, and yet more severe, than this. They came to him, believing that 
these men who had perished were peculiarly wicked. Jesus did not tell them 
that tliey were as bad as the Galileans, but he left them to infer it; for if they 
did not repent, they must soon likewise be destroyed. This was remarkably 
fulfilled. Many of the Jews were slain in the temple; many while offering 
sacrifice; thousands perished in away very similar to the Galileans."— ^ame«. 

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thuses, and the acanthuses sprang up, and choked them. 
®And others fell on good earth, and bore fruit, the one a hun- 
dred, the other sixty, the other thirty [fold]. ®Let him who 
has ears hear." 

Mark iv: 1-9. And again he began to teach by the lake- 
side ; and a great crowd was assembled about him, so that he 
entered the boat, and sat on the lake ; and all the crowd was 
on the shore, by the lake. ^And he taught them many things 
in parables, and in his teaching said to them, ^"Hearken! 
behold, forth went the ^ower to sow. *And in the sowing it 
occurred that some [seed] fell in thjepath, and the birds came 
and ate it. ®And other [seed] f eU on the ledgy [ground] where it 
had not much earth, and it immediately sprang up, because it 
had not much earth ; *and when the sun had arisen it was 
scorched, and it withered, because it had no root. ^And other 
[seed] fell among acanthuses, and the acanthuses grew, and 
choked it, and it bore no fruit. ®And some fell into the good 
earth and yielded fruit; springing up and increasing, it bore 
thirty, sixty and a hundred [fold].'* 'And he said, **He who 
has ears to hear, let him hear/' 

Luke vill: 4-8. And when a great crowd had assembled, 
they gathered to him from every city; and he spoke in 
a parable: *"The sower went out to sow his seed, and in 
sowing it, some fell in the path, and it was trodden down, 
and the birds of the heaven ate it. ^And another fell on the 
ledge, and it sprang up, and having no moisture, was soon 
withered. ^And another fell among the acanthuses, and 
springing up with the acanthuses, they choked it. ®And an- 
other feU into the good groui;id, and springing up, yielded a 
hundred fold." And having said these things he cried, "He 
thM has ears to hear, let him bear," 

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Matthew xiii: 10-17. And the disciples came, and said 
to him: "Why do you speak to them in parables?" "And he 
answered, and said to them: ** Because it is given to you 
to know the secrets of the reign of the heavens ; but it is not 
given to them. "For, whoever has, to him will be given, and 
he shall be gifted with abundance ; but whoever has not, even 
what he has shall be taken from him. "Therefore, I speak 
to them in parables, for seeing, they see not, and hearing, 
they hear not, neither do they understand. "And by them 
the prophecy of Isaiah is fulfilled, which says : 

* By hearing you will liear, and not understand, 

And seeing you will see, without perceiving; 

^^For this people's heart has grown gross, 

And they hear stupidly with their ears. 

And they shut their eyes. 

Lest they should perceive with their eyes, 

And hear with their ears. 

And understand with their hearts, 

And retrace their steps. 

And I should heal them.' 

""But happy your eyes, for they see, and your ears, for they 
hear. "Truly I say to you, that many prophets and right- 
eous men have desired to see what you see, and have not seen, 
and to hear what you hear, and have not heard. 

Mark iv: 10-1 2. And when he was filone, those about 
him, with the twelve, asked him as to the parables. "And 
he said to them, "The secret of the reign of God is given to 
you to know; but to those outside all things are done in par- 
ables ; ^Hhat looking they may look, and not see, and hearing 
they may hear, and not imderstand ; lest they should turn, 
ft»d it should be forgiven them," 

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Lnke viii: 9-18. And his disciples asked him: "What 
might this parable mean?" *^Andhe said, "To you it is given 
to know the secrets of the reign of God; but to the others in 
parables; that seeing they may not see, and hearing they viay 
hear J and not understand. "Now the parable is this : The 
seed is the word of God. "And those by the path are they 
that have heard; then comes the accuser, and takes away the 
word from their heart, so that they may not beheve and be 
saved. *'And those on the ledge [are] they who when they 
hear, receive the word of God with joy; these have no root; 
they beheve for a season, and in a season of trial fall away. 
"And that which fell among the acanthuses, these are they that 
have heard, and as they go forth, are choked by cares, and 
riches, and pleasures of life, and bring no fruit to maturity. 
^*And that in the good ground are those [who] having heard 
the word, retain it in an honest and good heart, and bear 
fruit with perseverance. ''And no man who has hghted a 
lamp, covers it with a measure, or places it beneath a couch, 
but puts it on a candelabrum, that those who enter may see the 
hght. "For there is nothing hid that will not be made mani 
fest; nor concealed that will not be revealed, and come 1o 
hght. ''Take heed, then, how you hear, for to him who has 
will be given; and whoever has not, even what he seems to 
have will be taken from him." 

Mark ir: 13-26. And he said to them : "Bo you not know 
this parable? And how will you comprehend all the para- 
bles? "The sower sows the word, '^ and these are they, where 
the word is sown by the path, and when they have heard, the 

Luke vlli : 16. "That those coming in may see the light," is not found in the 
oldest MSB. 

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adversary immediately comes, and takes the word that was 
sown in them. ^^And these are those sown in the ledgy 
ground ; who, , when they hear the word, receive it immedi- 
ately with delight, "and having no root in themselves, they 
are hut transitory ; then trial, or persecution occurring, on 
account of the word, they are immediately offended. "And 
others are those sown among the acanthuses ; these are they 
hearing the word, ^^and the anxieties of the aBon, and the 
delusion of wealth, and strong desires for other things, enter, 
and choke the word, and it becomes unproductive. "'And 
these are those sown upon the good earth; sucii as hear and 
accept the word, and bear fruit; one thirty, one sixty, and 
one a hundred [fold].'* "And he said to them, **Is the lamp 
brought that it may be placed under the modius, or under 
the couch, [and] not placed on tbe candelabrum? ''Fox 
nothing is hidden except that it should be manifested, nor 
concealed, but that it should be revealed. ^'If any man has 
ears to hear, let him hear." "And he said to them, "Take 
heed what you hear; with what measure you measure, it 
shall be measured to you; and more shall be added to you; 
**for whoever has, to him shall be given ; and even what he 
has shall be taken from him who has not." 

Matthew xIII: 18-23. "Hear, therefore, the parable of 
the sower: "Everyone that hears the word of the reign, and 
does not understand it, the evil comes and snatches that 
away which was sown in his heart ; this is that sown on the path. 
"^And he that was sown on the ledgy ground, is he that hears 

Matt, xlli: 19. The same form of speech occurs here, that Is found In the 
Lord's Prayer, ho poneros (the evil) ; "the evil comes and snatches that sown 
in his heart." Evil may be understood here as personified ("the evil"), or we 
may add the word "thought," "temptation," "purpose," "inducement." Al- 
most any word is better than "one," supplied by the authors of B. V. It is 
neither expressed nor implied in the original. 

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the word, and immediately receives it with delight, **bufc has 
no root in himself, and so is transient; afiOiction and persecu- 
tion arise, through the word, and he is immediately offended. 
"He that is sown among the acanthuses is the one that hears 
the word, and the care of the eeon,. and the delusion of riches, 
choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful. **But he that is sown 
on good earth is he that hears the word, and understands it; 
who really bears fruit, and yields, the one a hundred, 
the other sixty, the other thirty [fold]." 


Matthew xlii: 24:"53« He propounded another parable to 
them, saying, "The heavenly reign may be compared to a 
man who sowed good seed in his field; **and while men slept. 

Matt, xiii: 25. Sowed daimel. The sense here Is sowed over again. Epe- 
speireri. Matt, xlii: 39. Morison says: "The harvest is the end of the world 
CBon,— age or dispensation,— referring, not to the outward universe, but in this 
case Including our earthly discipline and experience. The harvest is the con- 
summation of the (Borij the age, or dispensation in which we now live, and our 
consequent entrance on another, and (with the faithful) higher age or dispen- 
sation. AidUy as applied to the Jews, includes eversrthlng relating to their con- 
dition and experience under the Mosaic dispensation, and the consummation 
of the CBon^ — the end of the world,— to them was the overthrow of the Jewish 
polity at the destruction of Jerusalem in the year 70, and the consequent ad- 
vent of a new ceon,— the coming of the Son of Man, — ^In the establishment of 
the Christian religion, which was the fulfilment or consummation of the 
Jewish dispensation. But in its wider application, as In the passage before 
us, (eon refers to our whole earthly dispensation and experience, and Includes 
everjrthlng that may act upon us In this life. The consummation of the ceon 
or end of the world, means the consummation of our earthly life, whether for 
good or for evlL But on leaving this ceori, we enter Into another, and the ad- 
jective, ceonian, which is translated eternal and everlasting (Matt, xxv: 
46), is borrowed from the next asonj and is applied to qualities and condi- 
tions, which, whether for weal or woe, shall belong to us in that more advanced 
stage of our existence. ** Eternal life" Is the blessedness which belongs to that 
condition of our being, and which, in its elementary principles, as Jesus has 
said (John vi: 47), may begin within us now; and eternal (not everlasting, for 
the idea of time is not included in the word),— -"f^^ej'TiaZ punishment*' is the 
sorrow and anguish which shaU belong to those who enter unprepared into 
that more advanced (Bon^ or stage of existence, and which, in its elementary 
principles, may begin within us now." 

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his enemy came, and sowed darnel among the wheat, and 
went away. ^And when the blade came up and yielded fruit, 
the darnel also appeared, "and the slavies of the householder 
came to him, and said, ' Master, did you not sow good seed in 
your field? Whence, then, has it the darnel? "And he said 
to them, <An enemy has done this.' And they say to him, 
*Do you wish, then, that we should gather them?' **And he 
says, * No, lest in gathering the darnel, you should uproot 
the wheat with them. ^Leave them both to grow together 
until harvest, and in harvest-time, I will say to the harves- 
ters, * Gather the darnel, first, and bind them in bundles to 
bum, but gather the wheat in my granary.' ** 

** Another parable he propounded to them, saying, "The 
heavenly reign is hke a mustard-grain, which a man took 
and sowed in his field; ^hich, indeed, is less than all other 
seeds, but when grown it is greater than [other] herbs, and 
becomes a tree, so that the birds of the heaven come, and 
nest in its branches." 

**Another parable he spoke to them, saying, "The reign of 
the heavens res^tnbles leaven, which a woman took and 
hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened." 

** Jesus spoke all these [words] to the crowds in parables; 
and without a parable he spoke nothing to them, '^that the 
word spoken through Isaiah, the prophet, might be fulfilled, 
which says: 

"I will open my mouth in parables ; 

I will reveal things concealed from the beginning.'* 

*Then he left the crowds, and entered into the house, and 
his disciples came to him, saying, "Explain to us the parable 

Matt, xiii: 33. The nniTersal prevalence of the kingdom of Heaven is set 
forth here ander the symbol of leaven. It is deposited in the world, and Is 
destined to transform all to its own likeness. 

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of the dan^el of the field." And he answered, and said, 
"" " He that sows good seed is the Son of Man; ""the field is 
the world; the good seed are the sons of the reign, and the 
darnel are the sons of the evil; ""and the enemy that sowed 
them is the accuser; and the harvest is the consummation of 
the ©on; and the harvesters are the messengers. ^^'As there- 
fore the darnel is gathered and burned in fire, so will it be 

Matt, xlll : 39. Says Paige : "The reapers are the angels. The word angel 
by no means invariably denotes a superhuman being. In the Jewish phrase- 
ology, this name is given to any being or to any thing which is made instru- 
mental in the accompUshment of the divine purposes. Thus the angels of 
the churches are addressed (Rev. chs. 11: ill:), where the bishops or ministers 
of those churches are doubtless Intended. Thus also the elements appear 
sometimes to be denoted (Ps. civ: 4; Heb. i: 7). Often is this name applied to 
the instruments by which temporal calamities are brought upon men. (Matt. 
xvi: 27-28, xxiv: 30-34, xxv: 31. See also Matt, xxii: 7). The ministration 
of angels is so frequently and almost uniformly connected with that signal 
judgment which was then impending over the Jewish nation, styled 'the wrath 
to come,* 'the days of vengeance,* a time of unparalleled 'tribulation,* that 
there can scarcely be a doubt that a reference is here made to the same event. 
•The angels, being ministers of God in executing his judgments on nations, 
this remarkable vengeance on the Jews may be weUhere, and is elsewhere fitly 
expressed by his coming or revealing himself with or by his angels. So Matt. 
xvi: 27, and often elsewhere, ^^ammond, note on^ Thess. i: 7. At this 
time, called the harvest, the angels, or the Instruments used by heaven for the 
accomplishment of its purposes, should make an appropriate separation be- 
tween the wheat and tares, or the true and false professors of Christianity, 
and dispose of them according to the divine wiU." 

Matt, xiii: 40, 43. The E. V. translates sunteleia aidnos, "end of the 
world,*' but the literal rendering is "consummation of the age" [aeon.] This fact 
is stated in the margin of R. V. Dr. Wakefield thus comments : "The harvest 
is the conclusion of this age, and the reapers are the messengers ; as therefore 
the weeds are picked out and burned up with a fire, so shall it also be in the 
conclusion of this age.** Dr. A. Clarke renders end of the world (vs. 19, 43), 
"end of the age— Jewish polity.** So also Dr. Macknight. Dr. Campbell trans- 
lates it the "conclusion of the state.** Bishop Pearce says, on verse 40 : "End 
of this world; rather end of this age, viz. : that of the' Jewish dispensation.** 
And Dr. Hammond translates it, "conclusion of this age.** 

The end of the material world is never taught in the Bible. We have no 
Scriptural evidence that the earth will ever be destroyed. The word is aion, 
age, and not kosmos, world. The phrase only occurs seven times in the 
whole Bible, and that in three books, all in the New Testament. (Matt, xiii : 
40,49, xxiv: 3, xxviii: 20; Heb. ix: 26; and a similar one in 1 Cor. x: 11.) 

Jn Matt, xiii: 36-42, "the field is the world** (kosmos\ but "the hwrv^st I9 

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in the consummation of the SBon. **The Son of Man will send 
forth the messengers, and they shall gather out of his reign 
all things that offend, and those that do injustice ; ^and they 

the end of the cme** (ai&ti) ; that Is, the end of the Jewish dispensation. But 
one passage need be c<^nsalted to leam when that eve at was to occur. Jesus 
told his disciples when they asked (Matt, xxiv : 3) "What shall be the sign of 
the end of the aeon" (Matt. x:^iv: 34), "This generation shall not pass till all 
these things be fulfilled." It had .almost arrived, a Uttle later, when Paul 
said (Heb. ix: 26), "But now once in the end of the ages hath he put away sin 
by the sacrifice of himself." "The end of the world" in aU cases in E. V., 
means the end of the age, or epoch, then transpiring, that is, the Jewish dispen- 

This is a description of the then approaching conclusion of the Jewish age, 
or epoch, when God's messengers would execute his will, and destroy his ene- 
mies, by casting them into that furnace of fire (Gehenna) wbose smoke was 
darkening the sky of all beholders. The x>hrase "furnace of fire," occurs in 
these passages in the Old Testament : 

Deut. iv : 20 : "But the Lord hath taken you, and brought you forth out of 
the iron /ttr/iacf?, even out of Egypt." 1 Kings viii: 51: "For they be thy 
people, and thine inheritance which thou broughtest forth out of Egypt, from, 
the midst of the furnace of iron." Jer. xi: 4: "Which I commanded your 
fathers in the day that I brought them forth out of the land of Egypt, from 
the iron furnace" Isa. xxxi: 9: "Saith the Lord, whose fire is in Zion, and 
his furnace in Jerusalem " Isa. xlviii : 10 : "Behold I have refined thee, but 
not with silver; I have chosen thee in tliefuniace of aflaiction." Ezek. xxii: 
18-21 : "Son of man, the house of Israel is to me become dross : aU they are 
brass, and tin, and iron, and lead, in the midst of the fmmace; they are even 
the dross of silver. Therefore, thus saith fhe Lord God: Because ye are aU 
become dross, behold, therefore, I will gather you iuLO the midst of Jerusa- 
lem. As they gather silver, and brass, and iron, and lead, and tin, into the 
midst of the furnace, to blow the fire upon it, to melt it, so will I gather you 
in mine anger and in my fury, and I will leave you there, and melt you." 

The Savior had this usage in his mind, and conveyed the same thought, 
namely, the approaching woes on his country and race, in the only places 
where we find the same language in the New Testament. 

Matt. xiU: 41, 42: "The Son of Man shall send forth his angels, and they 
shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do in- 
iquity; and shall cast them into & furnace of fire; there shall be wailing and 
gnashing of teeth." Verse 50: "And shall cast them into the /wmace o/.;Sfre; 
there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth." 

It is nowhere said that God has a furnace in eternity, in which to bum 
souls. His furnace was in Jerusalem asa. xxxi: 9.) At the end of that age 
(aion), Jesus said : "The Son of Man shall send forth his angels (messengers), 
and they shall gather out of his kingdom aU things that offend, and them 
which do iniquity; and shall cast them into a furnace of fire; there shall be 
waUing and gnashing of teeth-** This was all fulfllled when Jerusalem was 

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will cast th^m into the fiery furnace; there will be the weep- 
ing and • the gnashing of the teeth. *'^Then the righteous 
shall shine forth as the sun, in their Father's reign. He who 
has ears let him hear. 

"**The heavenly reign resembles a treasure hidden in the 
field, which a man, finding, conceals, and for joy thereof, 
goes and sells all he has, and buys that field. 

"*®Again,the heavenly reign resembles a pearl of great value, 
which a merchant, seeking precious pearls, *^found, and went 
and sold all that he had, and bought it. 

<**^ Again, the heavenly reign resembles a seine, cast into the 
lake, and that gathers together of every kind; *®which, when 
it is full, drawing it to the beach, and sitting down, they col- 
lect the good into vessels, and the bad they reject. ^"So will 
it be in the consummation of the sBon ; the messengers wiU go 
forth, and will separate the evil from among the just; '^and 
' they will cast them into the fiery furnace ; there will be the 
weeping and the gnashing of the teeth. 
. ****Have you understood all these things ?" They said to him, 
*T3s." '^^He then said to them, "Therefore every scribe 
discipled in the heavenly reign, resembles a man who is a 

Matt, xlll: 47-50. The proof that the kingdom of heaven Is not the per- 
fect state hereafter, but that it is in this world, is found in this passage, as 
weU as elsewhere. It contains aU kinds,— good and bad. There was a sifting 
and separation soon after this prediction was uttered. The reign of heaven is 
Christ's rule among men, his church. It is a net which catches good and bad, 
and at the end of that age, so often referred to, when severe judgments were 
to come, the angels, or messengers to execute God's judgments, would separ- 
ate Christians from others , and the bad were to suffer in the furnace of fire, 
the burning city, and perish in Gehenna. 

Dr. Clarke says : "It is very remarkable that not a single Christian jierished 
in the destruction of Jerusalem, though there were many there when Cestius 
GaUus invested the city ; and had he persevered in the siege, he would have 
rendered himself master of it; but when he, unexpectedly and unaccountably, 
raised the siege, the Christians took that opportunity to escape." 

This language has sole reference to the remarkable trials through which the 
early Christians were about to pass, when Jerusalem was destroyed, and the 
Christian reUgion was fairly established on the rains of the Jewish Church. 

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126 THE imw COVENANT. 

householder, who brings new and old things out of !.!,: 
treasury." "And it occurred when Jesus had finished these 
parables he departed thence. 

Mark ir; 26-34. And he said, "Thus is the reign of 
God, as if a man should cast seed on the earth, '^and should 
sleep and wake, night and day; and the seed should sprout, 
and grow, he knows not how. '"The earth yields sponta- 
neously — first a blade, then an ear, then full grain in the ear. 
"But when the fruit is matured, immediately he sends forth 
the sickle, for the harvest is ready." ^'And he said, "How 
may we compare the reign of God, or, by what parable may 
we illustrate it? "To a grain of mustard, which, when sown 
in the earth, is less than all the [other] seeds that are on the 
earth; "and when it is sown, it grows up, and becomes 
greater than all [other] herbs, and produces great branches, 
so that under its shadow the birds of the heaven have shelter." 
^And with many such parables he spoke the word to them, 
even as. they were able to hear it. **And without a parable he 
spoke not to them ; but privately he cjxplained all things to 
his own disciples. 


Matthew viii: 18-27. And when Jesus saw great mul- 
titudes about him, he gave orders to depart to the opposite 
side. **And one scribe came and said to him, "Teacher, I 
will follow you wherever you go." And Jesus said to him, 
****The foxes have burrows, and the birds of the heaven rest- 
ing places, but the Son of Man has not where he may recline 
his head." "And another of the disciples said to him, **Mas- 
ter, first permit me to go and bury my father." "But Jesus 

Matt, vlli: 22. "The dead." Prof. Paspati, of Athens, says "the dead" first 
ased here denotes the warden or the sexton. 

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says to him, "Follow me, and leave the dead to bury theii 
own dead." ^'And when he entered the boat his disciples 
followed him. **And behold, a great tempest arose on the 
lake, so that the boat was overwhelmed by the billows; but 
he was asleep. ^And fchey came to him, and awoke him, 
saying, "Save, Master I We perish I" "*And he said to them, 
"Why are you fearful? you of little faith I " Then he arose, 
and rebuked the winds, and the lake, and there was a great 
calm. And the men were astonished, saying, "'^What is 
this man? Even the winds and the lake hearken to him." 

Luke viii: 23-25. And it occurred on one of those days, 
that he went into a boat, and his disciples, and he said to 
them, "Lotus cross over to the opposite side of the lake." 
And they launched forth; *^and as they sailed, he fell asleep, 
and there came down a hurricane on the lake, and they were 
swamping, and were in jeopardy. ^*And they came and 
awoke him, saying, "Master, Master, we are perishing! " 
and he arose, and rebuked the wind, and the surging of the 
water, and they ceased, and there was a calm. ^And he said 
to them, "Wliere [is] your faith? " And they feared and 
wondered, saying to each other, "Who then is this, that 
commands even the winds and the water, and they obey 
him? " 

Luke ix: 67-62. And as they were traveling on the 
road, one said to him, "Wherever you go I will follow you." 
^And Jesus said to him, "The foxes have burrows, and the 
birds of the heaven resting places, but the Son of Man has 
not where he may recline his head." *®And he said to an- 
other, "Follow me." But he said, "Master, permit me 
first to go and bury my father." "But he said to him, 
"Leave the dead to bury their own dead, but you go and 

Matt, vlii: 24. "Overwhelmed, engulfed, submerged." 

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publish the reign of God." '^And another also said, "I will 
follow you, Master, but permit me first to say good-by to my 
family." •'^But Jesus said to him, **No man having put 
his hand to the plow, and looking back, is fit for the reign of 

Mark iv: 35-41. And on the evening of that day he 
said to them, **Let us cross to the opposite shore." ^And 
leaving the crowd they took him as he was, in the boat. And 
other small boats were with him. *^And a hurricane arose, 
and the waves dashed into the boat, so that the boat was 
already fiUing. ^And he was in the stern, sleeping on the cush- 
ion; and they awoke him, and said to him, "Teacher, does it 
not concern you that we perish?" ^And he awoke, and rebuked 
the wind, and said to the lake, "Be silent, be quiet." And 
the wind lulled, and there was a great calm. ***And he said 
to them, "Why are you so timid? Have you not yet faith?" 
**And they were afraid with a great fear, and said to each 
other, *<Who then is this, that even the wind and the lake 
hearken to him?" 


Luke viii: 26-39. And they sailed to the region of the 
Gerasenes, which is opposite Galilee. "And on landing a 
certain man of the city who had demons, met him; and for 
a long time he had worn no clothes, nor remained in [any] 
house, but in the tombs. ^And when he saw Jesus he bowed 
before him, and- said with a loud voice, "What have you to 
do with me, Jesus, son of the highest God? I beseech you,* 
do not torment me. " ^For he had commanded the impure 
spirit to come out of the man ; for it had for a long time 
seized him ; and he was bound with chains and fetters, being 
guarded; and breaking the bands he was driven into the deserts 
by the demon. "^And Jesus asked him, "What is your name?" 

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And he said "Legion," for many demons had entered into 
him. ^* And they besought him that he would not command 
them to go out into the abyss. "Now there was a herd of 
many swine, feeding in the mountain ; and they besought 
him to permit them to enter them, and he permitted them. 
'^And the demons having gone out from the man, entered the 
swine, and the herd rushed down the precipice, into the lake, 
and were drowned. '*And the herders seeing what had been 
done, fled, and reported in the city, ^and in the country, 
what had been done, and they came out to see what had been 
done; and came to Jesus, and found the man from whom 
the demons had gone out, sitting at the feet of Jesus, clothed, 
and in his right mind; and they were afraid. *And those 
who saw it, reported, saying that the demoniac was saved. 
"^And the entire multitude of the surrounding country of the 
Gerasenes desired him to depart from them, for they were 
seized with great fear. And he entered a boat and returned. 
"^And the man from whom the demons had gone out, begged 
to be with him. But he dismissed him, saying, ^'Eetum to 
your house and relate how much God has done for you. " 
And he went away, publishing through the whole city how 
much Jesus had done for him. 

Mark v: 1-20. And they reached the opposite shore 
of the lake, in the region of the Gerasenes. 'And having 
come out of the boat, a man with an impure spirit met him, 
coming out of the tombs, Vho had his residence in the tombs, 
and no one could bind him, even with a chain ; *for he had 
been bound with manacles and chains repeatedly, and the 
chains had been wrenched off by him, and the manacles 
broken, and no one was able to subdue him. *And he was 
, continually crying out in the tombs, and in the mountains, 
night and day, and gashing himself with stones. ®And when 

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180 ^^J^ y^W COVESfANT. 

he saw Jesus from a distance, he ran and rendered homage 
to him, and cried out with a loud voice, "What have you to 
do with me, Jesus, 'son of the highest God? I implore you, 
by God, not to torment me." ®For he had said to him, "Im- 
pure spirit, come out of the man ! " ^And he asked him, "What 
is your name? " And he said to him, *<My name is Legion, for 
we are many." ***And he besought him much, that he would 
not send him them out of the country. "Now there was a great 
herd of swine feeding near the mountain. "And they besought 
him saying, «*Send us into the swine, that we may go into 
them." **And he gave them leave. And the impure spirits, 
having come out, entered the swine, and the drove rushed 
down the precipice into the lake, about two thousand, and 
were drowned in the lake. "Then the herders fled and re- 
ported it in the city, and in the country. And they came to 
see what had occurred. *^And they came to Jesus and beheld 
the demoniac who had been possessed by the legion, clothed, 
and sitting in his right mind; and they were afraid. "And 
those who saw, related what had occurred to the demoniac* 
and conperning the swine. ^'And they began to entreat him 
to depart from their coasts. "And when he went into the 
boat, he who had been a demoniac entreated him that he 
might continue with him; "and he did not permit him, but 
said to him, "Go home to your friends and relate to them 
how much the Lord has pitied you and done for you." **And 
he went and began to publish in Dekapolis, how much Jesus 
had done for him; and all men were astonished. 

Matthew viii: 28-34. And when they were at the oppo- 
site shore, in the region of theGadarenes,two demoniacs met 
him, coming forth out of the tombs, so very fierce that no 
one could pass along that road. **And behold, they cried 
out, saying, "What have you to do with us. Son of God? 
Po you come here to destroy us before the time? " **Now 

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at a distance there was a herd of many swine, feeding. 
"And the demons implored him, saying, "If you exorcise us, 
send us forth into the herd of swine." '^And he said to them, 
"Go;" and they went out, and went into the swine, and be- 
hold, the whole herd rushed down the precipice, into the lake, 
and perished in the waters. ^And the herdsmen fled, and 
departed into the city, and related all concerning the demo- 
niacs. ^And behold, the entire city went out to meet Jesus; 
and when they saw him, they entreated that he would depart 
from their borders. 


Matthew ix: 10-17, And it occurred as he recUned [at 
table], in the house, that, behold, many tax-collectors and 
sinners came and reclined with Jesus and his disciples. "And 
the Pharisees observed [this] and said to his disciples, "Why 
does your teacher eat with tax-collectors, and sinners? " 
"And when he heard, he said, "They who are strong do not 
need physicians, but they who are iU. "But go and learn 
what this is : 

"*I desire mercy and not sacrifice; * 

«*For I came to call sinners, not just persons." **Then John's 
disciples came to him, saying, "Why do we and the Phari- 
sees fast, but your disciples fast not? " **And Jesus said to 
them, "The sons of the bride-chamber cannot mourn while 
the bridegroom is with them, but days wiU come when the 
bridegroom will be taken from them, and then shall they 
fast. ***No one puts a patch of unfulled cloth on an old mjn- 
tle ; for the patch would rend the mantle, and the rent be- 
comes worse. "Nor do they put new wine into old wine-skins. 

Matt, ix: 16. New or nnfnUed cloth, sewed into an old garment, wonld 
shrink, and tear the srarment. 
Matt, ix: 17. Skins. Wine was kept in the skins of animals, which, when 

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132 ^^^ ^^^ COVENANT, 

else the skins borst, and the wine is spilled, and the skins 
are destroyed, but new wine must he put into fresh skins, and 
both are preserved." 

Luke v: 29-39. And Levi made a great feast for him, in 
his house, and there was a great crowd of tax-collectors, and 
others who were reclining with them. **But the Pharisees 
and their scribes complained to his disciples, saying, "Why 
do you eat and drink with tax-collectors and sinners? " ^*And 
Jesus answered, and said to them, "Those who are whole 
have no need of a physician, but those who are sick. "I 
have not come to call [the] just but [the] ungodly to refor- 
mation." ^'And they said to him, "John's disciples fast, 
and make frequent prayers ; and in like manner those of the 
Pharisees; but yours eat and drink." ^And Jesus said to 
them, "Can the sons of the bridal-chamber fast while the 
bridegroom is with them? *^But days will come when the 
bridegroom will be taken from- them, and then will they fast.'* 

*Iw those days he 'spoke a parable unto them, "No man 
rends a patch from a new mantle, and puts it on an old man- 
tle, else the new will make a rent, and that from the new will 
not match with the old. '"And no one puts new wine into 
old wine-skins; else the new wine will burst the skins, and 
itself be spilled, and the skins destroyed. ^But they put new 
wine into new wine-skins. ^No one having drunk old [wine] 
desires new, for he says *The old is better.' " 

Mark ii: 16-22. And it occurred while he reclined [at 
tablejin his house, many tax-collectors and sinners came also, 
and reclined with Jesus and his disciples, for they were many, 
and there followed him also, scribes of the Pharisees. "And 
when they saw him eating with the tax-collectors and sinners, 

new, were strong, but when old, were liable to burst from the fermentation of 
the wine. 

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they said to his disciples, ''How is it that your Master eats 
with tax-collectors and sinners? " "And when Jesus heard 
it, he said to them, "The strong ha^ no need of a physician, 
but the sick. I came not to call [the] righteous, but sinners." 
"And John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting, and 
they came, and said to him, "Why do John's disciples, 
and the Pharisees' disciples fast, but your disciples fast 
not? " **And Jesus rephed, "Can the sons of the bride- 
chamber fast while the bridegroom is with them? They 
cannot fast as long as they have the bridegroom with them. 
**But days will come when the bridegroom will be taken 
from them; and then, in that day, they will fast. "No 
one sews a patch of unfulled cloth on an old mantle; if 
so fche patch of new tears away the old, and a worse rent is 
made. "And no one puts new wine into old wine-skins; if 
so the wine will burst the skins, and the wine will perish, and 
the skins; but new wine into new wine-skins." 


Matthew Ix: 1, and 18-26. And stepping into a boat he 
crossed, and came to his fatherland. * * * * 
"While he spoke these things to them, behold, a certain ruler 
came, and bowed down to him, saying, "My daughter is now 
dead, but come, lay your hand upon her, and she will Hve." 
*'And Jesus arose with his disciples, and followed him. 
*^And behold, a woman who had a hemorrhage twelve years, 
approached behind, and touched the fringe of his mantle, for 
she said within herself, "If I may but touch his mantle, I 
shall be saved." ^'But he, turning, and seeing her, said 
"Take courage, daughter, your faith has saved you." And 
the woman was saved from that hour. *^And Jesus came into 
the ruler's house, and saw the flute-players and the crowd 
making a noise, "and said, "Withdraw, for the girl is not 

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dead, but asleep." And they derided him, knowing she was 
dead, *But when the crowd was excluded, he entered, and 
grasped her hand, and the girl was raised. ^And the fame of 
this went out into all that land. 

Lnke viii: 40-66. And as Jesus returned, the crowd 
gladly received him, for all were waiting for him. **And be- 
hold, a man came, whose name was Jairus, and he was a 
ruler of the synagogue; and falling at Jesus* feet he en- 
treated him to come into his house; *^or he had an only 
daughter, about twelve years of age, and she was dying. And 
as he went, the crowds pressed on him. *^And a woman hav- 
ing had a hemorrhage for twelve years, and could not be 
cured by any one, **coming up behind, touched the fringe of 
his mantle, and immediately the hemorrhage was stanched. 
**And Jesus said, "Who touched me?" And when all denied 
it, Peter said, "Master, the crowds press, and jostle you." 
"But Jesus said, **Some one touched me; for I knew power 
had gone out from me." *'And the woman, seeing that she 
had not escaped observation, came trembling, and falling 
down, related before all the people why she touched him, and 
how she was immediately cured. *^And he said to her, 
"Daughter, your faith has saved you; go in peace." "While 
he was yet speaking, some one came from the synagogue - 
ruler's [house], saying, "Your daughter is dead, worry the 
teacher no more.'' '^But Jesus hearing it, said to him, "Fear 
not, only believe, and she shall be saved." "And coming into 
the house he permitted no one to go in with him, except 
Peter, and*John, and Jacob, and the father and mother of 
the maid. "And all were weeping and lamenting her. But 
he said, "Weep not; for she is not dead, but sleeps." *^And 

Luke viii: 49. "The curious word skulle, something like our * worry', or 
* bother,* is used here, and here alone Cexcept in Lnke vil: 6), by both 
Mark and Luke." 

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they ridiculed him, knowing she was dead. "But he, grasp- 
ing her hand, called out, saying, **Maid, arise!" **And her 
spirit returned, and she rose immediately, and he ordered 
them to give her food. '^And her parents were astonished; 
but he charged them to tell no one what had been done. 

Mark v: 21-43. And when Jesus had recrossed to the 
opposite side in a boat, a great crowd was gathered to him, 
and he was by the lake-side. *^And one of the synagogue- 
rulers, named Jairus, came, and seeing him, he falls at his 
feet, '"and earnestly soHcits him, saying, "My little daugh- 
ter is in the last extremity; come, place your hands on her, 
so that she may be saved, and hve." "And he went with him, 
and a great crowd followed, and they pressed on him, **and 
a woman who had a hemorrhage for twelve years, ^and had 
suffered many things, under many physicians, and spent aU 
her property, and had not been benefited, but had become 
worse, *^having heard the things concerning Jesus, came in 
the crowd behind, and touched his mantle; ^for she said, 
"Iflmayeven touch his mantle, I shall be saved." ^And 
immediately the fountain of her blood was stanched, and 
she felt in her body that she was cured of her scourge. ^'And 
immediately knowing in himself that the power had gone 
from him, Jesus turned round in the crowd and said, **Who 
touched my clothing?" ^*And his disciples said to him, "You 
see the crowd pressing on you, and you say, * Who touched 
me?' " ^Andhe looked around to see who had done this thing. 
^But the woman, aware of what had been done to her, came 
and fell down before him, fearing and trembUng, and told 
him aU the truth. ^But he said to her, "Daughter, your 
faith has saved you ; go in peace, and be healed from your 
scourge." ^While he was still speaking, they came from the 
synagogue-ruler's, saying, "Your daughter is dead; why do 

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you worry the teacher any more?" *'But Jesus, overhearing 
the word spoken, immediately said to the synagogue-ruler, 
"Fear not, only believe." ^And he permitted no man to ac- 
company him, except Peter, and Jacob, and John, the broth- 
er of Jacob. ™And they come to the house of the synagogue- 
ruler, and he sees the tumult, and much weeping and wail- 
ing. ^^And when he had entered, he says to them, **Why 
do you weep, and make such a tumult? The child is not 
dead, but sleeps." *®Andthey derided him. But dismissing 
them all, he takes the father and mother of the child, and 
those mth him, and goes in where the child was. "And 
grasping the hand of the child, he says to her, "Talitha kumi," 
which signifies, being translated, **Maid, I say to you, arise!" 
"And immediately the maid arose, and walked about, for she 
was about twelve years of age. And they were immediately 
astonished with a great astonishment. *'And he earnestly 
charged them that no one should know this thing, and or- 
dered that food should be given her. 


Matthew ix : 27-34. And as Jesus passed thence, two blind 
men followed him, exclaiming, "Son of David, have pity on 
ii«r' ^And when he had entered the house, the two bhnd 
meu came to him, and Jesus says to them, **Do you beheve 
that I can do this to you?" They answer, **Yes, Master." 
"Then he touched their eyes, saying, **Be it done to you ac- 
cording to your faith;" and their eyes were opened. '''And 
Jesus strictly charged them, saying, "See that no man knows 
[til is]." ^*But they went forth and reported it abroad in that 
entire land. ^And as they went away, behold, they brought 
fco him a mute demoniac, **and when the demon was exor- 

Mabk V : 41. ** Talitha cumi." "My lambkin, or pet lamb, rise up." 


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cised, the mute spoke, and the crowd was astonished, saying, 
**The Hke never appeared in Israel." "But the Pharisees 
said, **He exorcised the demons by the.ruler of the demons." 


Mai'kyi: 1-6. And he departed thence, and went 'into 
his fatherland, and his disciples followed him. *And Sab- 
bath having arrived, he began to teach in the synagogue, and 
many heard him, and were astonished, saying, "Whence has 
this man all these things, and what is the wisdom that is im- 
parted to him, and such mighty powers as are wrought 
through his hands? *Is not this the carpenter, Mary's son, 
and brother of Jacob, and Joseph, and Judas, and Simon? 
And are not his sisters present with us?" And they were 
offended with him. *But Jesus said to them, **A prophet is 
not destitute of honor, except in his own fatherland, and 
among his own relations, and in his own family." *And he 
was unable to do any power there, except that he cured a few 
invaHds, by laying his hands on them. ®And he was sur 
prised at their unbehef. And Jes^s went among the sur- 
rounding villages, teaching. 

Matthew xiii: 54-58. And coming into his fatherland, 
he taught them in their synagogue, so that they were aston- 
ished, and said, ** Whence has this man this wisdom, and 
these powers? ^Is not this the carpenter's son? Is not his 
mother called Mary? And are not his brothers, Jacob and 
Johny and Joseph, and Simon, and Judas; ^and his sisters, 
are they not all with us? Whence then has this man all 
these things?" ^^ And they were offended at him. And Jesus 
said to them, **A prophet is not unhonored, except in his 
fatherland, and in his own house." ^And he did not perform 
many powers there, because of their unbelief. 

Mabe yI: 3. Oflended^Uterally, scandalized. 

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Matthew ix: 35-38. And Jesus visited all the cities, and 
the villages, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the 
good news of the reign, and heaUng every disease, and every 
malafdy; and they followed him; *and when he saw the crowds, 
he was moved with pity for them, because they were demor- 
alized and dispersed, like sheep without a shepherd. "Then 
he says to his disciples, "Ample indeed the harvest, but the 
laborers few; ^therefore pray the Master of the harvest, that 
he send out laborers into his harvest." 


Matthew x: 1; 6-42, and xi: 1. And he called his 
twelve disciples to him, and gave them authority to exorcise 
unclean spirits, and to cure all kinds of disease, and every 
malady. * * * «These twelve Jesus sent forth, com- 
manding them saying, "Go not into a road of the Gentiles, 
and enter not into any city of the Samaritans, •but go rather 
to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. ^And as you go, 
preach, saying, ® * The heavenly reign has come nigh.* Heal 
[the] sick, raise [the] dead, cleanse lepers; exorcise demons; 
you have freely received, freely give. 'Provide not gold, nor 
silver, nor copper, in your girdles; *^nor a wallet for your jour- 
ney, nor two tunics, nor sandals, nor yet a staff, for the la- 
borer deserves his sustenance. "And into whatever city or 
village you enter, search out what worthy person resides 
there, and remain there till you go thence. "And as you en- 
ter into the house, salute it, saying * Peace to this house.* 
"And if the house be worthy, let your peace come on it, but if 
it be unworthy let your peace return to you. "And whoever 

Matt, x: 8. "Raise the dead" is not found in the older MSS., except the 
Vatican, and is wanting in most of the ancient codices. 

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will not receive you, nor hear your words, as you leave the 
house, or city, or touni, shake the dust from your feet. "Truly 

Matt, x : 15 ; Matt, xi : 23, 24 ; Mark vl : 1 1 ; Luke x : 10-14. -/n tfie day oj 
judgment &c. That Is, in the dfiy of the destruction of the Jewish state, 
called the coming of the Son of Man, yer. 23. The sense of this yerse seems 
to be this: that which formerly befeU Sodom and Gomorrah, was more toler- 
able than what shall befaU this city. That the day of judgment here men- 
tioned is to be thus ondetistood, appears from what is said concerning Caper- 
naum, Matt, xi: 23, compared with ver. 22-24, of the same chapter."— Pf?arce. 
"Whoever shaU witness the calamities which the contumacious Jews shaU en- 
dure, on account of their rejection of the gospel, shaU judge them toliave suf- 
fered more severely than the inhabitants of Sodom; and the punishments of 
the latter to have been more mild, when compared veith these.'*— Wetstein. 
"I assure you, the punishment or destruction that wlU light upon that city 
wiU be such, that the destruction of Sodom shall appear to have been more 
tolerable than that."— ^av/imonct. 

Of course these cities were not to go into the eternal world, to be judged. 
Their day of judgment had passed, and as cities they were conspicuous exam- 
ples of the consequences of wickedness. Dr. Clarke observes: 

"The day of judgment of Sodom and Gomorrah was the time in which the 
Lord destroyed them by fire and brimstone, out of heaven." 

The idea may perhaps be more plainly and exactly expressed, by trans- 
posing the phraseology thus: It shall be less tolerable (or more dreadful) 
in the day of judgment, for that city, than it was for Sodom and Gomorrah. 
The punishment inflicted on the inhabitan* s of the "cities of the plain" was 
more tolerable, that is, less severe, accompanied with less misery, more easily 
endured, than the judgment would be, which awaited them who should re- 
ject Jesus, and despise his gospel and its advocates.- Paij/e. 

Dr. Hammond expresses its meaning in the following paraphrase: "I as- 
sure you, the punishment or destruction that will light upon that city, wiU 
be such that the destruction of Sodom will appear to be more tolerable than 
that." He then refers to what he had said in another place on the phrase, 
kingdom of God, where he thus quoted and explained the text : " Verily, 1 
say unto you. It shall be more tolerable for Sodom in that day (L e., not 
in the day of judgment to come, for that belongs to each particular person, 
not whole cities together, but) in that day of the kingdom of God, than for 
that letT&ctory city. God's dealing with Sodom in the day of their destruction 
with fire and brimstone, shall be acknowledged to have been more support- 
able; than his dealing with such contumacious, impenitent cities of Judea."— 
Paraphrase on Matt, x: 15, and Annotations on Matt, iii: 2. 

Bishop Pearce says, "In the day of judgment: i. e., in the day of the de- 
struction of the Jewish state, called the coming of the Son of Man, verse 23." 
He adds, in a note, "The sense of this verse seems to be this: that which for- 
merly befell Sodom and Gomorrah, was more tolerable than what shall befall 
this city. That the day of judgment, here mentioned, is to be thus under- 
stood, appears from what is said concerning Cai^emaum, in chap, xi: 23, com- 

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I say to you it will be more endurable for the land of Sodom 
and Gomorrah, in a day of judgment, than for that city. 

pared with verses 22 and 24, of the same chapter. Univ. Hist. voL iv : p. 210." 
—Commentary and Note on Matt x: 15. 

Wakefield translates the text thus: "Verfly I say unto you, it will be more 
tolerable for the land of Sodom and Oomorrah in a day of judgment, than for,** 
etc. And he adds this note: "Irf. a day of vengeance, punishment or trial 
This is undoubtedly the genuine sense of the phrase, which has not the least 
reference to the day of general judgment. All that our Savior intends to say, 
is, that when the temporal calamities of that place come upon it, they wUl be 
more severe than even those of Sodom and Oomorrah."— Wakefield's New 
Testament, Matt, x: 15, and Note in loco. 

Dr. A. Clarke says: "In tJie day of judgment: or, punishment, kriseos. 
Perhaps not meaning the day of general judgment, nor the day of the destruc- 
tion of the Jewish state by the Romans; but, a day in which God should send 
punishment on that particular city, or on that person, for their crimes. So the 
day of judgment of Sodom and Gomorrah was the time in which he destroyed 
them by fire and brimstone from the Lord out of he&yen."— Commentary on 
the New Testament, on Matt, x: 15. 

Bead carefully comments on Matt, v: 22, <&c. Jesus is exhorting his disci- 
ples to have entire faith in God. The most that men can do is to destroy the 
body, but God "is able," "hath power" to destroy both body and soul in Ge- 
henna. It is not said that God has any disposition or purpose of doing so. 
He is able to do it, as it is said (Matt, iji: 9) he is "able ot these stones to raise 
up children unto Abraham." He never did, and never will raise up children to 
Abraham of the stones of the street, but he is able to, just as he is able to de- 
stroy soul and body in Gehenna, while men could only destroy the body there. 
Fear the mighty power of God, who could, if he chose, annihilate man, while 
the worst that men could do would be to destroy mere animal life. It is a for- 
cible exhortation to trust in God, and has no reference to torment after death^ 
Fear not those who can only torture you— man— but fear God who can anni- 
hilate (apokteino). 

1. This language was addressed by Christ to his disciples, and not to sin- 

2. It proves God's ability to annihilate (destroy) and not his purpose to 
torment. Donnegan defines appollumi, "to destroy utterly." 

As though Jesus had said: "Fear not those who can only kill the body, but 
rather him, who, if he chose, could annihilate the whole being. Fear not man* 
but God." 

"The destruction of soul and body was a proverbial phrase, indicating utter 
(extinction or complete destruction."— Pajflr p. 

l*r. W. E. Manley observes that the condition threatened "is one wherein 
tht' ftody can be killed. And no one has imagined any such place, outside the 
pn^sent state of being. Nor can there be the least doubt about the nature of 
thifl killing of the body; for the passage is so constructed as to settle this ques- 
tlrm l>eyond all controversy. It is taking away the natural life, as was done 
by the persecutors of the apostles. The Jews were in a condition of depravity 

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TMS mivr oovENAm". 141 

""Behold I send you forth as sheep among wolves ; be wary 
as the serpent, and innocent as the doves. "And beware of 
men, for they will surrender you to sanhedrins, and scourge 
you in their synagogues, "and you shall be led before gov- 
ernors and kings, on my account, as a testimony to them, 
and the Gentiles. "But when they dehver you up, be not 
anxious how or what you shall speak, rfor what you shall 
speak shall be given to you in that heur. **For it is not you 
that speak, but the spirit of your Father, speaking by you. 
"And brother will surrender brother to death; and father 
child, and children will rise up against parents, and put them 
to death; "and you will be hated by all on my name's ac- 
count; but he that perseveres to the end, shall be saved. ^But 
when they persecute you in this city, flee into the other, for 
truly I say to you, you will not finish [preaching to] the cit- 
ies of Israel, till the Son of Man come. 

"^A disciple is not above the teacher, nor a slave above his 
master. **To be as the teacher is sufficient to the disciple, 
and the slave as his master. If they have named the mas- 
ter of the house Beelzebul, how much more those of his 
household. *®Therefore, fear them not, for nothing is con- 
cealed that shall not be revealed, and hid which shall not be 
known. *^What I tell you in the darkness, speak in the light; 
and what you hear [whispered] in the ear, preach on the 

properly represented by Gehenna. The apostles had been In that condition, 
but had been delivered from it. By supposing the word to denote a condition 
now and in the present life, there is no absurdity involved. Sinful men may 
here suffer both natural death and moral death; but in the future life, natural 
death cannot be suffered; whatever may be said of moral death. Fear not 
men, your persecutors, who can inflict on you only bodily suffering. But 
rather fear him who is able to inflict both bodily suffering, and what is worse, 
mental and moral suffering, in that condition of depravity represented by the 
foulest and most revolting locality known to the Jewish people." 

Matt, x: 16. Prudent, sagacious, wary (pJiroriimos)^ not wise (sophos). 

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142 'JfltE J^W COVENANT. 

housetops. *®And be not afraid of those that kill the body, 
but [who] cannot kill the life, but fear rather him who is able 
to destroy both life and body in Gehenna. ^Are not two 
sparrows sold for an assarion? and not one of them shall fall 
to the earth without your Father. '^'And even the hairs of 
y(5ur head are all counted. ^'Therefore, fear not; you are of 
more value than many sparrows. **Therefore, whoever shall 
acknowledge me before men, I will acknowledge him in the 
presence of my heavenly Father. "^But whoever shall 
deny me before men, I will also deny him .before my 
heavenly Father. ^Do not suppose that I came to send 
peace upon the earth ; I came not to send peace, but a sword. 
*^For I came to set a man against his father, and a daughter 
against her mother; and a daughter-in-law against her moth- 
er-in-law; ^'and a man's enemies [shall be] those of his own 
household, ^He is unworthy of me who loves father or 
mother more than me; and he is unworthy of me who 
loves son or daughter more than me; ^and he is unworthy 
of me who does not take up his cross and follow me. '^He 
who seeks his life shall lose it, and he who has lost his 
life, on my account, shall find it. *°He who receives you re- 
ceives me ; but he who receives me receives him who sent me. 

Matt, x : 28. We t^a^slate the Greek psuche life, rather than soul, as It is 
rendered in E. V. and B. V. The language seems to teach that the disciples 
were not to fear those who could not kill the life, that is, destroy the exist- 
ence, though they might annihilate the body, but that they should rather 
fear God, who is able to destroy both the body and the existence. See p. 
73 for meaning of Gehenna. 

Matt, x : 29. An assarion is a cent and a half. 

MATT, x: 39. Herepswc/te occurs again, and is rendered life, by the R. V., 
but "soul" is suggested In the margin. Yet in a note at the bottom the Ameri- 
can Committee say, "Strike out the margin." They thus very properly inti- 
mate that soul is not to be allowed as the English of psuche. This is correct. 
Life is the only meaning of the word here, as in Matt, x: 28, and elsewhere in 
the N. T. 

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**He who receives a prophet in the name of a prophet, shall 
obtain a prophet's reward; and he who receives a just man, 
in the name of a just man, shall obtain a just man's reward. 
**And whoever shall give* to one of these little ones only a 
cup of cold [water] to drink, in a disciple's name, truly I say 
to you, he shall by no means lose his reward." Matt, xi: 1. 
And it occurred when Jesus had finished his injunctions to 
his twelve disciples, [that] he departed thence, to teach and to 
preach in their cities. 

Mark yI: 7-13. And he called the twelve to him, and 
sent them forth in pairs; and he gave them authority over 
the unclean spirits; ^and he charged them that they should 
take nothing for the journey, except a staff only, no loaf, no 
traveling-bag, no copper in the girdle; "but to wear sandals, 
and not to put on two tunics. ***And he said to them, "What- 
ever house you enter, there remain till you go thence. "And 
whatever place wiU not receive you, nor hear you, as you go 
thence shake off the dust under your feet for a testimony to 
them." "And they went out and preached that [men] should 
reform. "And they exorcised many demons, and anointed 
many invalids with oil, and cured them. 

Luke ix: 1-6. And he assembled the twelve apostles^ and 
gave them power and authority over all the demons, and 
to cure diseases; 'and sent them forth to preach the reign 
of God, and to heal, 'and said to them, "Take nothing for 
the journey, neither staff, nor wallet, nor bread, nor silver, 
nor have two tunics ; *and into whatever house you enter, 
there remain, and thence depart. *And whoever will not re- 
ceive you, when you go out from that city, shake off the dust 
from your feet for a testimony against them." "And they 
went forth and traveled through the villages, preaching good 
news, and heahng, everywhere. 

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Matthew xiv: 1-12. At that time Herod the tetrarch 
heard the fame of Jesus, and said to his servants, *"This is 
John the Immerser; he is raised from the dead; and there- 
fore these powers work in him. " ^For Herod had then seized 
John, boimd him, and put him in prison, on account of He- 
rodias, his brother Phihp's wife. Tor John had said to him, 
"It is not lawful for you to have hier." *And wishing to kiU 
him, he feared the people, for they regarded him as a prophet. 
®But when Herod's birthday was being celebrated, the daugh- 
ter of Herodias danced among them, and pleased Herod ; 
thereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatever 
she might ask. ®And she, instigated by her mother, said, 
•*Give me here, on a tray, the head of John the Immerser." 
"And the king was sorry, but on account of the oaths, and 
the guests, he commanded it to be given ; ^^'and he sent and 
beheaded John, in the prison. "And his head was brought; 
on a tray, and presented to the little girl, and she brought [it] 
to her mother. "And his disciples came and took the body, 
and buried it, and went and told Jesus. 

Mark vi: 14-29. And King Herod heard— for his 
name had become famous — and they said, "John the Im- 
merser has risen from the dead, and so these powers are per- 
formed by him." ''But others said, "He is Ehjah;" and 
others said, " [He iy] a prophet, one of the [ancient] proph- 
ets." '"But Herod,, when he heard, said, "John, whom I be- 
headed, he is risen." "For Herod himself had sent forth 
[and] apprehended John, and bound and put him in prison, 
on account of Herodias, his brother Phihp's wife, for he had 
married her. ''For John said to Herod, "It is unlawful for 
you to have your brother's wife." '^And Herodias was en- 
raged against him, and desired to kill him, and could not; 

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*°for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a just and 
holy man, and protected him, and when he had heard him, 
he hesitated much, and heard him gladly. "And a favorable 
day arrived, when Herod, on his birthday, made a feast for 
his nobles, and for the chiliarchs and the chief [men] 
of Galilee. **When the daughter of this Herodias came in 
and danced, it pleased Herod, and the guests, and the king 
said to the young girl, "Ask me whatever you will and 
I will give it to you." ^'And he swore to her, "Whatever 
you may ask of me I will give to you, even to half of my king- 
dom." "And she went out, and said to her mother, "What 
shall I ask?" And she said, "The head of John the Immer- 
ser." "^And she went in immediately, with haste to the king, 
and asked saying, "I desire that you would give me instantly, 
on a tray, the head of John the Immerser." ^'And the king 
was extremely sorry; but for his oath's sake, and the guests, 
he would not refuse her. *^And the king immediately sent 
out a guardsman, and ordered him to bring his head; and 
he went and beheaded him in the prison, "and brought his 
head on a tray, and gave it to the httle girl, and the little 
girl gave it to her mother. **And his disciples heard, and 
went and carried off his body, and placed it in a tomb. 

Lake ix: 7-9. Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that 
was done, and he was perplexed, because it was said by some 
that John had been raised from the dead, ®and by some that 
EUjah had appeared; and by others, [that] a certain ancient 
prophet had risen. "But Herod said, "I beheaded John; but 
who is this, of whom I hear such things?" And he tried to 
see him. 


Hatfhew xiv: 13-14. And when Jesus heard [this], he 
withdrew thence, by a boat, into a desolate place, by himself 


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and when the crowds heard [it] they followed him by land 
from the cities. "And he came out and saw a great crowd, 
and he had pity for them and healed their sick. 

Mark vi: 30-34. And the apostles assembled with Je- 
sus, and reported all things to him, both what they had done, 
and what they had taught. "And he says to them, "Come, 
retire by yourselves into a desolate place, and rest awhile ;" 
for many were there, who were coming and going, and they 
had not even leisure to eat. ^And they went away, privately, 
by boat, into a desolate place. ^^And they saw them departing, 
and recognized them, and they ran together there by land, 
from all the cities, and out- went them. ^*And when he came 
out he saw a great crowd, and he deeply pitied them, because 
they were like sheep having no shepherd; and he taught 
them many things. 

Lnke ix: 10-11. And the apostles, when they had returned, 
related to him what things they had done, and he took them, 
and withdrew privately into a city called Bethsaida. "And 
the crowds perceiving it, followed him; and he welcomed 
them, and spoke to them concerning the reign of God; and 
cured those that needed healing. 

John vl: 1-2. After these things Jesus went across the 
lake of Galilee, that is, of Tiberias ; ^and a great crowd fol- 
lowed him, because they saw the signs that he performed 
on the sick. 


Matthew xiv: 15-21. And when evening had come, the 
disciples came to him, saying, "The place is desolate, and 
the hour has already passed, therefore dismiss the crowds, 
that they may go into the villages, and buy themselves food." 
"But Jesus said to them, "They need not go away; you give 

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them to eat." "And they say to him, *'We have here only 
five loaves, and two fishes." "And he said, * 'Bring them 
here to me." ^'^And he commanded the crowds to recline on 
the grass, and took the five loaves, and the two fishes, and 
looking up to heaven he gave thanks, and broke the loaves, 
and gave [them] to the disciples, and the disciples to the 
crowds. ^And they all ate and were filled, and of the re- 
maining fragments they took up twelve hand-basketfuls. 
"And those that ate were about five thousand men, besides 
women and children, 

Mark vl: 36-44:. And many hours had already passed, 
and his disciples came to him, and said, "The place is deso- 
late, and many hours have already passed; ^dismiss them, 
that they may go to the adjacent country and villages, and 
buy themselves food." ^But he answered, and said to them, 
**You give them to eat." And they say to him, ** Should we 
go and for two hundred denaries buy loaves, and give them 
to eat?" ^But he says to them, **How many loaves have 
you? Go see," And knowing, they say, **Five, and two 
fishes," ^And he commanded them to make all recline in 
companies on the green grass, *®and they reclined in groups, 
by hundreds, and by fifties. **And he took the five loaves 
and the two fishes, and looking towards heaven, he gave 
thanks, and broke the loaves, and gave to the disciples, to 
set before them ; and the two fishes he distributed to all, 
*And they all ate and were satisfied.. **And they took up 

Matt, xlv: 20, xvi: 9; Mark vi: 43, vlli: 19; Luke ix: 17; John vi: 13. The 
word rendered baskets is kophinoi^ hand, or traveling baskets. In Matt, xv: 
37, xvi: 10, Mark viii: 8, 20, the word is sphurideSt hampers ,or large baskets, 
as in Acts ix: 25, where Paul was let down in one. 

Mabe vi : 37. 20 denaries, or $30, which in those days was equal to at 
least $300. 

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148 ^^^ ^^^' COVENANT. 

twelve hand-baskets full of fragments, and of the two fishes. 
**Now those that ate' of the loaves were five thousand men. 

iiUke Ix: 12-1 7. And when the day already began to de- 
cline, the twelve came, and said to him, **Dismiss the crowd, 
that they may go into the surrounding villages, and country, 
and lodge, and find provisions, for we are here in a desolate 
place." "But he said to them, **You give them to eat." And 
they said, *'We have no more than five loaves, and two fishes, 
unless we go and buy food for all the people." "Now there 
were about five thousand men. And he said to his disciples, 
"Make them recHne in companies of about fifty each. " ^^And 
they did so, and made them all rechne. ^^'And he took the 
five loaves, and the two fishes, and looking towards heaven, 
he blessed, and broke, and gave to the disciples to distribute 
to the crowd. "And they ate, and were all satisfied; and 
there were taken up of the remaining fragments, twelve hand- 

John vi: 3-15. And Jesus went up into the mountain, 
and sat there with his disciples. *And the passover, the feast 
of the Jews, was near. '^Then Jesus raised his eyes, and see- 
ing that a great crowd was coming to him, says to PhiHp, 
**Whence may we buy loaves that these may eat? " 'And he 
said this to try him, for he knew what he was about to do. 
''Tken Phihp answered him, "Two hundred denaries worth of 
bread are not sufficient, so that each may take a httle." ®One 
of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, says to him, 
'•"Here is a Httle boy who has five barley loaves, and two 
fishes; but what are these for so many?" *® Jesus said, 
"Make the men rechne." And there was much grass in the 
place. The men therefore rechned, in number about five 
thousand. "Therefore Jesus took the loaves, gave thanks, 
and distributed [them] to those rechning; in hke manner also 

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of the fishes; as much as they'wished. "And when they were 
filled, he says to his disciples, "Collect the remaining frag- 
ments, so that not any may be lost." '^Therefore they col- 
lected and filled twelve hand-baskets of fragments, from the 
five barley loaves, which remained to those that had eaten. 
"The men, therefore, who saw the signs that he did, said, 
"This is truly the prophet who was to come into the world." 
*^ Jesus, therefore, knowing that they were about to seize him, 
that they might appoint him king, flees again into the mount- 
ain by himself. 

Matthew xiv: 22-23. And he immediately required the 
disciples to enter the boat, and precede him to the opposite 
side, while he should dismiss the crowds. '^^And after he had 
sent the crowds away, he ascended the mountain, to pray by 
himself. And when evening came he was there alone. 

Mark vi: 45-46. And immediately he required his dis- 
ciples to go into a .boat, and precede him to the opposite side, 
towards Bethsaida, while he should dismiss the crowd. *IAnd 
when he had dismissed them, he retired to the mountain, to 


Matthew xiv: 24-33. And the boat was now many fur- 
longs distant from the land, in the middle of the lake, tossed 
by the waves; for the wind was adverse. *^And in the fourth 
watch of the night he went to them, walking on the lake. 
*^But when the disciples saw him walking on the lake, they 
were terrified, saying, "It is a phantom!" And they cried 
aloud for fear. "But he immediately spoke to them, saying, 
"Courage; it is I; be not afraid." ^ And Peter answered him, 
and said, "If it is you, Master, bid me come to you on the 
waters. " "And he said " Come. " And Peter descended from 
the boat, and walked on the waters, and went to Jesus. ^But 

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perceiving the strong wind, he was frightened, and beginning 
to sink, he cried out, saying, "Master, save me!" ^^And Je- 
sus instantly extended his hand, and took hold of him, and 
said, "0 Little-faith! why did you doubt?" ^ And as they got 
up into the boat, the wind abated. ^And they in the boat 
worshiped him, saying, **Certainly you are God's son.* 

Mark vi: 47-52. And when evening came, the boat was 
in the middle of the lake, and he alone on the land. *®And 
he saw them distressed in rowing, for the wind was against 
them, and about the fourth watch of the night he comes 
towards them, walking on the lake, and would have passed 
by them. *®But when they saw him walking on the lake they 
thought it was a phantom, and cried out; '^for they all saw 
him, and were terrified. And immediately he spoke with 
them, and says to them, "Take courage; it is I; be notafraid." 
"And he went up to them, into the boat, and the wind sub- 
sided, and they were exceedingly amazed among themselves ; 
**for they understood not about the loaves, and their heart 
was hardened. 

John vi: 16-31. But as evening came on, his disciples 
went down by the lake ; "and they entered into a boat, and 
were crossing the lake to Kapharnaum. And darkness over- 
took them, and Jesus had not yet come to them. **And the lake 
grew boisterous by a great wind blowing. "When, therefore, 
they had rowed about twenty-five or thirty stadiums, they 
saw Jesus walking on the lake, and approaching the boat; and 
they were afraid. **But he says to them, **"It is I, fear not." 
Then they came to take him into the boat, and immediately the 
boat was at the land to which it was going. 

Matt, xiv: 33. "Son of God." It wlU Ido noUce^ that Ji^re and ejsewl^ero 
J^sus U QftU^ W son ot 0od, 

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Matthew xiv: 34-36. And when they had crossed over 
they came upon the land at Gennesaret. **And when the men 
of the place knew him, they sent through all that country, 
and brought to him all those diseased, *and asked of him 
that they might only touch the fringe of his mantle, and as 
wiany as touched were healed. 

Mark vi: 53-66. And when they had crossed over, 
they came upon the land at Gennesaret, and mooTed. "And 
when they had come out of the boat, the men of that 
place immediately recognized him; "and running through 
that whole adjacent country, carried the sick about on 
pallets, to where they heard he was. *®And wherever he 
went, into towns, or cities, or the country, they placed the sick 
in the markets, and implored him that they might only touch 
the fringe of his mantle, and as many as touched it were 


John vi: 22-71; vii: 1. The next day the crowd that 
stood on the other aide of the lake saw that there was but 
one other little boat there, and that Jesus went not with 
them into the boat, but [that] his disciples went away alone; 
**though other little boats came from Tiberias, which was near 
the place where they aho ate the loaves, after the Master 
gave thanks. **And when they saw that Jesus was not there, 
nor his disciples, they entered the httle boats, and came to 
Kaphamaum, seeking Jesus. **And when they found him 
beyond the lake, they said to him, "Rabbi, when did you 
come here?" ** Jesus answered them, and said, "Truly, truly, 
I say to you, you do not seek me because you saw the signs, 
but because you ate of the loaves and were satisfied. *^Work 

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not for the perishing food, but for that which abides to SBonian 
hfe, which the Son of Man gives you, for him has the Fath- 
er, God, sealed." "They said, therefore, to him, "What shall 
we do that we may work the works of God?" ** Jesus an- 
swered and said to them, "This is the work of God, that you 
beUeve in him whom he sent." *^hey said to him there- 
fore, "What sign do you, that we may see and believe? 
What do you work? "Our fathers ate the manna in the des- 
ert, as it is written, *He gave them bread from heaven to 
eat.*""Jesu8 therefore said to them, "Truly, truly, Isay to you, 
Moses did not give you the bread from heaven ; but my Father 
gives you the real bread from heaven. **For the bread of 
God is he who descends from heaven and gives life to the 
world." "They therefore said to him, "Master, always give 
us this bread." ^Tlien Jesus said to them, "I am the 
bread of life, he who comes to me shall not hunger, and he 
who beUeves in me shall never thirst. *But I said to you that 

John vi : 30. "Miracle, " In E. V. , etymologically slgnifles a wonder. It stands 
for two words in the original: one meaning sigUy and so translated 51 times; 
tokeut once; miracle^ 22 times; and wonder, 3 times. The word sign wiU in 
every case fully serve to express the original idea. The other word rendered 
miracle means power or deed of power. It iei rendered power, 77 times; 
loonderful work, once; mighty work, 11 times; miracle, 8 times; and va- 
riously, 23 times. Singularly, there Is another word meaning wonder, never 
translated by miracle. It was used by the Greeks to signify portent, or 
prodigy, or anything else which excited the astonishment of the people, and 
is employed in the New Testament 16 times, being uniformly translated 
wonder. Taking the "signs," and "wonders," and "mighty deeds" under cover 
of the word "miracles," we might expect to differ as to the theory of their pro- 
duction. The apostles had one theory: they were done by Jesus. He had his 
theory : they were done by his Father. "He doeth the works." Whether they 
weie contrary to nattlral law, or above natural law, or in the line of natural 
law, though by unknown forces, the apostles did not speculate. They did not 
know enough of natural law to speculate upon the operation of the Spirit 
within them, as related to it. And even in our scientifically enlightened cen- 
tury we are not able to dogmatize negatively as to "miracles," or to affirm that 
God, the Almighty Spirit, cannot, or never would, work out a purpose by ac- 
tion upon matter without the intervention of usual means. What we are 
especially concerned about is the facts : not the theory of them. Let each ex- 
plain them to himself for himself.— ii^e v. G. L. Demurest, D. D., S. S. Helper. 

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you have even seen me and have not beheved. ^All that the 
Father gives me shall come to me, and I will by no means 
cast out him who comes to me. '"Because I have not de- 
scended from heaven to do my own will, but his will who 
sent me. ^'And this is his will who sent me, that I 
may lose nothing of all that he has given me, but may 
raise it at the last day. *°For this is my Father's will, 
that every one who sees the son, and beheves in him, 
may have SBonian life ; and that I should raise him at the last 

**Then the Jews complained about him, because he said, 
**I am the bread that descended from heaven," "And they 
said, "Is not this Jesus, Joseph's son, whose father a/so and 
mother we know? How then does he say, *I have descended 
from heaven? ' " *' Jesus answered and said to them, "Com- 
plain not among yourselves ; **no man can come to me unless 
he who sent me draw him, and I will raise him in the last 
day. *^It is written in the prophets, 

" *And they shall all be taught of God.' 

"Every one who has heard and learned the truth of the Father, 
comes to me. **Not that any one has seen the Father except 
he who is of the Father \ he has seen God, *Truly, truly, I say 
to you, he that believes has sBonian life. *®I am the bread of 
life. *^Your fathers ate the manna in the desert, and died. 
.®*This is the bread that descends from heaven, so that a man 
may eat of it, and not die. "I am that living bread that has 
descended from heaven; if any one eat of m?/ bread he shall 

John vi : 37. God gave all to Christ ; sent him to be the Savior of the world 
1 John iv: 14) ; gave him the heathen for an inheritance, and the uttermost 
parts of the earth for a possession (Ps. ii: 8; John ill: 35, xvii: 2; Acts xvii: 
26; 1 Cor. xv: 24-28) ; and all who were given shall one day go to him, and 
shall be willing to serve him (Ps. ex. 3) ; and all who go will be received. All 
are given, aU who are given, shall go to Christ, and all who go shaU be re- 

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live to the 8Bon, and the bread which I will give in behalf of 
the life of the world, is my flesh." 

**The Jews, therefore, contended with one another, 
saying, **How can this man give us his flesh to eat?" "Then 
Jesus said to them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you 
eat the Son of Man's flesh, and drink his blood, you have 
not cBonian life in yourselves. "He who eats my flesh, and 
drinks my blood, has aeonian life, and I will raise hiTn at the 
last day. ^^For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true 
drink. ^He that eats my flesh, and drinks my blood, dwells 
in me, and I in him. "As the hving Father sent me, and I 
hve through the Father, so he who eats me, even he shall 
live through me. ^This is the bread which came down from 
heaven; not as the fathers ate, and died; he who eats this 
bread shall live to the aeon." ^These things he said, as he 
taught in a synagogue in Kaphamaum. 

^Many therefore of his disciples, when they heard, said, 
"This saying is hard, who can hear it?" "When Jesus, 
therefore, knew in himself, that his disciples complained 
about this, he said to them, "Does this offend you? 
*^[What] then if you should see the Son of Man ascend to 
where he was at first? ®^The spirit is that which makes ahve ; 
the flesh profits nothing. The Words that I have spoken to 
you are spirit, and hfe. ®*But there are some of you that do 
not beUeve." For the Savior knew from the beginning thOse 
who. beheved not, and who it was that should betray him. 
•*And he said, "Because of this I have said to you that no 

John vi : 53. One of the oldest of the MSS. reads age-long, aidnio7i, life, 
Instead of "life in yourselves." 

John vl: 63. "The flesh profits nothing." Having found that his figura- 
tive language offended his disciples, he explains that when he declared that 
they must eat his fiesh and drink his blood, he meant that they must receive 
and assimilate his truths. "The words that I have spoken to you, they are 
spirit, and they are life— the fiesh profiteth nothing." 

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man can come to me miless it be given to him of the Father.*' 
^'Upon this, therefore, many of the disciples went back, 
and walked no longer with him. ^Jesns, therefore, said to 
the twelve, "And do you also wish to go away?" "Simon 
Peter answered him, **Ma8ter, to whom shall we go? You 
have words of aeonian life; ••and we have believed, and know 
that you are God's holy one. " ^® Jesus answered af(id said to 
them, "Did I not choose you, the twelve, and one of you is 
an accuser?" "Now he spoke of Judas, [son] of Simon of 
Kariotus, for he, being one of the twelve, was also about to 
betray him. vii: !• And after these things Jesus went 
about in Galilee, for he did not wish to travel in Judea, be- 
cause the Jews sought to kill him. 

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Matthew Xv: 1-20. Then there come to Jesus, from Je- 
rusalem, Pharisees and scribes, saying, ^"Why do your dis- 
ciples transgress the tradition of the presbyters, for they do 
not wash their hands when they eat bread?" ^And he an- 
swered, and said to them, "Why do you also transgress God's 
commands, through your tradition? *For God said, *Honor 
the father and the mother;' and *He that reviles father and 
mother, let him surely die,' *But you say, * Whoever shall 
say to the father or the mother, "That is a gift by which you 
might be profited by me, it is nothing;^' "he shall not honor 
his father.' Thus you annul the law of God through your 
tradition. ^Hypocrites! Isaiah prophesied Well concerning 
you, saying: 

" »®This people honor me with their lips, 

But their heart is far from me. 

*But vainly do they worship me. 

Teaching doctrines that are [only] the precepts of men.*" 

Matt, xv : 2. "Fresbuteron,*' presbyters, is found three times ; presbuteroSt 
presbyter, sixty-seven times. We have preferred to transliterate rather than 
translate by tlje word elder, or elders, as in E. V. and R. V. 

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'°And he called the crowd to him, and said to them, **Hear 
and understand: "that which enters the mouth does not pollute 
the man ; but that which proceeds out of the mouth pollutes 
the man." "Then the disciples came and said to him, "Do 
you know that the Pharisees were offended when tliey heard 
that saying?" "But he answered, and said, "Every plant 
which my heavenly Father has not planted, shall be uprooted. 
Let them alone; they are blind leaders. "And if the blind 
lead the blind, both shall fall into a pit." *'^And Peter an- 
*swered, and said to him, ""Explain the parable to us." And 
he said, ""Are you also yet without discernment? Do you 
not perceive that whatever enters into the mouth, passes into 
the stomach, and is cast into [the] sewer? "But those things 
which proceed from the mouth, issue from the heart, and 
they defile the man. *^For evil purposes come out of the heart . 
murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false testimonies, 
blasphemies. ^These are the things that pollute the man ; 
but it does not pollute the man to eat with unwashed hands." 

Mark vii: 1-23. And the Pharisees and certain of the 
scribes that came from Jerusalem, resorted to him, ^and saw 
that certain of his disciples ate bread with common, that is, 
with unwashed, hands. 'For the Pharisees, and all the Jews 
holding the tradition of the elders, do not eat until they 
wash their hands to the elbow ; *and coming from a market 
they do not eat unless they sprinkle themselves ; and there 
are many other things that they have received to hold — im- 
mersions of cups, and sextuses, and copper vessels, and 
couches. ''And both the Pharisees and the scribes ask him, 
"Why do not your disciples walk according to the tradition 
of the elders, but eat the loaf with common hands?" "And 
he said to them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy concerning you 
hypocrites, as it is written : 

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" 'This people honor me with their lips, 
But their heart is far from me ; 
^But in vain do they worship me, 
Teaching as doctrines the precepts of men.' 
•"You leave the command of God, and retain the tra- 
dition of men." 'And he said to them, "Well do you annul 
the command of God, that you may keep your own tradition. 
*"For Moses said, *Honor thy father arid thy mother/ and, 
*He who reviles father or mother, let him surely die.' "But 
you assert, *If a man shall say to the father or the mother, 
"Be that korhan," that is, a gift, "by which you might derive 
a benefit from me,*" '*you no longer permit him to do any- 
thing for the father or the mother, "annuUing the word of 
God, through your tradition, which you have delivered, and 
many similar things you do." "And he called the crowd to 
liim, again, and said to them, "All hear me and understand, 
"There is nothing outside the man that can enter and 
pollute him, but the things that proceed from the man are 
the things that pollute the man. ^®If any man has ears to 
hear, let him hear." "And when he went from the crowd, 
into a house, his disciples asked him concerning the parable. 
"And he says to them, "Are you also so destitute of 
understanding? Do you not yet perceive that whatever 
from without enters the man does not defile the man? 
"Because it does not enter his heart, but go^s into the stom- 
ach, and passes into tlie sewer, purifying all the food. " *^And 
he said, "That which proceeds from the man pollutes the 
man. "For from within, out of the . heart of men, em- 
anate evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, **thefts, 
covetousness, maHce, deceit, intemperance, envy, blasphemy, 
pride [and] folly. *^A11 these evil things emanate from within, 
and they pollute the man." 

Verse 16 omitted in oldest mannscriptB. 

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Matlhew xv: 21-28. And Jesus departed thence, and 
withdrew into the borders of Tyre and Sidon. "And behold, 
a Kanaanitish woman came out of those parts, and cried out, 
saying, "Pity me. Master, son of David, my daughter is sadly 
demonized." **But he answered her not a word. And his 
disciples came out and besought him, saying, **Send her 
away, for she is crying after us." "But he answered and 
said, "I am only sent to the lost sheep of the house of 
Israel." "But she came, and fell down to him, and said, 
"Master, help me." "•But he answered, and said, "It is not 
right to take the children's loaf and cast it to the httle dogs." 
"But she said, "True, Master, but even the httle dogs eat of 
the crumbs that fall from their master's table." *^Then Jesus 
answered and said to her, "O woman, your faith is great, be 
it to you as you will." And from that hour her daughter 
was healed. 

Mark vii: 24-30. And he arose thence, and retired into 
the borders of Tyre and Sidon ; and he entered a house, and 
desired no one to know, though he coujid not escape notice. 
"But immediately a woman whose Httle daughter had an un- 
clean spirit, having heard of him, came in, and fell down at 
his feet — ^moreover the woman was a Greek, a native of Sy- 
ro-Phenicia — and she begged that he would exorcise the de- 
mon from her daughter. *^And he said to her, "Let the 
children first be satisfied, for it is not proper to take the 
children's loaf, and throw it to the little dogs." "But she 
answered and said to him, "True, Master, yet even the little 
dogs under the table eat of the children's crumbs." "And he 
said to her, "For this word, go, the demon has gone out from 
your daughter. " ^And she went away to her house, and found 
her daughter laid upon a couch, and the demon gone out. 

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160 ^^^ -^^'^ COVENANT. 


Mark vii: 31-37. And again he went from the borders 
of Tyre, and went through Sidon to the lake of Cjahlee, 
through the center of the borders of Dekapolis. ^And they 
bring to him one who was deaf, and stammered, and they 
entreat him to place his liands on him. **And he privately 
took him from the crowd, and put his fingers into his ears, 
and spat, and touched his tongue, ^*and looking up to heaven, 
he sighed deeply, and says to him, "Ephphatha," that is, 
**Be opened;" '^and his ears were opened, and the hgatureof 
his tongue was loosened, and he spoke distinctly. ^And he 
charged them that they should tell no man, but the more he 
charged them the more extensively they published it. ^And 
they were astonished beyond measure, saying, "He has done 
all things well; he makes both the deaf hear, and the mute 


Matthew xv: 29-38. And Jesus departed thence, and 
went toward the lake of Galilee; and he ascended the 
mountain, and sat there. ^And great crowds came to him, 
bringing deformed, bhnd, dumb and lame, and many others, 
and they laid them at his feet, and he healed them; ''^so that 
the crowds wondered as they saw [the] mute speaking, [the] 
crippled whole, and [the] lame walking, and [the] blind 
seeing, and they glorified the God of Israel. '"Then Jesus 
called the disciples to him, and said to them^ "I have com- 
passion on the crowd; for three days they have now remained 
with me, and have nothing to eat; and I will not send them 
away fasting, lest they faint on the road." '^^And the disci- 
ples say to him, ** Whence can we get so many loaves in a 
desolate place, as to satisfy so great a crowd?" ^And Jesus 

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says to them, "How many loaves have you?" And they 
said, **Seven, and a.few small fishes." **And he commanded 
the crowds to recUne upon the ground, ^and he took the 
seven loaves and the two fishes, and offered thanks, and hroke, 
and gave to the disciples, and the disciples to the crowd. 
''^And they all ate and were satisfied, and they took up of 
the fragments that remained, seven large hasketfuls. ^And 
they who had eaten were about four thousand men, besides 
women and children. 

Mark viii: 1-9. In those days the crowd was again very 
great, and they had nothing to eat, and he called his disci- 
ples, and says to them, ***! have pity on the crowd, for they 
now continue with me three days, and have nothing to eat, 
^and if I dismiss them fasting to their home, they will faint 
on the road, and some of them are from a great distance.'* 
*And his disciples answered him, and said, ** Whence can any 
one satisfy them with loaves here in a desolate place?" *And 
he asked them, **How many loaves have you?" And they 
said, "Seven." "And he commanded the crowd to recUne on 
the ground, and he took the seven loaves, and having given 
thanks, he broke, and gave to his disciples t-o distribute, and 
they placed them before the crowd. 'And they had a few 
small fishes, and having offered praise for them, he com- 
manded [them] to set these before them. ®And they all ate 
and were satisfied; and they took up of the remaining frag- 
ments seven large hasketfuls. ®And tjiey were four thousand. 
And he dismissed them. 


Matthew xv: 39; xvi: 1-12. And he sent away the 
multitudes and entered into the boat, and came into the bor- 
ders of Magadan, xvi: 1-12. And the Pharisees and Sadducees 

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came, and to try him they asked him to show them a sign 
from heaven. ''But he answered, and said to them, *"An 
evil and adulterous generation seeks a sign, and a sign shall 
not be given to it, except the sign of Jonah.'* And he left 
them, and departed. ^And the disciples went to the opposite 
side, and forgot to take loaves. 'And Jesus said to them, 
"Observe and shun the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees." 
'And they reasoned among themselves, saying, "Because 
we brought no loaves.'* ®But Jesus, knowing, said, "Why 
do you reason among yourselves, you of Httle faith, because 
you have no loaves? ^Do you not perceive nor recollect the 
five loaves of the five thousand, and how many small baskets 
you took up, *°nor the seven loaves of the four thousand, 
and how many large baskets you took up? "Why do you 
not perceive that I spoke not to you about loaves, but to shun 
the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees? ** "Then they 
understood that ho did not tell them to shun the leaven of 
the loaves, but of the teaching of the Sadducees and Phari- 

Mark viii; 10-21. And he immediately entered the boat 
with his disciples, and came into the region of Dalmanutha. 
"And the Pharisees came forth, and began to argue with him, 
seeking of him to see a sign from heaven, trying him. "And he 
sighed deeply in his spirit, and says, "Why does this genera- 
tion seek a sign ? Truly I say tn you, no sign shall be given 
to this generation.** *^And he left them, and re-embarking, 
he crossed to the other side. "And they forgot to take loaves, 
and they had but one loaf with them in the boat. "And he 

Matt, xri: 3 is omitted in V. "When evening comes you say, *Fair 
weather, for the heaven is red;' and in the mohiing, ' A storm to-day, for the 
heaven is red and lowering.' Hypocrites! You can accurately judge the face 
of the heaven, but you cannot distinguish the signs of the times!" 

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charged them, saying, "Take heed; beware of the leaven of 
the Pharisees, and the leaven of Herod." ^®And they rea- 
soned with each other, "Because we have no loaves.*' "And 
knowing it, he says to them, "Why do you reason because 
you have no loaves? Do you not yet perceive, nor under- 
stand? ^*Is your heart hardened? Having eyes, do you not 
see, and having ears, do you not hear, and do you not 
remember? ^^When I broke the five loaves among the five 
thousand, how many hand-baskets of fragments took you up?" 
They say to him, "Twelve. '* *^" And when the seven among the 
four thousand, how many large basketfuls of fragments took 
you up?*' And they say to him, "Seven." "And he said to 
them, "Do you not yet understand?" 


Mark viii: 22-26. And they come to Bethsalda; and 
they bring a blind man to him, and beseech him to touch 
him. *^And he took the bhnd man's hand, and conducted 
him out of the village, and when he had put spittle on his 
eyes, and placed his hands on him, he asked him, "Do you 
see anjrthing?** "And he looked up and said, "I see men, 
because I see [them] as trees, walking." ^Then he placed 
his hands on his eyes again, and he looked steadily, and was 
restored, and saw everjrthing distinctly; "'and he sent him 
away to his home, saying, "Do not enter into the village.** 


Matthew XTi: 13-20. And when Jesus came into the 
parts of Kaisarea of PhiHp, he asked his disciples, saying, 
"Who do men say that the Son of Man is?** "And they 
said, "Some [say] John, the Immerser; some, Elijah, and 
others Jeremiah, or one of the prophets.'* ^'^And he says to 

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them, "But who do you say that I am?'* ^•And Simon 
Peter answered, and said, **You are the Christ, the son of 
the living God." *^And Jesus answered and said to him, 
"Happy are you, Simon Bar- Jonah, for flesh and blood have 
not revealed it to you, but my heavenly Father. "And I 
also say to you that you are a rock, and on this rock I will 
build my assembly, and the gates of Hades shall not triumph 
over it. "I will give the keys of the heavenly reign to 
you, and whatever you bind on the earth shall be bound in 
the heavens, and whatever you loose on the earth shall be 
loosed in the heavens." ^Then he charged the disciples that 
they should tell no man that he was the Christ. 

Mark viii: 27-30. And Jesus and his disciples went 
out to the villages of Kaisarea of Phihp, and on the road he 
asked his disciples, saying to them, "Who do men say that I 
am?" "And they told him, saying, "[Some say] *John the 

Matt, xvl: 18. , "Thou art Petros and on this petra" in Greek; in Aramaic, 
"Thou art, Kephas, and on this kepha." Christ does not say "on thee," Peter 
the man, but on this rock. Petra, the feminine, refers not to Peter, but to his 
statement, confessing Clirist. The Greek ekklesia, rendered church, ordi- 
narily, seems to denote congregation, or assembly, rather than church, as the 
word is usually understood. At the time these words were spoken Christians 
were not associated in church relations, as now, but every group of Christians 
was an ekklesia, an assembly, or congregation. It is derived, by some, from 
ekkalein, to call out. Others derive it from the Hebrew kel, an assembly. 
Parkhurst observes, "In the Seventy, this word almost constantly answers to 
the Hebrew kel which denotes an assembly or congregation, and is often ap- 
plied to the general assembly of the Israelitish people." In proof of this, he 
refers to Dent, xviii: 16, xxxi: 30; Joshua ix: 35; 1 Kings xviii: 14, 22, 56, 
66. This statement is confirmed from Acts vii: 38, where it is said, "Moses 
was in the church (ekklesia), in the wilderness." See also Gesenius's Hebrew 
Lexicon, as translated by Robinson, on the word kel. In Acts xix : 32-41, the 
word ekklesia occurs three times, and is uniformly rendered by the word as- 
sembly in our common English version. The Greeks used it to denote any 
popular assembly, met for any purpose whatsoever. "The gates of Hades" 
denotes the powers of destruction. It is our Lord's way of saying that his 
church cannot be destroyed. The reader will see that as petra is in the femi- 
nine, and that as it is on petra that Christ's assembly is built, the Catholic 
doctrine of the primacy of Peter has no foundation. It is not on Peter, but on 
the confession of Christ, that his church is founded. 

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Immerser/ and others, 'Elijah/ and others, 'One of the 
prophets.*" ^'And he asked them, **But who do you say 
that I am?" Peter answers, and says to hun, **You are the 
Christ, the son of God.'' ^'And he charged them that they 
should tell no man of him. 

Lake ix: 18-20. And it occurred as he was praying in 
private, the disciples were with him, and Jesus asked them 
saying, "Who do men say that I am?" "And they answered, 
and said, "[Some say] *John,theImraerser;' and others, *Eh- 
jah; ' and others that* A certain ancient prophet has risen.' " 
**And he said to them,. "But who do you say that I am?** 
And Peter answering, said, "The Christ of God." 


Matt, xvi: 21-28. From that time Jesus Christ began 
to disclose to his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem, and 
suffer much from the presbyters, and high priests, and scribes, 
and be killed, and be raised the third day. ^And Peter took 
him and remonstrated with him, and said, "Far be it from 
you, Master: this shall not happen to you.'* ^^But he turned 
and said to Peter, "Get behind me, adversary; you are an 
offense to me, for you regard not the things of God, but 
those of mon." ^*Then Jesus said to his disciples, "If any 
man wishes to come after me let him renounce himself, and 
let him bear his cross and follow me, for whoever wishes to 
save his hfe shall lose it; ^and whoever shall lose his life on 
my account shall find it. **For what is a man profited if he 

Matt, xvi: 25, 26. In the E. V. the Greek word psuche is rendered "life" 
twice in one verse, and twice "soul," in the other. In the R. V. it is rendered 
"life" all four times, but is put as "soul" in the margin. It should be life, al- 
ways. Clarke says: " *Lo8e his own soul, or lose tis life.' On whati authority 
many have translated the -word pstiche, in the twenty -fifth verse, life, and in 
this verse, soul, X know not; but am certain it means life in both places. If a 

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156 '^^^ ^^^ COVENANT. 

gain the whole world, and forfeit his life, or what shall a man 
give in exchange for his hfe? "For the Son of Man is about 
to come in his Father's glory, with his messengers, and then 
he will recompense each one according to his doing. "Truly 
I say to you that there are some standing here who will not 
taste death till they see the Son of Man comingin his reign.' 

Mark viii: 31-38. ix: 1. And he began to teach them 
that the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be re- 
jected by the presbyters, and the high priests, and the scribes, 
and be killed, and after three days rise again. "Ani he spoke 
this word plainly. And Peter took him aside, and began to 
remonstrate with him. "But Jesm, turning round, and look- 
ing on his disciples, reprimanded Peter, and says, **Get be- 
hind me, adversary, for you think not the things of God, but 

man should gain the whole world, it« riches, honors and pleasures, and lose 
his life, what would aU these profit him, seeing they can only be enjoyed dur- 
ing Ufe?" 

But it id not the mere animal life that is referred to ; it is the faculty of en- 
joying life. The selfish man, who chiefly seeks to save his life, loses it, and he 
who unselfishly is willing to sacrifice It, gains thereby. It profits one not at 
aU to gain even the world, if he loses his life, or degrades the quality of his life 
by the process. 

It is true, also, that one may lose his soul in the process of seeking gain, 
but the text does not refer to the soul, true though it is that the soul is often 
lost— not beyond recovery, but still lost, like the silver, the sheep, and the 
prodigal, to be at length found by the great Seeker, who wUl not cease from 
his divine labors "until he finds" all the lost. 

Matt, xvi : 27 ; Mark viii : 35-37 ; Luke ix : 24, 25. The Son of Man is about 
to come. We have called attention to the strange fact in the E. V. and R V., 
of the almost constant overlooking of the significant and emphatic word 
mello^ about. It is often the key-word to the correct understanding of a pas- 
sage, and yet it is frequently unrecognized in both translations. Here, instead 
of saying according to R. V., "The Son of Man shall come," indefinitely, the lan- 
guage is, "The Son of Man is about, mellei, to come." This makes the second 
coming to be then near, and verse 28 corroborates: "There are some 
standing here who will not ^aste death till they see the Son of Man coming in 
his kingdom." The second coming of Christ was during the life-time of those 
who heard him speak. 


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the things of men." '*And he called to the crowd with his 
disciples, and said to them, **If any man desires to come af- 
ter me, let him renounce himself, and take up his cross, and 
follow me. "^For whoever desires to save his life shall lose 
it, and whoever shall lose his life, for my sake, and for the 
good news, shall save it. *For what does it profit a man to 
gain the whole world, and forfeit his Hfe, ^or what shall a 
man give in exchange for his life? ^If, therefore, any one 
shall he ashamed of me, and of my words, in this adulterous 
and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also he ashamed 
of him, when he. comes in his Father's glory, with the holy 
angels. " ix: 1. And he said to them, "Truly I say to you that 
there are some of those that stand here, who will not taste 
death, till they see God's kingdom come with power." 

Luke ix: 21-27. And he charged them, and commanded 
[them] to tell this to no man, saying, ^"The Son of Man 
must suffer many things, and be rejected by the presbyters, 
and high priests, and scribes, and be killed, and be raised up 
on the third day." *^And he said to all, **If any one wishes to 
come after me, let him renounce himself, and take up his 
cross, daily, and follow me. "For whoever wishes to save his 
hfe will lose it; and whoever shaU lose his life on my ac- 
count will save it. *^For what is a man profited if he gain 
the whole world, and lose, or forfeit himself? **For whoever 
shall be ashamed of me and my words, the Son of Man will 
be ashamed of him, when he comes in his own glory, and 
the Father's, and the holy angels.' *^But I teU you truly, some 
of those that stand here will not taste death till they see the 
reign of God." 


Matthew XVii: 1-13. And six days after, Jesus takes 
with him Peter, and Jacob, and John, his brother, and pri- 

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vately conducts ihem up into a high mountain, 'and he was 
transformed in their presence, and his face shone as the smi ; 
and his garments became white as the hght. ^And behold, 
Moses and Ehjah appeared to them, talking with him. *And 
Peter addressed Jesus and said, "Master, it is good for us to 
be here. If you desire, I will make here three booths, — ^for 
you one, and Moses one, and Ehjah one." *While he was 
speaking, behold, a luminous cloud enveloped them, and be- 
hold, a voice from the cloud, saying, "This is my son, the be- 
loved, in whom I dehght, hearken to him." 'And when the 
disciples heard it, they fell on their faces, and were greatly 
frightened. ^And Jesus came near, touched them, and said, 
** Arise, and be not afraid." ®Tben they raised their eyes, 
but they saw no one except Jesus himself, 'And as they 
were descending the mountain, Jesus charged them, saying, 
**Tell the vision to no man, tiU the Son of Man shall be 
raised from the dead." *°And tJie disciples asked him, say- 
ing, ♦'Why then do the scribes say that Ehjah must first 
come?" "And he answered and said, "Ehjah indeed comes, 
and will restore all things, but I say to you, "that Ehjah has 
already come, and they did not recognize him, but have done 
to him whatever they wished. So also the Son of Man is 
about to suffer by them." ^'Then the disciples understood that 
he spoke to them of John,the Immerser. 

Lake ix: 28-36. And it occurred about eight days after 
these words, that he took Peter, and John, and Jacob, and 
went up into the mountain to pray. **And it occurred, as he 
prayed, [that] the form of his face was changed, and his rai- 
ment [became] ghttering white. ""And behold, two men con- 
versed with him, who were Moses and Ehjah, '"who appeared 

Matt. xtU: 2. The word here is more than -transflgoredr it is "trans- 
lormed." Verse 6, Matthew says "face." 

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in glory, and spoke of his departure, which he was about to 
accomplish in Jerusalem. ^But Peter, and those with him, 
were drowsy, but having remained awake, they saw his glory, 
and the two men that stood with him. ^And it occurred, as 
they were departing from him, that Peter said to Jesus, 
"Master, it is good for us to be here; and let us make three 
booths, — ^for you one, and for Moses one, and for Elijah one," 
not knowing what he said. "And as he thus spoke, a cloud 
came and enveloped them, and they feared as they entered 
the cloud. ^And a voice came out of the cloud, saying, 
"This is my son, the beloved, hearken to him." *And when 
the voice ceased Jesus was found alone. And they kept it 
close, and told no man, in those days, what they had seen. 

Mark ix: 2-1 S. And six days after, Jesus takes Peter, 
and Jacob, and John, and privately conducts them by them- 
selves, up into a high mountain, and he was transformed 
in their presence. ^And his clothing became exceedingly re- 
splendent; whiter than any fuller on earth could whiten. 
*And Elijah and Moses appeared there to them, and were con- 
versing with Jesus. '^And Peter exclaimed to Jesus, "Eabbi, 
it is good for us to be here; and let us make three booths, — 
one for you, and one for Moses, and one for Ehjah." "For 
he knew not what to answer, for they were terrified. ^And 
there came a cloud enveloping them, and a voice out of the 
cloud [saying], "This is my son, the beloved, hear him." 
''And suddenly looking around they saw no one any longer 
with themselves, except Jesus, only. ®And as they were de- 
scending the mountain, he charged them that they should re- 
late to no man what they had seen, till the Son of Man should 
be raised from the dead. *^And they kept the matter to them- 

LuKB ix : 32. Diagregoresantes^ -waMng after an intetyal, into tnU watoa- 
f Illness. The word is nowhere else found. 

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170 .THE imw COVENANT, 

selves, discnssing what "the rising again from the dead** 
could mean. "And they asked him, saying, [**Why do] the 
scribes say that EHjah must first come?'* "And he said to 
them, *<EUjah is indeed coming first, to restore all things, 
and how is it written of the Son of Man that he must first 
sufFer much, and be despised? ^'But I say to you that EHjah 
has come, as it is written of him, and they have done to him 
whatever they pleased.** 


Matthew xvii: 14-20, And when they had come to the 
crowd, there came to him a man, kneeling to him, and say- 
ing, ^*** Master, have pity on my son, for he is a lunatic, and 
is sick, for he frequently faUs into the fire, and frequently 
into the water; "and I brought him to your disciples, but 
they could not cure him.** "And Jesus answered and said, **0 
unbelieving and perverse generation! How long shall I be 
with you? . How long shall I endure you? Bring him here 
to me.** "And Jesus reproved him, and the demon went out 
of him, and the boy was cured from that hour. "Then the 
disciples came to Jesus privately, and said, "Why could not 
we exorcise it?** *^And he says to them, "On account of 
your Httle faith; for truly I say to you, if you have faith as a 
mustard-grain, you shall say to this mountain, * Be removed 
from here, there,* and it shall remove, and nothing will be 
impossible to you.** 

Markix: 14-29. And when they came to the disciples 
they saw a great crowd about them, and the scribes disputing 
with them, "and immediately all the crowd, when they saw 
him, were awestruck, and running to him saluted him. 
"And he asked them, "What are you disputing about with 

Matt, xvii: 21. This verse in E. V. is not Kenulne. It is in Mark Ix: 29. 

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them?'* "And one of the crowd answered him, "Teacher, I 
have brought to you my son, who has a mute spirit, "and 
whenever it seizes him, it convulses him, and he froths, and 
grates his teeth, and pines away; and I spoke to your disci- 
ples to exorcise it, but they could not." *®And he answers 
them, and says, **0 unbelieving generation! How long shall 
I be with you? How long shall I endure you? Bring him to 
me." *°And they brought him to him. And when he saw 
him, the spirit immediately threw him into spasms, and he 
fell on the ground, and rolled about, frothing. **And he 
asked his father, **How long a time is it since this has be- 
fallen him?" And he said, **From childhood; "and often it 
has thrown him into fire, and into waters, to destroy him; 
but if you can do anything, have pity on us, and help us." 
"^And Jesus said to him, **If you can! All things are possi- 
ble to him that beHeves." -*The father of the child imme- 
diately cried out with tears, and said, **I beheve, help my im- 
behef." ^And when Jesus saw that the crowd was running 
together, he rebuked the impure spirit, saying to it, **Mute 
and deaf spirit, I command you to come out. of him, and en- 
ter him no more." '^And it came out, crying out, and greatly 
convulsing him, and he became like one dead, so that many 
said, **He is dead." *^But Jesus took his hand, and raised 
him up, and he stood up. ^And when he had entered a house 
his disciples asked him privately, "[Why] could not we exor- 
cise it?" ^And he said to them, "This kind can go out only 
by prayer and fasting." 

Luke ix: 37-43. And it occurred on the next day, when 
they had descended the mountain^ [that] a great crowd met 
him. ^And behold, a man from the throng cried out, say- 
ing, "Teacher, I pray you look on my son, for he is my only 
child. **And behold, a spirit seizes him, and he suddenly 

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cries out, and it so dashes, and convulses him, that he froths, 
and after bruising him, it departs from him with difficulty. 
^^'And I implored your disciples to exorcise it, but they could 
not. " "And Jesus answered, and said, "0 faithless and per- 
verse generation I How long shall I be with you, and en- 
dure you? Bring your son here." **And while he was ap- 
proaching, the demon dashed him down, and violently con- 
vulsed him. But Jesus reproved the impure spirit, and cured 
the boy, and dehvered him to his father. **And all were 
amazed at the majesty of God. 


Matthew xvii: 32-23. And while they were traveling in 
Galilee, Jesus said to them, **The Son of Man is about to be 
dehvered into men*s hands. "And they will kill him, and the 
third day he will be raised." And they were exceedingly 

Mark ix: 30-32. And they departed thence, and passed 
through Galilee,- and he desired that no man should know it; 
^^for he taught his disciples, and said to them, "The Son of 
Man is dehvered up into the hands of men, and they wiU kill 
him ; and when he is killed, after three days he will rise again." 
'"But they did not understand the language, and were afraid 
to ask him. » 

Luke ix: 43-45. And while all were wondering at all 
the things that he was doing, he said to his disciples, ****Fix 
these words in your ears, for the Son of Man is about to be 
dehvered into men's hands." **But they did not understand 
this word, and it was veiled from them, that they might not 
perceive it, and they were afraid to ask him concerning this 

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Matthew xvii: 24-27. And when they came to Kaphar- 
naum the collectors of the di-drachma came to Peter, and 
said, "Does not your teacher pay the di-drachma?" "^He 
says, **Yes." And when he had come into the house, Jesus 
anticipated him, saying, **What do you think, Simon, from 
whom do the kings of the earth receive taxes, or tribute, 
from their sons, or from aUens?" *And when he said, **From 
ahens," Jesus said to him, **Then are the sons exempt. 
''But that we may not offend them, go to the lake, and cast a 
hook, and take the first fish that comes up, and when you 
have opened his mouth you will find a stater; take that and 
give to them for me and you." 


Matthew xviii: 1-14. In that hour the disciples ceme to 
Jesus, saying, "Who, then, is greater [than others] in the 
heavenly kingdom?" 'And he called a httle child to him, 
and placed it among them, and said, ^"Truly I say to you, if 
you do not turn and become as httle children, you will not en- 
ter into the heavenly reign. ^Whoever, therefore, shall 
humble himself as this httle child, will be the greater in the 
heavenly reign. ^And he who receives one such httle 
child in my name, receives me. 'And he who shall give cause 
of offence to one of these httle ones, that beheve in me, it 
would be profitable for him that an upper mill-stone were 
hung about his neck, and that he be sunk in the depths of 
the lake. 

Matt, xvii: 24. About a half shekel, or 30 cents. See Ex. xxx: 13, 14. A 
shekel was 60 cents 

Matt, xviii : 6. "The punishment here alluded to, though not in use among 
the Jews themselves, was so among the Greeks, Romans, and the surrounding 
nations; where it was inflicted on criminals of the worst sort, especially par- 
ricides and those guilty of sacrilege. The custom seems to have grown into a 
proverb tor dreadful and inevitable ruin. "—Greswell. 

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^"Alas for the world, because of offences! For it is neces- 
sary that offences come, but alas for that man through whom 
the offence comes! ®If, then, your hand or yoifr foot offend 
you, cut it off, and cast it from you. It is good for you to en- 
ter life crippled, or lame, rather than having two hands, or 
two feet, to be cast into the aBonian fire. 'And if your eye of- 
fend you, tear it out, and cast it from you. It is good for you 
to enter life one-eyed, rather than having two eyes, to be 
cast into the fiery Gehenna. 

*®**See that you do not despise one of these little ones; fori 
say to you that in the heavens their angels continually see the 
face of my heavenly Father. "What do you think? Should 
any man have a hundred sheep, and should one of them go 
astray, will he not leave the ninety-nine and go on the mount- 
ains, and seek the stray one? "And if he should find it, 
truly I tell you, that he rejoices over it more than over the 
ninety-nine which did not go astray. "So it is not the pur- 
pose of my heavenly Father that one of these Httle ones 
should perish." 

Luke ix: 46-50. . And a debate sprang up among them, 
[as to] which of them should be greater. *'But when ^esus 
saw the thought of their heart, he took a little child, and 
placed it beside him, and said to them, *" "Whoever receives 
•this little child in my name, receives me; and whoever shall 
receive me, receives him who sent me; for he who is least 
among you all, the same is great." *'And John answered 
and said, "Master, we saw one exorcising demons in your 
name, and we forbade him, because he does not follow us.*' 
^And Jesus said to him, "Forbid not; for he that is not 
against you, is for you." 

Mark ix: 33-60. And they came to Kaphamaum; and 

Matt, xvlii: 11. S. and V. omit this verse. 

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when he was in the house he asked them, "What were you 
discussmg on the road?*' "But they were silent, for they de- 
bated on the road who [was] greater [than othersj. '^And 
he sat down, and called the twelve, and says to them, "If 
any man desires to be first, he shall be last of all, and servant 
of all." '^And he took a Httle child, and placed it among 
them, and folding it in his arms, he said to them, ''^"Who- 
ever shall receive one of these Httle children in my name, re- 
ceives me, and whoever receives me, receives not me, but him 
that sent me." "John said to him, "Teacher, we saw one 
exorcising demons in your name, and we forbade him, be- 
cause he followed not us." ~But Jesus said, "Do not forbid 
him, for there is no man [who] will do a mighty work in my 
name, and be able, readily, to speak ill of me. ***For he that 
is not against us, is for us. **For whoever may give you 
a cup of water to drink, in the name that you are Christ's, 
truly I say to you, he shall by no means lose his reward. 
"And whoever shall offend one of these little ones that be- 
Heve, it would be better for him if an upper mill-stone were 
hanged about his neck, and he thrown into the lake. ^^And 

Mark, ix : 43-50. Fire that never shall be quenched. The word answering to 
never shall be quenched, ver. 43,45, is asbesion;hut in ver. 44,46,48, the phrase 
is ou abennutai, translated not quenched: of which the former is an adjective, 
derived from the latter, though it is translated as a verb in t^e future tense; the 
latter is a verb. The worm and the fire are here added as characteristics and 
aggravations of Gehenna, ver. 43; and the whole description is metaphorical, 
and, by the use of lively and terrible figures, denotes a state of awful misery. 
So far, I suppose, all agree. But whether that misery be temporary or end- 
less, is yet a question in dispute. The terms here used, therefore, should be 
well considered: because the question itself is of vital consequence. 

The adjective, used in ver. 43. 45, occurs in the passages cited below, from 
Strabo, Plutarch, Josephus, and Eusebius. "Strabo, the celebrated geographer, 
speaking of the Parthenon, a temple at Athens, says, *In this was the inex- 
tinguishable or unquenchable lamp,* by which he simply means the lamp 
which was kept continually burning, but which was extinguished or quenched, 
ages ago. Plutarch, the well known author of the biographies familiarly 
termed 'Plutarch's Lives,' calls the sacred fire of the temple unquenchable 
fire, though he says, in the very next sentence, they had sometimes gone ont. 

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176 ^i^^ ^^W COVENANT. 

if your hand offend you, cut it off; it is good for you to enter 
the life crippled, [rather] than to enter Gehenna, into the inex- 
tinguishahle fire, with two hands. **And if your foot offend 

Josephus, speaking of a festival of the Jews, says that every one brought fuel 
for the fire of the altar, which * continued always unquenchable^' although it 
had actually ceased, and the altar itself had been destroyed with the temple, 
at the time he wrote. Eusebius, the father of ecclesiastical history, describ- 
ing the martyrdom of several Christians at Alexandria, says, * They were car- 
ried on camels through the city, and in this elevated position were scourged, 
and finally consumed in unquenchable firet* though it could not have burned, 
probably, more than an hour or two at the most. These authors, writing in 
their own tongue, or a language with which they were perfectly familiar, must 
have known, most assuredly, the value and import of the phrase ' unquencha- 
ble fire;' and it is as clear as demonstration can make it, that they did not un- 
derstand it to mean endlessr—Vniy. Expos. (N. Ser.) vol. iv., pp. 338, 339. The 
Scriptural usage of the word is similar. It often occurs where it cannot be un- 
derstood to indicate an endless burning. The adjective is not found in the 
Old Testament; nor does it occur in the New, except in the passage under con- 
sideration, and Matt, iii: 12, and the parallel place, Luke iii: 17. And that 
unquenchable does not mean endless in the two places last named, see note 
on Matt, ill: 12. But the verb, here used in ver. 44, 46, 48, and from which 
the adjective is derived and has its force, occurs several times in the Old Testa- 
ment. Its usage may show in what manner the Jews understood it when ap- 
plied to fire. Seelsa. i: 31; xxxiv: 10; Ixvi: 24; Jer. iv: 4; vil: 20^xvii: 27; 
xxi: 12; Ezek. xx: 47, 48; Amos v: 6. In all these cases, though punishment 
be indicated by the fire, yet the unquenchableness of that fire does not denote 
that the punishment shall be endless: for the judgments were to be executed 
on the earth, and their end is manifest. The same word occurs, Ezek. xxxil: 
7, where it is translated cover. This, however, being its positive form, does 
not clearly indicate its force, whe^;i used negatively. The same is true of sev- 
eral other passages where the word occurs, and which I therefore omit. But 
the same word is applied to the sacred fire, in a manner which more clearly, 
if possible, demonstrates the fact that it does not denote endless. "And the 
fire upon the altar shaU be burning in it; it shall not be put out; and the priest 
shall bum wood on it every morning, and lay the burnt-offering in order upon 
it ; and he shall bum thereon the fat of the peace-offerings. The fire shall ever 
be buming upon the altar; it shall never go out" Lev. vi: 12, 13. It is 
worthy of remark that Josephus, as before quoted, calls this fire by the same 
name, unquenchable^ although, when he wrote, it had already been put out 
and effectually quenched. 

So much in regard to the general usage of these words. But it is agreed, on 
all hands, that this passage in Mark has special reference to Isa. Ixvi: 24, and 
that its peculiar forms of expression are taken from that place, almost literally. 
And, as our Lord gives no intimation to the contrary, we are justified in the 
belief that he used the language in the same sense as the prophet. To what 
kind of fire, then, did Isaiah refer? and to what kind of punishment? "And it 
shall come to pass that from one new moon to another, and from one Sabbath 

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you, cut it off; it is good for you to enter the life lame, [rather] 
than to be cast into Gehenna with two feet. *'And if your 
eye offend you, tear it out; it is good for you to enter the reign 

to another, shall aU flesh come to worship before me, saith the Lord. And 
they shaU go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men that have trans* 
gressed against me; for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire he 
quenched; and they anabhorring unto aU flesh." Isa. Ixvi: 23, 24. Tliis, 
it wiU be observed, was to be accomplished, while Sabbaths and new rnoons 
continued; and wliile men built houses, and planted vineyards, and occupied 
them, as appears by comparing ch. Ixvi : 17-22, with Ixvi : 22-24. The "learned 
Oataker** thus speaks of the fire and the worm: "The prophet, in this clause, 
pursueth the aUegory taken from corpses unburied. And this the Jewish doc- 
tors, some of them, taking notice of, but withal taking it literaUy that this 
shall be paxt of the strange sights, ver. 19, that should be shown to Gog's and 
Magog's army, that though the judgment inflicted on them be by flre, Ezek. 
xxxvlii: 22, yet the worms that bred in their carcasses, lying many months 
unburied, Ezek. xxxix: 9, shall live in the flre; which fiction, others, to shun, 
say that the worm hath reference to the bodies unbumed; the fire to their 
cities burnt down with flre from above. Ezek. xxxix: 9. See Rev. xx: 6, 8. 
But such salves need not; the worm hath reference to such vermin as is wont 
to breed in and feed on dead corpses; such carcasses especially as lie so long 
above ground, until they rot, and become as dung or carrion. Job xxi: 26; Ps. 
IxxxiU: 10; Isa. xiv: 11, 19, 20; the^^re, to the burning of such bodies, notflt 
now to be stirred, or removed, but to be consumed by flre, in the places where 
they lie, oh. ix : 5 ; xxx : 33 ; Ezek. xxxix : 9. So that the resemblance is taken 
from the bodies that lie rotting on the face of the earth, till they crawl aU over 
with worms and maggots, and in regard both of their unfltness to be managed 
and the multitude of them, it is a long tims ere they can be consumed with 
flre.'* So much for the usual exposition; by which the undying worm and un- 
quenchable flre are represented as enduring for a long time. And in the spiHtual 
application which G^taker thought it necessary to make, he by no means con- 
flnes it toa future endless punishment, but allows it to be a< least equaUy ap- 
plicable to judgments executed on the earth: "By the whole similitude, or 
allegory, that dreadful, direful, and detestable condition is expressed, that 
shall, at flrst or last, befaU aU obstinate wicked ones; sometimes in exemplary 
judgments executed upon them in this world; partly, by inward torture of 
mind, Dan. v: 6; partly, by corporeal pains, 2 Chron. xxi: 18, 19; Acts xii: 23; 
and ignominious usages; Isa. xxii: 17, 18; Jer. xxii: 18, 19. The punishment 
here indicated is horrible, truly; yet there is no evidence that it was to en- 
dure without end. It was rather the same which our Lord predicted, on sev- 
eral occasions, as the damnation of hell, and a time of unequaled tribulation. 
See Matt, lii: 7; xxiii: 33; xxiv: 21; and the notes. See also Matt, xxtii: 

It may be added that the function of worms is to prevent putrefaction, 
and flre consumes and purifles. What should their moral analogue be, but 
discipline? The worm and the flre symbolize purif3rlng correction. 

Every one shall he salted with fire, <fea Some have strangely supposed that 


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of God one-eyed, [rather] than to have two eyes, and be cast 
into Gehenna, **where their worm does not. die, and the fire * 
is not quenched. *"For every one shall be salted with fire, 
and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt. "^Salt is good; but 
if the salt become saltless, with what will you season it? 
Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with each other. " 


Matthew xviii: 15-35. "And if your brother should sin, 
go show him his fault between you and him alone. If he 
hear you, you have gamed your brother. "But if he hear 
[youj not, take with you one or two besides, so that by the 
mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be proved. 
^'And if he should disregard them,inform the assembly; and 

our Lord meant the fire of hell wlU eternally preserve the bodies of men In a 
fit condition to be tormented, even as salt preserves flesh frqm putrefaction. 
But Bishop Brownell's exposition seems much more reasonable: "The opin- 
ions of commentators on this very obscure verse are almost endless; but the 
following seems as probable as any; namely, after declaring that every sacri- 
fice, however painful, must be made, rather than renounce our faith, ver. 43- 
48, Christ adds as a reason, that * every one* who devotes himself to the ser- 
vice of God * shall be salted with fire,' that is, shall be fitted for that service by 
trials, and difficulties, and mortifications; in the same way as * every sacrifice ' 
offered under the law was to be * salted with salt,* Lev. li: 13, before It oould 
be acceptable to God. According to this, * every one ' means every Christian, 
or person who devotes himself to God ; * to be salted * Is taken figuratively for 
to be perfected, rendered acceptable in the sight of God, which is sanctioned 
by Matt, v: 13; Col. Iv: 6; and *fire * denotes trials and sufferings. Co^ip. 1. 
Cor. iii: 13-15."— ^rowmeZZ. "Every one shaU be salted for the fire of God's 
favor; that is, shall be prepared to be offered a sacrifice to God, holy and accept- 
able. For although the proposition be universal, it must be limited by the nat- 
ure of the subject thus : Every one, who is offered a sacrifice to God, shall be 
salted for the fire, as every sacrifice is salted with seXt/'—Macknight. So far 
is Macknight from finding in this passage any proof that some must endure 
endless misery, that he qualifies it somewhat, apparently fearful that his 
readers would understand it to teach th€ final salvation of all men. "The 
crosses, afflictions, and severe sacrifices, occasioned by the practice of piety 
and the profession of true Christianity, are here compared to fire; even to a 
fire which produces the same effect on the mind which salt produces on flesh, 
preserving it from corruption." — Beausobre. — Paige. 

Matt, xviii: 15. S. omits "against thee." 

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if he disregard the assembly, then let him be to you as the 
Gentile and the tax-collector. '*Truly I say to you, whatever 
things you shall bind on the earth, shall be bound in [the] 
heavens, and whatever you may loosen on the earth, shall be 
as loosened in [the] heavens. '* Again, truly I say to you, that 
if two of you on earth agree about anything which they may 
ask, it shall be done for them by my heavenly Father. ""For 
where two or three are assembled into my name, there am I, 
among them.'* 

"Then Peter came and said to him, "Master, how often 
shall I forgive my brother, if he sin against me? Till seven 
times?" ** Jesus says to him, **I say to you not [only] till 
seven times, but till seventy times seven. "Therefore, in 
this [respect] the heavenly reign resembles a king who 
wished to settle an account with his slaves. •'And when he 
had begun to settle, they brought to him one who was a. 
debtor for ten thousand talents. *^But as he was unable to 
pay, his master ordered him to be sold, and his wife, and the 
children, and all he had, and payment to be made. ^Therefore, 
the slave fell down and rendered him homage, saying, * Have 
patience with me, master, and I will pay you all.* "Then the 
master of the slave, being moved with pity, released him, and 
forgave the debt. "But the slave went out and found one of 
his fellow -slaves, who owed him a hundred denaries, and 
seizing him, he choked him, saying, * Pay what you owe.' 
"Therefore, the fellow-slave fell down and besought him, say- 

IfATT. xvlll: 20. "Into my name." Eis onoma and en onoma are not the 
same. "Into my name" impUes the thought of association with him. So 

Matt. xviU : 24. Some of the oldest MSS. say many talents— 10,000 talents 
would be more than $11,000,000. 
Matt, xvili: 28. A denary is about 14 cents. 

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180 ^^^ ^^^ COVENANT, 

ing, • Have patience with me, and I will pay you.* *And he 
would not, but went away and cast him into prison, till he 
should pay the debt. "^When, therefore, his fellow-slaves 
saw what had been done, they were very sorry, and went to 
their master, and related all that had been done. "'Then his 
master called him to him, and said to him, * Wicked slave t 
I remitted all that debt to you because you entreated me. 
"Ought you not to have had pity on your fellow-slave, as I 
also had pity on you?* ^And his master was angry, and 
delivered him to the jailers, till he should pay ail that he 
owed. '^So, also, my heavenly Father will do to you, if you 
do not from your hearts forgive each one his brother.** 


Luke X: 1-16* Now after these things the Master ap- 
pointed seventy-two others, and sent them by pairs be- 
fore his face, into every city and place where he was about to 
go; 'and he said to them, '*The harvest is indeed ample, but 
the laborers few; therefore entreat the Master of the harvest 
that he send out laborers into his harvest. ^Go, behold, I 
send you as lambs among wolves. *Cariy no purse, nor 
sachel, nor sandals; and salute no man by the way; ^andinto 
whatever house you enter, first say * Peace to this house.' 'And 
if a son of peace be there, your peace shall rest on it; other- 
wise it shall return to you. ^And in that house remain, eating 
and drinking such things as they have; for the laborer is 
worthy of his hire. Go not from house to house. 'Also, 
into whatever city you enter, and they receive you, eat such 
things as are set before you; "and cure the sick in it, and say 
to them, * God*s reign has come nigh you.' *°But into what- 
ever city you enter, arid they do not receive you, go into its 
open squares and say, "* Even the dust of your city that ad- 
heres to our feet, we wipe off against you. Know this, how- 

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ever, that Ood*s reign has come near.' '*I say to you, it will 
be more endurable for Sodom in that day than for that city. 
"Alas for you, Chorazin! Alas for you, Bethsaida! For if 
the mighty works that were wrought in you had been done in 
Tyre and Sidon, they would have reformed long ago, sitting 
in sackcloth and ashes. "But it will be more endurable for 
Tyre and Sidon, in the judgment, than for you. "And you, 
Kaphamaum, shall you be exalted to heaven? You shall go 
down to Hades. "He who hears you, hears me; and he who 
rejects you, rejects me; and he who rejects me, rejects him 
that sent me." 


Luke ix: 51-56. And it occurred, when the days of his 
withdrawal were being completed, he resolutely set his face to 
go to Jerusalem, '^and sent messengers before his face, and 
they went and entered a Samaritan village to prepare for him. 
"And they did not receive him, because his face was as if he 
was going to Jerusalem. "And when his disciples, Jacob 
and John, saw [this], they said, "Master, do you desire us to 
command fire to descend from heaven to consume them, even 
as Elijah did?" *^But he turned and reproved them, and 
said, "You know not what kind of spirit you are of." **And 
they went to another village. 

John yii: 3-1 0. And the Jews* feast of the tabernacles 
was near. *His brothers, therefore, said to him, "Depart 
hence, and go into Judea, [so] that your disciples may see your 
works that you do. *For no man does anything in secret, 
and seeks that it be openly known. If you do these things, 
manifest yourself to the world." "For even his brothers did 
not believe on him. •Jesus therefore said to them, "My time 
has not yet come, but your time is always ready. 'The world 

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182 r^^ ^^W COVENANT. 

cannot hate you; but it hates me, because I testify that its 
works are evil. ®Go up to the feast ; I do not go up to this 
feast, because my time has not yet fully arrived. " 'When he 
said these things to them, he remained in Galilee. ^"But 
when his brothers had gone up, then he also went up to the 
feast, not publicly, but privately. 


Luke xvii: 11-19. And it occurred, as he was going to 
Jerusalem, that he went through the interior of Samaria and 
Galilee. "And as he entered a certain village, ten lepers met 
him, *Vho stood at a distance, and raised their voices, say- 
ing, "Jesus, Master, pity us!" "And when he saw them 
he said to them, "Go, show yourselves to the priests." And 
it occurred as they went, they were cleansed. "And one of 
them, when he saw that he was cured, returned, glorifying 
God with a loud voice; "and he fell on his face at his feet, 
giving him thanks; and he was a Samaritan. "And Jesus, 
answered and said, "Were not the ten cleansed? But where 
[are] the nine? "Was there none found but this ahen to 
return and give glory to God?" "And he said to him, 
"Arise! go your way; your faith has saved you." 

Luke xyU : 19. "Your faith has saved yon," iQ not in the Vatican codex. 

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John Tii : 1 1 -62 . The Jews, therefore, sought him during 
the feast, and said, "Where is he?" "And there was much 
murmuring about him among the crowds ; some said, "He is 
a good man;" others said, **No, but he misleads the people." 
"No man, however, spoke with freedom concerning him, for 
fear of the Jews. "And now the feast being half over, Jesus 
went up into the temple, and taught. "Therefore the Jews 
wondered, saying, "How does this man know letters, not 
having learned?" "^Therefore Jesus answered them, and said, 
"My teaching is not mine, but his that. sent me. "If any 
man chooses to do his will, he shall know of the teaching, 
whether it is from God, or [whether] I speak of myself. "He 
that speaks from himself seeks his own glory; but he that 
seeks the glory of him that sent him, is true, and there is no un- 
righteousness in him. "Has not Moses given you the law, 
and [yet] not one of you does the law ? Why do you seek to 
kill me?" *The crowd answered, "You have a demon ; who is 
seeking to kill you?" "Jesus answered, and said to them, "I 
have done one work, and you all wonder because of this. 
^Moses has given you circumcision, not that it is of Moses, 

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but because it is of the fathers, and you circumcise a man on 
[thej Sabbath. ^If a man receive circxuncision on [the] 
Sabbath, so that the law of Moses may not be violated, are 
you angry with me, because I have made a man entirely well 
on [the] Sabbath? ^ Judge not according to appearance, but 
judge righteous judgment." 

*^Then some of the Jerusalemites said, ''Is not this he 
whom they seek to kill? **And behold, he is talking openly, 
and they say nothing to him. Do the rulers truly acknowl- 
edge that this is the Christ? '^But we know this man, whence 
he is; when the Christ comes, no one knows whence he 
is." ^ Jesus therefore cried out, teaching in the temple, and 
saying, "You know me, and you know whence I am, and I 
have not come of myself, but he that sent me is true, whom 
you do not know. ^^I know him, because I am with him, and 
he sent me. " "^Then they sought to seize him, but no man 
laid hands on him, because his hour had not yet come. ^^But 
many of the crowd beheved in Him, and said, "When the 
Christ comes, will he do more signs than those that this man 
has done?" 

*'The Pharisees heard the crowd murmuring thus about 
him, and the high-priests and the Pharisees sent officers to 
arrest him. ** Jesus, therefore, said, "Yet a little whUe I am 
with you, then 1 go to him that sent me. ^You will seek 

John vli: 34. "You shaU not find me!" This language of our Lord to the 
Jews is thought by many to teach their final exclusion from his favor. It is 
usually misquoted thus: "If ye die in your sins, where God and Christ are 
ye never can come." The exact words are, "I go my way, and you will 
seek me and not find me, and you will die in your sins ; where I go you can not 
come."— John vii: 34, viii: 21. But he uttered similar words to his disciples 
(John xiii: 33): "Little children, yet a little while I am with you. You shaU 
seek me; and as I said unto the Jews, where I go, you can not come; so now I 
say to you." 

To this it is replied that he said to his disciple Peter, "You can not follow 
me now, but you shall foUow me afterward." True; but he also told the 

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me, and not find me; and where I am you cannot come." 
"^The Jews then said among themselves, "Where is this man 
about to go, that we shall not find him? Is he about to go to 
the dispersed among the Greeks, and to teach the Greeks? 

Jews, "Yon shaU not see me tiU yon shaU say, Blessed is he that comes In the 
name of the Lord." (Matt, xxiii: 39.) In both instances he meant that he 
shonld not be f oUowed at that time, but in neither case did he mean that they 
should be excluded from his presence forever. 

It is not possible to render exactly the different shades of the Greek nega- 
tive. Sometimes one "not," sometimes two or even three "nots" occur in a 
sentence. In the above passages Jesus says, "Ye shall seek me and shall not 
find me;" but in Matt, xxiv : 34, he says, "This generation shaU not not pass 
away,"&a, and in Matt., xxiv: 21, "Great tribulation, such as was not since 
the beginning of the world to this time, not not not shall be. " The single not 
inJohnvli: 34, viii : 31, and xiil: 33, implies that the negative is not final, 
and hence the same Jews are told, "Ye shall not see me till ye shall say : 
Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord." The double and triple 
forms imply the strongest possible negative, while the single negative is less 
positive. In fact, the single negative in the same language addressed to the 
disciples, John vili: 51, supplemented by the words, "You cannot follow me 
now, but you shall follow me afterwards," shows that the "not" does not indi- 
cate a final negative, and the same language addressed to the Jews supple- 
mented by Matt, xxiii: 39, above quoted, proves ^hat the "not" is not final. 

The famous commentators thus explain the passage : "This whole clause is 
to be understood as future, though the words am and cannot are both in the 
present tense. The meaning is, where I shall be, you will not be able to come. 
That is, he, the Messiah, would be in heaven; and though they would earnestly 
desire his presence and aid to save the city and nation from the Romans, yet 
they would not be able to obtain it,-— represented here by their not being 
able to come to him. This does not refer to their individual salvation, but to 
the deliverance of their nation. It is. not true of individual sinners, that 
they seek Christ in a proper manner, and are not able to find him. But 
it was true of the Jewish nation, that they looked for the Messiah, and 
sought his coming to deliver them, but he did not do it."— Bamea. "Rather, 
the time shall come, when your afilictions shall so increase, that ye shall de- 
sire, though too late, and in vain, that a prophet like me should arise among 
you, who should relieve you by his counsel and assistance."— CaZmei. 

The final salvation of the soul is not referred to. 

JoHNvii: 35. The dispersed among the Gentiles. Literally, the Greeks, 
"Grotlusj Wet8tein, Rosenmueller and A'wmoeZ, understand by the *dis- " 
persed ' the Jews scattered among the Gentiles, as in 2 Mace, i : 27. That the 
Israelites were at that time dispersed over the whole world, is known from 
Philo Judaeus and Josephus."— ^Sco^^ 

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^\^at is this word that he said, * You will seek me, and wiU 
not find me, and where I am you cannot come?' " 

^And on the last day, the great [day] of the feast, Jesus 
stood and cried, saying, "If any man thirst, let hiTn come to 
me, and drink. ^He that beheves in me, as the Scripture 
• said, *Out of his belly shall flow rivers of Hving water.'" ^'But 
this he said concerning the Spirit which those beheving in 
him were about to receive ; for the Spirit was not yet [given] 
neither was Jesus glorified. *^[Some] therefore, of the 
crowd, when they heard these words, said, "This is truly the 
prophet"; "some said, "This is the Christ;" others said, 
"Does the Christ, then, come from Galilee? "Has not the 
Scripture said that the Christ comes of David's seed, and 
from Bethlehem, the village where David was?" *^[Thus] 
division occurred in the crowd because of him ; **and some 
of them said they should arrest him, but no one laid hands on 
him. *^Then the officers came to the high-priests and Phari- 
sees, and they say to them, "Why did you not bring him?" 
^But the officers answered, "Man never so spake." *'The 
Pharisees, therefore, answered them, "Have you also been 
misled? **Do any of the rulers, or of the Pharisees, believe in 
him? *®But this rabble, who do not know the law, are accursed. " 
"'But Nicodemus — he who came to him before, being one of 
them — says to them, ""Does our law judge a man until it 
first hear from him, and know what he does?" ^^They 
answered, and said to him, "Are you also from Galilee? Search 
and see; for no prophet rises out of Galilee." * * 

John vll : 36. See comments on John vl : 34. 

John vii: 39. "Omit the word * given,' which is not expressed at all In the 
original, and read 'becanse neither was Jesns glorified.! "—Alford. 

John vii: 53: vlii: 11, inclusive. It is to be regretted that the beautiful 
story of "the woman taken in adultery" is not authentic. It is not con- 

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John Vili: 12-20. Again, therefore, Jesus spoke to them, 
saying, **I am the Light of the world; he who follows me 
will not walk in the darkness, but he has the light of life." 
"Then the Pharisees said to him, "You testify concerning 
yourself, your testimony is not true. " "Jesus answered, and 
said to them, "Even though I testify concerning myself, my 
testimony is true; because I know whence I came, and 
where I go; but you know not whence I came, nor where I go. 
*^You judge according to the flesh : I [thus] judge no man. 
^•But even though I judge, my judgment is true, because I am 
not alone, but I and the Father that sent me. ^^And it is 
also written in your law that the testimony of two men is true. 
*^I am he who testifies concerning myself, and the Father that 
sent me testifies concerning me." ^"Then they said to him, 
"Where is your Father?" Jesus answered ami said, "You know 

tained in S.^V. or A., nor in most fathers and ancient versions. There are sev- 
eral expressions in it not contained elsewhere in John. The style of the narra- 
tive differs from the rest of John. A. has a blank space where the more recent 
MSS. record the accounts, showing that It was known but not received. It is 
undoubtedly a post-dpostolic tradition. We give arendering from Stephens's 
Greek text, amended by other codices : "And they went each to his own house. 
^ Now Jesus went to the mountain of the olive trees. * And In the early [morning] 
he came again to the temple, and all the people came to him, and he sat down and 
taught them. ^And the scribes and the Pharisees bring a woman caught in 
adultery, and placing her among them, * they say to him, * Teacher, this wo- 
man was taken in the very act [of] committing adultery. ^Now, in the law, 
Moses commanded us to stone such women; what say you?* 'But they said 
this, trying him, that they might have something of which to accuse him. 
But Jesus, stooping dOMOi, wrote on the ground with his finger. 'And when 
they continued asking him, he rose and said, ' Let the sinless one among you, 
cast the first stone at her. * ^ And again stooping down, he wrote on the ground. 
•And when they heard [this] they went out, one by one, begiiming from the 
presbyters, even to the last, and left Jesus only, and the woman, standing 
among them. ^^And Jesus, rising and seeing no one but the woman, said to 
her, * Woman, where are they, your accusers? Has no one condemned you?' 
> 1 And she said, * No one, Master. * And Jesus said, * Neither do I condemn you ; 
go, and sin no longer . ' See Deut xiii : 9 ; xvii : 7. 

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neither me nor my Father; if you knew me, you would also 
know my Father." ^These words he spoke in the treasury, as 
he taught in the temple, and no man arrested him, because his 
hour had not yet come. 


John Tiii; 21-59, Then he said to them again, •*! go 
away, and you will seek me, and will die in your sin ; where I go 
you cannot come." "Then the Jews said, "Will he kill 
himself, that he says, * Where 1 go you cannot come*?" **And 
he said to them, "You are from below, I am from above ; 
you are of this world, I am not of this world. "^Therefore I 
said to you that you will die in your sins, for unless you 
believe that I am, you will die in your sins." ^They said, 
therefore, to him, '*Who are you?" Then Jesus said to them, 
**Even what I said to you at the beginning; ^I have many 
things to say and to judge concerning you ; but he that sent 
me is true, and the things I heard with him, these I say to 
the world." ^They knew not that he spoke to them of the 
Father, God, ^ Jesus therefore said, **When you have hfted 
up the Son of Man, then you will know that I am, and [that] 
I do nothing of myself, but as the Father taught me, so I say 
these things. ^And he that sent me, he has not left me 
alone : [he] is with me, because I always do the things that are 
pleasing to him." ^[After] speaking these things many be- 
lieved in him. ^* Jesus therefore said to the Jews who had 
beheved in him, "If yoji abide in my word, you are genuine 
disciples; ^and you will know the truth, and the truth 
will free you." '^They answered him, "We are Abra- 
ham's descendants, and to no one at any time have we been 
slaves; how say you, *You shall be freed?'" ** Jesus 
answered them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, that every one 

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that commits ain, is a slave of the sin. ^But the slave con- 
tinues not in the house to the ason ; the son does continue to 
the aBon. ^If, then, the son free you, you shall be 
free indeed. ''I know that you are Abraham's offspring; 
but you seek to kill me because my word has no place 
in you. *I tell what I have seen with the Father; and you 
also do what you have heard from [your] father." "^They 
answered and said to him, ** Abraham is our father.'' Jesus 
said to them, *'If you are Abraham's children, you will do 
Abraham's works; **but now you are seeking to kill me, a 
man who has spoken the truth to you, which I have heard 
from God. Abraham did not do this I "You do the works of 
your father." They said to him, "We have not been bom of 
fornication, we have one Father, God." "Jesus said to them, 
"If God were your Father, you would love me, for I pro- 
ceeded and came forth from God; for I have not even come 
of myself, but he sent me. **Why do you not understand my 
speech? Because you cannot hear my word. **You are from 
[your] father, the adversary, and you desire to do the lusts of 
your father. He was a man-slayer from the beginning, and 
stands not in the truth, because truth is not in him. When 
he speaks a He, he speaks from his own, because be is a liar, 
and the father of it. **But because I speak the truth, you do 
not beheve me. **Who of you convicts me of sin ? If I speak 
truth, why do you not believe me? *^He that is from God 
hears God's words; on this account you hear not, because you 
are not from God." *®The Jews answered, and said to him, 
"Say we not well that you are a Samaritan, and have a 
demon?" *' Jesus answered, "I have not a demon, but I 

John vlii: 35 (also 51, 52.) To the aeon, or age, that is, through or during 
the age; an indefinite, yet limited period. "Forever," as in E. V., is mani- 
festly inaccurate. 

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honor my Father, and you dishonor me. **^But I seek not my 
glory; there is one who seeks it, and judges. "Truly, truly, 
I say to you, if any man keep my word, he shall not see death 
to the flBon." **The Jews said to him, "Now we know that 
you have a demon ; Abraham and the prophets died, and you 
say, * K any one keep my word he will by no means see 
death, to the ©on'. *^Are you greater than our father Abra- 
ham, who died, and the prophets, [who] died? Whom do you 
make yourself?** ^ Jesus answered, "If I glorify myself, my 
glory is nothing. He who glorifies me is my Father, of 
whom you say that he is your God; "and [yet] you know him 
not,but I know him, and if I say that I know him not, I shall be 
a har like you. But I know him, and keep his word. "*Abra- 
ham, your father, rejoioed to see my day, and he saw it, 
and was glad." "Then the Jews said to him, "You are not 
yet fifty years old, and has Abraham seen you?" "Jesus said 
to them, "Truly, truly, I say to you, I am before Abraham 
was bom." **Therefore they took up stones to cast at him, 
but Jesus concealed himself, and left the temple. 


Luke x: 26-37* And behold, a certain lawyer stood up 
trying him, and saying, **Teacher, what shall I do to inherit 
ffionian life?" '^And he said to him, "What is written in 
the law? How do you read [it]?** "'And he, answering, said. 

John vlii; 58. ** *I am [he] * {ego eimi) occurs in Mark xlil: 6, Luke xxl: 8, 
where In the paraUel passage, Matt, xxiv: 5, the record is in full, / am the 
Christ. The same phrase, 'Iam\is In verse 24, 28, of this same eighth chapter, 
alsolv: 26, xiU; 19, Mark xiv: 62; and in these places it is so translated in 
the Common Version. It is, moreover, translated In the B. V, "It iff /," in 
Matt, xiv : 27, Mark vi : 50, Luke xxiv : 39, John vl : 20. It is also translated 
in the E. V. "I am [he]," in John ix : 9, xviii: 5, 6, 8 ; and in Matt, xxvi : 22- 
25, it occurs as a question, 'Is it I?' Here then, in every instance besides 
Johnvlii:58— the place under consideration— it clearly means, and is to be 
translated, and is In the B. V. translated, lam h», or in words equivalent to it. 
This is the acknowledged meaning everywhere else in the Four Gospels, and, 

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** *You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and 
with all your life, and with all your strength, and with all 
your mind;* and *Your neighbor as yourself.* " "And he 
said to him, **You have correctly answered. Do this, and 
you shall live." "But he, desiring to justify himself, said 
to Jesus, **And who is my neighbor?" "^ Jesus, replying, said, 
**A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, 
and he fell among robbers, who, having both stripped and 
beaten him, departed, leaving him half dead. "And acci- 
dentally, a certain priest was going down that road, and look- 
ing at him he passed along on the opposite side. **And in 
Uke manner a Levite, also, when he came to the place, looked, 
and passed along on the opposite side. '*'But a certain 
Samaritan, traveling, came near him, and when he saw him, 
he pitied him, ^and coming to him, he bandaged his wounds, 
pouring oil and wine on [them] , and setting him on his own 
beast, led him to a khan, and took care of him. *^And on the 
next day, taking out two denaries, he gave them to the keeper 
of the khan, and said, *Take care of him, and whatever you 
expend more, I will repay to you on my return.* ^'Which 
of these three seems to you a neighbor to him who fell among 
the robbers?" ^And he said, *'He that showed pity towards 
him.*' And Jesus said to him, "Go, and do likewise.** 


Luke x: 38-42« As they went on, he entered into a cer- 
tain village, and a certain woman named Martha received 
him into her house ; ^and she had a sister called Mary, who 

It may be added, in the whole New Te^ament. To translate it in the same 
way in John viii: 58, therefore, meets the first great law of Interpretation, 
which is usage." — Folsom. 

Luke x : 27. "With all your life," not soul. To love God with all the life, is 
to consecrate not only the mind, heart, and strength, but the entire being. 

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also sat at the Master's feet, and listened to his word. ^^'But 
Martha was distracted with much serving, and she approached, 
and said, ** Master, do you not care that my sister has left me 
to serve alone? Tell her, then, to assist me.** "And the 
Master answered, and said to her, "Martha, Martha, you are 
anxious and troubled about many things ; *T)ut few things, or 
one, is needful, and Mary has chosen the good part that shall 
not be taken away from her." 


Luke xi: 1-13. And it occurred, as he was praying in a 
certain place, that when he ceased, one of his disciples said 
to him, ** Master, teach us to pray, as John taught his 
disciples.*' *And he said to them, **When you pray, say. 
Father, hallowed be thy name; thy reign come; 'give us 
daily our sufficient bread, *and fbrgive us our sins; for we 
ourselves, also, forgive every one who is indebted to us; 
and bring us not into temptation.*' '^And he said to them, 
"Who of you shall have a friend, and shall go to him 
at midnight, and say to him, *Friend, lend me three 
loaves, "for my friend has come to me on his journey, 
and I have nothing to set before him. * ^And he, answer- 
ing from within, shall say, *Do not trouble me; the 
door is now closed, and my children are in bed with me; 
and I cannot rise to give you.' ®I tell you even if he wiU 
not rise and give [to] him because he is his friend, yet, on 
account of his importunity, he will rise and give him as 
many [loaves] as he wants. ®And I say to you, ask and it 
shall be given you ; seek, and you shall find , knock, and it shall 
be opened to you ; *°for every one that asks, receives ; and he 


LUEE xi: 2-4. S and V say, "Father, haUowed be thy name;" omitting 
"which art in heaven ;" V omits "thy wiU be done, as in heaven, so on the earth," 

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that seeks, finds; and to him who knocks, it is opened. "And 
what father [is there] among you, who, if his son ask a fish, 
will give him a serpent instead of a fish? "or, also, if he ask 
an Qggy will give him a ecorpion? ^''If you, then, being evil, 
know how to give good gifts to your children, how much 
more will the heavenly Father give [the] Holy Spirit to those 
that ask him?" 


Luke x: 17-24. . And the seventy-two returned with joy, 
saying, "Master, even the demons are subject to us in your 
name." "And he said to them, "I saw the adversary, hke 
hghtning, falling from heaven. "Behold, I have given you 
authority to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all 
the power of the enemy, and nothing shall by any means 
hurt you. *^But rejoice not in this, that the spirits are sub- 
ject to you; but rejoice that your names are registered in the 
heavens. " ^^In that hour he exulted in the Holy Spirit, and 
said, *'I praise thee. Father, Lowi of the heaven and the 
earth, that thou hast hidden these things from the wise 
and discerning, and hast revealed them to babes ; yes. Father, 
for so it seemed good in thy sight. *^A11 things are given to 
me by my Father, and no one knows who the son is, except 
the Father, and who the Father is, except the son, and he to 
whom the son is disposed to reveal [him]." ^'And turning to 
the disciples, he said, privately, "Happy are those eyes that 
see what you see; ^*for I tell you that many prophets and 
kings desired to see what you see, and did not see them; 
and to hear what you hear of mey and did not hear them." 


John ix: 1-34. And as he passed by, he saw a man 
blind from birth. *And his disciples questioned him, saying, 

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"Eabbi, who sinned, this man, or his parents, that he was 
bom bUnd?" ^ Jesus answered, "Neither this man, nor his 
parents, sinned, but that the wcrks of God might be manifested 
in him. *We must work the works of him who sent us, while 
it is day; [the] night comes, when no man can work. '^While 
I am in the world, I am the world's hght." ®When he had 
said this he spit on the groimd, and made clay of the, spittle, 
and put the clay upon his eyes, and said to him. '**Go to the 
pool of Siloam,'* which, translated, is Sent, "and wash." He 
went away, and washed, and came seeing. ®Then the neigh- 
bors, and those who had previously seen him, that he was a 
beggar, — said, "Is not this he who sat and begged?" "Others 
said, "This is he." Others said, "No, but he is like him." 
*°He said,- "I am [he]." Then they said to him, "How then, 
were your eyes opened?" "He answered, "The man who is 
called Jesus made clay, and rubbed my eyes, and said to me, 
*Go to Siloam, and wash.' I went, therefore^ and washed, 
and obtained sight." "And they said to him, "Where is he?" 
He says, "I do not know." ^'They bring him who was 
formerly blind, to the Pharisees. "And it was Sabbath when 
Jesus made the clay, and opened his eyes. **Then ihe 
Pharisees asked him again how he obtained his sight. And 
he said to them, "He put clay on my eyes, and I washed, and 
see." *Then some of the Pharisees said, "This man is 
not from God, because he does not keep the Sabbath." But 
others said, "How can a man that is a sinner perform such 
signs?" And there was a division among them. *Then 
they say apfain to the blind man, "What do you say con- 
cerning him; that he opened your eyes?" And he said, "He 
is a prophet." "The Jews, therefore, did not beheve con- 
cerning him ; that he was bhnd, and had obtained sight, till 
they had called the parents of him who had obtained sight. 

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"And they asked them, saying, "Is this your son, who you 
say was. bom bhnd? *®How then does he now see?" His 
parents answered, and said, "We know that this is our son, 
and that he was bom bhnd; "but we do not know how he 
now sees; we do not know who opened his eyes; ask him; he 
is of age; he will speak concerning himself." "His parents 
said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews 
had already agreed that if any one should confess him [to be] 
Christ, he should be excommunicated from the synagogue. 
*^0n this account his parents said, **He is of mature age, ask 
him." •*Therefore the second time they called the man thai 
was blind, and said to him, "Give glory to God; we know 
that this man is a sinner." *^Then he answered, "I know 
not whether he is a sinner; one thing I do know: that having 
been blind, I now see." "Therefore they said to him,"Whatdid 
he to you? How did he open your eyes?" *^He answered 
them, **I have already told you, and did you not hear? Why 
then do you wish to hear again ? Do you also wish to be- 
come his disciples?" *And they ridiculed him, and said, 
**You are his disciple; but we are Moses' disciples. "'We 
know that God spoke to Moses, but we know not whence this 
man is." *The man answered, and said to them, ** This is 
the wonder; that he opened my eyes, and you do not know 
whence he is, *^We know that God does not hear sinners ; 
but if any man is a worshiper of God, and does his will, he 
hears him. ^From the aeon it was not heard that any one 
opened the eyes of a man bom bhnd. ^If this man were not 
from God, he could do nothing." ^They answered and said 
to him, "You were wholly bom in sins, and do you teach 
us?" And they cast him out. 


John ix: 35-41: and x: 1-21, Jesus heard that they 

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had cast him out, and having found him, said, **Do you 
believe on the Son of Man?" "And he replied, **Master, and 
who is he, that I may beheve in him?" ''Jesus said to him, 
*<You have even seen him, and it is he who is talking with 
you." ^And he said, **Master, I beUeve." And he made 
obeisance to him. ^And Jesus said, **I came into this 
world for judgment; that those not seeing may see; and those 
seeing may become blind." *®Those of the Pharisees who 
were with him, heard these things, and said to him, **Are we 
blind, also?" ** Jesus said to them, **If you were bHnd, you 
would not have sin, but now [as] you say *We see,' your sin 
remains, x: 1-21. Truly, truly, I say to you, he who does 
not enter into the sheepf old by the door, but goes up another 
way, is a thief, and a robber; *but he who enters by the 
door, is shepherd of the sheep. 'The doorkeeper opens to 
him, and the sheep hear his voice, and he calls his own sheep 
by name, and leads them out. *When he has put forth all his 
own, he goes before them, and the sheep follow him, because 
they recognize his voice. '^And they will not follow a stranger, 
but will flee from him ; because they do not recognize the 
voice of strangers." 'Jesus spoke this proverb to them, and 

John ix : 39. "Contrast John vlii : 15 ; xil : 47. Christ does not hesitate to 
state truths at different times in forms which make his statements apparently 
contradictory. He does not come to announce judgment or condemnation, 
but to provide mercy ; nevertheless, he has come for judgment Since he draws 
to himself aU that love the divine character and the divine life, and repels all 
that are worldly and selfish, he does not oondenm, but they that reject him are 
self -condemned, testifying that they love darkness rather than light, because 
their deeds are evil*'— Abbott 

** 'For judgment I am come, ' etc. The word krima sometimes means condem- 
nation; but it cannot weU have that signification here, as Jesus so frequently 
and ezpUoitly stated that he came not to condemn, but to bles8. John ill : 17 ; 
v: 45; vi: 38, 39; xil: 47. It seams rather to denote the manifestation of the 
true characters of men, which would be one of the results of his ministry. I 
came into the world, that the children of Ught and the ohUdren of darkness 
might be distinguished. "—Pat^c^ 

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they did not know what things they were which he spoke to 
them. Then said Jesus to them again, **Truly, truly, I 
say to you, I am the door of the sheep. ''All that came are 
thieves and robbers, but the sheep did not hear them. 'I am 
the door; if any man comes in by me, he shall be saved; and 
shall come in, and go out, and find pasturage. *The thief does 
not come except to steal, and kill, and destroy; I came that 
they may have eeonian life, and may have abundance. "I am 
the true shepherd ; the true shepherd lays down his life in 
behalf of the sheep. "But the hired servant, not being a shep- 
herd, whose own the sheep are not, sees the wolf coming, and 
leaves the sheep, and flees, and the wolf seizes and scatters 
[them] ; "because he is a hired servant, and does not care for 

John x : 8. "I am inclined, " says Abbott, "to take before as an adverb signi- 
fying precedence in rank or authority as it does in Col. i: 17; Jame? v : 12, 
and 1 Peter iv : 8, and to understand the passage, All whosoever come claim- 
ing precedence above me, are thieves and robbers. The verb come is in the 
aorist tense> and does not necessarily indicate a coming in the past only, but 
would be properly used for the enunciation of a general principle. The proph- 
ets of the Old Testament claimed no such precedence above Christ. On the 
contrary, they were but his heralds; and John the Baptist distinctly disa- 
vowed such precedence (Matt. 3 : 14; John 1: 26, 27; ill: 30). The Pharisees, 
on the other hand, denied Christ's right t'o teach, bacausehe did not belong to 
their schools (John vii: 15), and in their conference with the blind man had 
put themselves above Christ (John ix: 16, 2i). Where there is no areneral 
agreement among scholars I hesitate to offer an interpretation which differs 
from all, but this appears to me on the whols more consistent with the con- 
text, and with the teaching of the New Testament elsewhere, than any other, 
and not inconsistent with the original. If this be a correct interpretation, 
Christ's claim here is directly antagonistic to those who would make an eclec- 
tic r3Ugion by selecting truth from all the world's religious teachers, including 
Christ among the rest. For he declares all to be robbing the world of truth, 
not imparting it, who deny him the pre-eminent rank as a religious teacher. 
On the other hand, he does not stigmatize genuine moral teachers, such as 
Buddha or Socrates, as thieves and robbers, for they had no knowledge of 
Christ, and claimed no precedence above him." S omits "before me." 

John x : 10. The S. reads "aeonian life. " 

John x: 11. "I am the true or real shepherd." Canon Parrar well says, 
"JTa/on," good [in B, Y.], is untranslatable. Jesus would not caU himself 
good, but true," < 

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the sheep. ^^I am the true shepherd ; and I know mine, and 
mine know me; **even as the Father knows me, and I know 
the Father. And I lay down my life in hehalf of the sheep. 
"And I have other sheep, which are not of this fold ; I must 
hring them also, and they will hear my voice, and there shall 
come to be one flock, one shepherd. *^0n this accoimt the 
Father loves me, because I lay down my life that I may 
receive it again. "No one takes it away from me, but I lay 
it down of myself. I have authority to lay it down, and I have 
authority to receive it again. This command I received of 
my Father.'* "There was a division again among the Jews, 
because of these words. ^TA^r^/or^ many of them said, **He 
has a demon, and is insane; why do you hear him?" "^Others 
said, "These are not the words of a demon; can a demon 
open the eyes of the bhnd?" 


John x: 22-42. Then occurred the Feast of Dedication, 
at Jerusalem; it was Winter; *^and Jesus was walking in 
the temple, in Solomon's portico. "The Jews, therefore, sur- 
rounded him, and said to him, "How long do you hold our 
Hfe in suspense? Tell lis plainly if you are the Christ." 
"Jesus answered, **I told you, and you did not believe; the 

John x : 16. "One flock; one shepherd." The word rendered "fold" in A. V. 
i8 properly "flock** in R. V. This is a sublime prophecy of the final result of the 
labors of the Son of Man. All are to become united in one glorious church, of 
which Jesus Christ is the shepherd and head. 1 Cor. xi: 3;£ph. v:23. All 
shall acknowledge him as their guide and ruler, even as the shepherd is the 
guide of his flock. Phil, ii: 10, 11. Such was the purpose for which Jesus 
came into the world; to save aU men, even sinners, and convert them to Ood ; 
to put away all enmity from their hearts, and to make them willing subjects 
to God and to righteousness. He has sufficient power to perform the work as- 
signed him, and he will prosecute it to its final completion. Then, and not be- 
fore, win he resign his kingdom and his power, and, with the chUdren whom 
Ood has given him, will become subject to the Father and God of alL 1 John 
It: 14; 1 Tim. i: 15; Heb. ii: 7-9; 1 Cor. xv: 24-28. 

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works that I do in my Father's name, they testify concerning 
me. ^'But you do not beheve, for you are not of my sheep. 
"My sheep hearken to my voice, and I recognize them, and 
they follow me; *®and I give them aeonian hfe; and they shall 
not perish to the aeon, and no one shall wrest them out of my 
hand. ^The Father who has given them to me is superior 
to all; and no one can wrest aught out of the Father's hand. 
**I and the Father are one." *The Jews took up stones again, 
to stone him. '"Jesus answered them, **I have shown you 
many good works from the Father; on account of which of 
these works do you stone me?" *^The Jews answered him, 
"We do not stone you for a good work, but for blasphemy, 
because, being a man, you make yourself a god." ** Jesus 
answered them, "Is it not written in your law, *I said, you 
are gods?* "^If he called them gods to whom the word of 
God came, — and the Scripture cannot be broken, — ^^'do you say 
of him whom the Father consecrated, and sent into the 
world, *You blaspheme!' because I said *I am God's son?' 
'''If I do not my Father's works, beheve me not. *But if I 
do, and if you believe me not, beheve the works, so that 
you may know and understand that the Father is in me, and 
I in the Father." ~Then they sought to arrest him, but he 
shpped out of their hand, — ^*^and he departed again, beyond 
the Jordan, into the place where John first immersed, and 
remained there, — ^*^and many came to him, and said, "John, 
indeed, performed no sign ; but all things that John said, con- 

JoHN X : 31^-36. To the charge of makiiig himself God, or a god, Jesus re- 
plies by saying that he was a god as others were gods, to whom the word of 
God came, and he scouts the idea that he had claimsd to be God, because he 
had said he was God's son. He had only claimed this, and that he had been 
consecrated by the F^her. He had thus assumed divinity, but not to be 

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ceming this man, were true." ^And many there believed in 


John xi: 1-16. Now a certain mail was sick, — ^Lazarus of 
Bethany, — of the village of Mary, and her sister Martha, 
'and it was that Mary who anointed the Master with oint- 
ment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother 
Lazarus was sick. ^Therefore the sisters sent to him, 
saying, "Master, see; he whom you love is sick." *And 
when Jesus heard [it], he said, "This sickness is not unto 
death, but on account of the glory of God, that the son of God 
may be glorified by it." "^Now Jesus loved Martha, and her 
sister, and Lazarus. ^When, then, he heard that he was 
sick, he remained in the place where he was, two days. 
'Then, after this, he says to his disciples, "Let us go into 
Judea, again." ®The disciples say to him, "Rabbi, the Jews 
recently sought to stone you, and are you going there again?" 
•Jesus answered, "Are there not twelve hours in the day? If 
any man walk in the day, he does not stumble, because he sees 
the light of this Mjorld. ^°But if any man walk in the night, 
he stumbles, because the light is not in him." "These things 
he said, and after this he says to them, "Our friend Lazarus 
has fallen asleep ; but I go that I may waken him." "The 
disciples, therefore, said to him, "Master, if he has fallen 
asleep, he will be saved." "But Jesus had spoken concern- 
ing his death ; though they thought he was speaking of the 
repose of slumber. "Then, therefore, Jesus said to them 
plainly, "Lazarus is dead, *^and I rejoice on your account, 
that I was not there, so that you may believe. But let us go 
to him." "Then Thomas, who is called Didymus, said to his 
fellow-disciples, **Let us go also, that we may die with him." 

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John xi: 17-63. When Jesus, therefore, went to Bethany^ 
he found that he had already been four days in the tomb. 
"Now Bethany was near Jerusalem, distant about fifteen 
stadiums. "And many of the Jews joined tl^ose about 
Martha and Mary, to console them concerning their brother. 
■^Martha, therefore, when she heard that Jesus was coming, 
met him, but Mary still sat in the house. "Then Martha 
said to Jesus, **Master, if you had been here, my brother 
would not have died; "and even now I know that whatever 
you may ask of God, God will give you." *^ Jesus says to her, 
"Your brother shall rise again." "Martha saya to him, **I 
know that he will rise again in the resurrection, in the last 
day." ^But Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and 
the life; he that beheves in me shall live, even though he die, 
**and whoever hves and beheves in me, shall not die to the 
SBon. Do you beheve this?" *^She says to him, "Yes, 
Master, I have beheved that you are the Christ, the Son of 
God, he that comes into the world." ^And when she had 
said this she went and called her sister Mary, privately, 
saying, "The Teacher is here, and calls for you;" *®and when 
she heard, she rose up quickly, and came to him. '^Now 
Jesus had not yet come into the village, but was stiU in the 
place where Martha met him. "The Jews, therefore, 
who were with her in the house, consoling her, seeing Mary 
rise up, and go out quickly, followed her, thinking, •*She is 
going to the tomb, to mourn there." ^Then,when Mary 
came where Jesus was, and saw him, she fell at his feet, 
saying to him, "Master, if you had been here, my brother 
would not have died." "^When Jesus, therefore, saw her 
weeping, and the Jews who had come with her, weeping, 
he was agitated, and trembled with emotion ^ '*a,ud said, 

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202 ^^^ iO^TT COVENANT, 

** Where have you laid him?*' They say to him, "Master, 
come and see.'* ^Jesus wept. ^Therefore the Jews said, 
**See how he loved him!" "^But some of them said, "Could 
not this man who opened the eyes of the blind, cause that 
this man also should not die?" * Jesus, therefore, again being 
agitated within himself, goes to the tomb. Now it was a 
cave, and a stope was lying on it. ''^ Jesus says, "Take away 
the stone." Martha, the sister of him who had died, says to 
him, "Master, he smells now, for it is the fourth day." 
*^ Jesus says to her, "Did I not tell you that if you would 
beheve, you should see the glory of God?" "Thereupon they 
took away the stone. And Jesus raised his eyes, and said, 
"Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me, **and I 
knew that thou hearest me always; but on account of the 
crowd standing near, I spoke, so that they may believe that 
thou hast sent me." *^And speaking these words, he cried 
with a loud voice, "Lazarus, come forth!" **He that had 
been dead, came forth, having his hands and feet bound with 
bandages, and his face wrapped in a face-cloth. Jesus says 
to them, "Unbind and release him." *^Therefore many of the 
Jews that came to Mary, and saw what he had done, beUeved 
in him. *®But some of them went to the Pharisees, and told 
them what things Jesus had done. ^'Thereupon the high- 
priest and the Pharisees convened a sanhedrin, and said, 
"What are we doing? for this man performs many signs. 
*®If we allow him thus, all wiU believe in him; and the 
Romans will come and take away both our place and nation." 
^'And a certain one of them, Eaiaphas, being high-priest that 
year, said to them, "You know nothing, "neither do you 
consider that it is better for you that one man should die in 
behalf of the people, than that the whole nation should 
perish." "But he said this, not of his [mere] self, but being 

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high-priest that year, he predicted that Jesus was about to die 
in behalf of the nation; "and not only in behalf of the nation, 
but that he might gather into one the widely-dispersed 
children of God. '^Therefore, from that day, they consulted 
together in order to kill him. 


Matthew xix: 1-2. And it occurred, when Jesus had 
finished these words, he departed from Galilee, and came into 
the borders of Judea, beyond the Jordan ; 'and great crowds 
followed him, and he healed them there. 

Mark x: !• And having arisen thence, he comes into the 
borders of Judea, and beyond the Jordan, and again crowds 
come together to him, and again, as he was accustomed, he 
taught them. 


Lnke xiii: 10-17. And he was teaching in one of the 
synagogues on the Sabbath; "and behold, there wa§ a 
woman who had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and was 
bent double, and unable to stand erect all that time. "And 
when Jesus saw her, he called her, and said to her, 
^^** Woman, you are released from your infirmity." And he 
placed [his] hands on her, and she immediately stood erect, 
and glorified God. "And the synagogue-ruler, being angry 
because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, answered,and said to 
the crowd, "There are six days in which it is proper to work; 
in these come and be healed, and not on the Sabbath." 
^®But the Master answered liim, and said, **Hypocrites! does 
not each one of you, on the Sabbath, loosen his ox or his ass 
from the manger, and lead him away to water? "And ought 
not this woman, being a daughtei; of Abraham, whom the 
adversary has bound, lo, [these] eighteen years, to be re- 

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leased from this bond on the Sabbath day?** "And as he 
said these things, all his opponents were abashed; and all the 
crowd rejoiced at all the glorious deeds that were wrought by 


Luke xill: 18-21. And he said, "What is God*s reign 
like? And to what shall I liken it? "It is like a mustard- 
grain, which a man took and planted in his garden, and it 
grew, and became a tree, and the birds* of the heaven lodged 
in its branches. '* ^And again he said, **To what shall I liken 
God*s reign? "It is like leaven, which a woman took and 
mixed with three satons of meal, till the whole was leavened.*' 


Luke xili: 22-35. And he passed through cities and 
towns, teaching, and traveHng towards Jerusalem. **And 

Luke xiii : 23-30. No intelligent reader ought to suppose this language Ut- 
eral— that there is a door at which msn knock, after death, for admission Into 
heaven. The Kingdom of God is Chris !}'s reign on earth, and its gate signifies 
entrance into it. "The Kingdom of God," "Kingdom of Heaven," etc., is al- 
ways in this world. Matthew calls it a gatie, Luke a door. And every careful 
reader will see that the language is entirely confined to the present. "Are 
those who are being saved few?" The question relates entirely to the 
number then accepting Christianity. But inasmuch as aU Christians 
believe that the great mass will be finally saved, it is very Inconsistent 
for any one thus believiTig to apply this language to man's final condition. 
"Are there few that are now being saved?" is the literal rendering of the ques- 
tion. From what? Not from endless torment, but from certain evil conse- 
quences in this world. And the answer to Jesus shows that the appUcation 
was confined to those to whom he was speaking. "Lord" (say they) "we 
have eaten and drunk in thy presence, and thou hast taught in our streets." 
The words apply entirely to those who had heard him speak in their streets 
namely, the Jews, whose advantages were about to be taken away, and given 
to the Gentiles, who were to enter the kingdom by faith, with faithful Abra • 
hKTc^ while they were thrast out. The weeping and gnashing of teeth repre- 
sents their chagrin and rage at their lot, despising the GentUes as they did. See 
Matt, vii : 1 3, 1 4. The language in Luke has a more special application to the 
Jews than similar language in Mf tthew, which may be applied to every age since 
Christ, and to the present. It is as true now as at the time Jesus spoke, that the 
path of Christian goodness is a difiicalt one, followed by a comparative few, 

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one said to him, '^Master, are those [who are] being saved, 
few?'* And he said to them, "**Eamestly endeavor to enter 
through the narrow door; for I say to you, many will seek 
to enter, and will not be able.'* "When the householder 
shall rise, and shut the door, and you stand outside, and 
begin to knock at the door, saying, ^Master, open tons;' 
and he will answer, and say to you, *I know you not, whence 
you are,' ""you will then begin to say, *We ate and drank 
in your presence, and you have taught in our open squares ; 
''and he will say, *I tell you, I do not know whence 
you are; depart from me, all you workers of wickedness.' 
"There will be the weeping and the gnashing of the teeth, 
when you shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and 
all the prophets, in God's reign, and you yourselves ca^t 
out. "And they will come from east and west, and from 
north and south, and will recline [at table] in God's reign ; 
**and behold there are last who will be first, and there are 
first who will be last. " 

"In the same hour certain Pharisees approached, saying 
to him, "Go out and depart hence; for Herod means to 
kill you. " And he said to them, "'"Go and tell that fox. 
Behold, I exorcise demons, and perform cures to-day, 
and to-morrow, and un the third [day] 1 end my course. 
''But I must go on to-day, and to-morrow, and the next 
[day], for it is not possible for a prophet to perish out 
of Jerusalem. "0 Jerusalem, Jerusalem, killing the proph- 
ets, and stoning those sent to you ; how often have I 

while the way of wickedness Is broad and much traveled! But It will not always 
be so. Whoever refers the langua^re to the final condition of the human race, must 
admit that only a few will ever be holy and happy, while the great multitude 
wiU be lost. It has no such application, but teaches that at the time Jesus 
spoke the many went wrong, while only the few chose the way of life. 

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desired to gather your children, as a bird [gathers] her 
brood, under [her] wings, and you would not I "^Behold, 
your habitation is left to you; and I say to you that you 
will not see me till you shall say, *Blessed [is] he who 
comes in [the] name of [the] Lord!'" 


Luke xiy: 1-24. And it occurred, as he went to 
eat bread on a Sabbath, in the house of one of the 
Pharisee-rulers, that they were watching him. *And behold, 
there was a certain dropsical man in his presence, ^and 
Jesus, answering, said to the lawyers, and the Pharisees, 
•*Is it lawful to cure on the Sabbath, or not?" *But 
they were silent. And taking hold of him, he cured, and 
dismissed him. **And he said to them, "If a son, or [even] 
an ox, belonging to any of you, shall fall into a pit, will 
he not immediately draw him out, on the Sabbath?" *And 
they could not reply to these things. 

^And he spoke a parable to those that had been invited, 
as he observed how they chose the principal couches, saying 
to them, "*When you are invited by any one to a marriage- 
feast, do not recline on the principal couch, lest a more 
honorable man than you may have been invited by him, 
*and hes who invited you and him should come and 
say to you, *Give place to this man!' and then with shame 
you will proceed to occupy the farthest place. ^°But when 
you are invited, go and recline in the farthest place, that 
when he who invited you comes, he may say to you, 
'Friend! go up higher;' then you will be honored by all 

LUKB xiil : 35. After declaring: that Jerusalem would not come to him, and 
that it would be abandoned to destruction, Jesus says that it shall aprain see 
him, and say, "Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord." He thuH 
teaches that after the wicked Jews have been punished, they will be restored. 

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tb:e N£w covenant, 207 

reclining with you; "for every one who exalts himself 
Bhall be humbled, and he who humbles himself shall be 
exalted.' "And he also said to him who had invited him, 
"When you make a dinner, or a supper, do not call 
your friends, nor your brothers, nor your relations, 
nor rich neighbors, lest they should invite you again, also, 
and a recompense be made you; "but when you make a 
feast, invite poor, crippled, maimed, bhnd [persons], and you 
shall be happy; "because [though] they have nothing with 
which to recompense you, yet you shall be recompensed at 
the resurrection of the righteous. " "And when one of those 
reclining [at table] with him heard it he said, "Happy he 
who shall eat bread in the reign of God." "And he said 
to him, "A certain man made a great supper, and invited 
many. "And he sent his slave at the hour of supper, to 
say to those that had been invited, 'Come, for [all] things 
are now ready.' ^^And they all as one began to excuse 

LuKExlv: 14. "The resurrection of the righteous." The true meaning? of 
this passage may be understood by comparing It with Isa. Ixv: 17-25; Ixvi: 
20-24; Dan. xii: 1-3; Mai. iii: 16-18; iv: 1-6; Matt, xiii: 40-43; xvl: 27, 28; 
Luke xxi: 28-33. The ancient prophets predicted that, on the establishment 
of the Messiah's kingdom, a manifest distinction should be made between the 
wicked and the just or the righteous; that the wicked should be punished and 
the just rewarded. A peculiar exaltation, or lifting up, or deliverance, which 
is the primary meaning of resurrection, is indicated as the portion of the right- 
eous, at that period. And our Lord taught the same doctrine. The redemp- 
tion of his true disciples was to be accomplished when he came to establish his 
kingdom; and then were they to shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their 
Father. To this blessedness of his followers I suppose Jesus to have referred, 
by the resurrection of the just. And this supposition is confirmed by the fact, 
that what he required the Pharisees to do, in order to share that blessedness, 
was precisely what, at other times, he required others to do, in order to enter 
his kingdom, or to partake in the benefits of the Messiah's reign. For exam- 
ple, he required the rich young man to bestow his possessions on the poor, If 
he would obtain eternal life, or, as he subsequently explained the phrase, enter 
into the kingdom of heaven. And he assured his disciples, who had already 
forsaken all, that they should be abundantly rewarded, when the Son of Man 
should sit on his throne ; in other words, when his kingdom should be estab- 
lished in power and great glory. See Matt, xix : 16-30.— Pai^e. 

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thecuselves. The first said to him, 'I have hought a farm, 
and I must go out and see it. I beseech you have me 
excused.' "And another said, *I have bought five yoke 
of oxen, and I must go and test them; I beseech you 
have me excused.* ^'And another said, *I have married 
a wife, and consequently I cannot come.' "And having 
returned, the slave reported these things to his master. 
l?hen the householder, being angry, said to his slave, «Go 
out at once into the open squares, and streets, and bring 
In here the poor, and crippled, and blind, and lame.' "And 
the slave said, 'Master, what you ordered is done, and 
still there is room.' *^And the master said to the slave, 
*Go out into the lanes, and fields, and urge [the people] to 
come in, so that my house may be filled; "for I tell you 
that no one of those men that have been invited shall taste 
my supper.'" 


Luke xiy: 25-35. And great crowds were going with 
him, and he turned, and said to them, ^<<If a man comes 
to me, and hates not his father, and mother, and 
brothers, and sisters, and wife, and children, and even his 
own life, he cannot be my disciple. ^Whoever, therefore, 
does not bear his own cross, and come after me, cannot 
be my disciple. *For who of you wishing to build a tower, 
does not first sit down, and compute the expense, whether 

LUKK xiv: 24. This evidently refers to the Jews, who rejected Christ, and 
who, consequently, have ever since been debarred from enjojring the truths 
and principles of his religion. 

Luke xiv: 26. The hyperbole of this language is evident from Matthew's 
version, which gives the literal meaning (Matt, x: 37), "loves father and 
mother more than me." A similar use of terms is found in Bom. ix : 13, and 
Deut. xxi : 15-17. It is only an intense form of expression to Indicate the love 
that Jesus requires of his f oUowers. 

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he has [wherewith] to finish, *lest, having laid a foun- 
dation, and not being able to finish, all who see it begin 
to deride him, saying, *^This man began to build, but was 
imable to finish.' "Or, what Jdng going to engage another 
king in battle, will not sit down first, and consult whether 
he is able with ten thousand, to meet the [king] coming 
against him with twenty thousand; ^but if not, while the 
other is at a distance, he sends an embassy, and asks for 
peace. ^So, therefore, no one of you, who does not bid 
farewell to all his possessions, can be my disciple. ®'There- 
fore, the salt is good; but if even the salt should become 
tasteless, with what shall it be salted? ^It is not fit for 
land, nor for manure ; they throw it away. Let him that 
has ears to hear — ^hear." 


Luke XV: 1-10. And all the tax-collectors and sin- 
ners drew near to hear him. *And both the scribes and 
Pharisees complained, saying, <*This man receives sin- 
ners, and eats with them." *And he uttered this parable 
to them, saying, *"What man of you having a hundred 
sheep, and having lost one of them, does not leave the 
ninety nine, in the desert, and go after that which is 
lost, till he finds it? *And when he has found it, he lays 
it on his shoulder, rejoicing. ®And when he comes home, 
he calls together the friends, and the neighbors, saying to 
them, 'Eejoice with me, for I have found my sheep — 
the lost one.' ^I say to you that thus there will be [more] 

Luke xv : 1-32. The "Lost Sheep," the "Lost Coin," and the "Prodigal Son." 
These wonderful parables teach universal salvation. Had they been related to 
teach a partial salvation, they would have represented the shepherd as having 
found say twenty sheep, while eight were irreclaimable; the woman would 
have lost, say six pieces of silver, and found but two, while four were utterly 
gone; and the father would have had, say four disobedient children, only one 


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210 ^^^ ^^^ cormANf. 

]oy in heaven over one reforming sinner, than over ninety- 
nine just ones, needing no reformation. ®0r, what woman, 
having ten drachmas, if she lose one drachma, does not 
light a lamp, and sweep, and carefully search the house, 
till she finds it? *And when she has found it she calls 
the friends and neighbors together, saying, *Eejoice with 
me, for I have found the drachma which I had lost!' 
^°Thus, I say to you, there is joy in the presence of the 
angels of God over one reforming sinner." 


Luke xv: 11-32. And he said, **A certain man had 
two sons, "and the younger of them said to the father, 
^Father, give me the part of the property falling to 
me;' and he divided hia living between them. *^And^ a 
few days after, the younger son gathered all together, went 
abroad into a distant country, and there squandered his 
property in profligate hving. "And when he had spent 
all, a great famine occurred throughout that country, and 

of whom returned, while three wandered in the great desert of sin. Irredeema- 
ble forever. But this is not the teaching of these simple yet divine stories. 
Their significance is not in the loss of sheep, or sUver, or prodigal, nor in the 
value placed on them by their owners, nor in their diligence in searching. 
There are beautiful lessons in all this, but the emphasis is placed where the 
Christian world does not always place it, not on the loss, or the finding of a 
part, but on the fact that the search was continued untU all the lost were 
found. The word that Christians overlook, is the word until. ** Until he find 
it" ""Until she find it" the search continues for sheep and silver, and the 
father of the prodigal waits until he can see his son return, untU he can say, 
"My lost son is found." These parables teach beyond all controversy, that, 
however many are lost, they are all found, that when the search is finished 
there are no lost. Christianity tolerates no final loss. All the lost are to be 
found by the heavenly Seeker. When the divine task is consummated the en- 
tire race will be brought home — "no wanderer lost, a fjunily in heaven." The 
language of our Savior can have no significance, if he does not accomplish the 
redemption of all souls. 

It should be noted that the silver, and the sheep, and the prodigal, were aU 
lost, and afterwards found. The lesson is that restoration wUl foUow loss. 

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'T^JE? 2iri:w COVEKAm\ 211 

he began to be in want; "and he went and attached 
himself to one of the citizens of that country, and he 
sent him into his fields co feed swine; "and he longed 
to be filled with the carob pods which the swine were 
eating, and no man gave to him. "And when he came 
to himself, he said, *How many of my father's hired 
servants have an abundance of loaves, and I perish here 
with famine. *^I will arise, and go to my father, and 
say to him, *Father, I have sinned against heaven, and 
in your presence ; *^I am no longer fit to be called your 
son ; make me as one of your hired servants.' ^And he arose 
and went to his father. But while he was at a distance, 
his father saw him, and was moved with pity, and ran, and 
fell on his neck, and tenderly kissed him. "And the 
son said to him, ^Father, I have sinned against heaven, 
and in your presence ; I am no longer fit to be called your 
son; make me as one of your hired servants.' ^But the 
father said to his slaves, 'Quick I bring out the robe, the best 
one, and clothe him, and put a finger-ring on his hand, 
and sandals on the feet, *^and bring the fattened calf, 
[and] sacrifice it, and let us eat, and be joyful ; "for this 
my son was dead, and is ahve; he was lost, and is found.' 
And they began to be joyful. *^Now his elder son was in 
a field, and as he was approaching the house, he heard a 
sound of music, and dancing, '^and he called one of the 
slaves, and inquired what these things meant. '^'And he said 
to him, *Your brother has arrived, and your father has 
sacrificed the fattened calf, because he has received him safe.' 
"^And he was enraged, and refused to enter; but his father 
came out, and entreated him. **And he, answering, said 
to the father, 'Behold I have slaved for you so many 
years, and never disobeyed a command of yours, and you 

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never gave me a kid, that I might be joyful with my 
friends; %ut when this son of yours came, who has devoured 
your Hving with courtesans, you have sacrificed the fattened 
calf for him.' ^^And he said to him, 'Child, you are always 
with me, and everything of mine is yours. '"But it is 
proper to be joyful and glad; for this your brother was 
dead, and is alive; and [was] lost, and is- found.' " 


Luke xyi: 1-17. And he said, also, to the disciples, 
** There was a certain rich man, who had a steward, 
who was accused to him of squandering his property. 
*And having called him, he said to him, *What is this 
I hear concerning you? Bender the account of your steward- 
ship, for you can no longer be steward.' ®And the steward 
said to himself, *What shall I do? for my master takes 
the stewardship from me. I have not strength to dig, and 
I am ashamed to beg. *I know what to do, that when 
I am put out of the stewardship, they may receive me into 
their own houses.' ^And having summoned each one of 
his master's debtors, he said to the first, *How much do you 
owe my master?' ®And he said, *A hundred baths of 
oil'; and he said to him, 'Take your writings, and sit 
down quickly, and write fifty.' ^And to another, he said, 
*And how much do you owe?' And he said, *A hundred 
kors of wheat.' He said to him, *Take your writings, 
and write' eighty.' *And the master applauded the unjust 
steward, because he had acted shrewdly, for the sons of 
this 8Bon are shrewder toward their generation, than the 

Luke xvl : 6. A bath was 7^ gaUons ; a kor a little more than 75 gallons. 

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eons of the Kght. 'And I say to you, make for your- 
selves friends of the Mammon of unrighteousness, that when 
it fails, they may receive you into sBonian tabernacles. ^®He 
who is faithful in the least, is also faithful in much; and 
he who is unjust in least, is unjust, also, in much. "If, there- 
fore, you have been unfaithful in unrighteous Mammon, 
who will confide the true to you? "And if yon have been 
unfaithful in that which is another's, who will give you 
that which is your own? "No domestic is able to serve 
two masters; for either he will hate the one, and love 
the other; or he will clinjg: to one, and shght the other. 
You cannot serve God and Mammon." "And the Pharisees, 
who were avaricious, heard these things, and they ridiculed 
him. **And he said to them, "You are those who justify 
themselves in the sight of men, but God knows your hearts; 
for that which is highly prized before men, is an abomination 
in the sight of God. '''The law and the prophets [were] 
until John ; from then the good news of the reign of God 
is preached, and every man enters violently into it. 
'^But it is easier for the heaven and the« earth to pass 
away, than for one letter- tip of the law to fail." 

Lake xvi: 18. "Every one that puts away his wife, and 
marries another, commits adultery; and he that marries one 
who has been put away from a husband, commits adultery." 


Lnke xvi: 19-31. "Now there was a certain rich man, 

Luke xvi: 9. Make such use of worldly possessions as shall aid you when 
the approachin^r calamities shall come. Use your wealth in doing good, and 
thus even Mammon shall befriend you, and aid you to enjoy the gospel ad- 
Tantages — seonian tabernacles. 

Luke xvi: 19-31. The rieh man and Lazarus; Hades. A full exposl- 
tioi^ of the meaning of Blades may be giv^n h^. %t is rendered h^U by the 

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and he wore purple and fine linen, living in mirth and 
splendor every day. ^And a certain beggar, named 
Lazaras, was laid at his gate, covered with ulcers, "and long- 

E. V. ten times, and grave once. The B. V., translating from Westcott and 
Hort's Greek Text, finds it but ten times— giving tJianatCt death, in 1 Cor. xv: 
50— and does not translate it. It is a proper noon, the name of an imaginary 
place, and in any rendering should stand raitranslated. 

What does the word signify, in the N. T? It is in Greek what Sfteol is in 
Hebrew, and means in the N. T. what Sheol does in ine Old. 

Sheol, rendered Hades in the Greek Septuagint, occurs exactly sixty-four 
times in the O. T., and is translated hell thirty- two times, pit three times, and 
grave twenty-nine times. Dr. George Campbell, a celebrated critic, says that 
"Sheol signifies the state of the dead in general, without regard to the good- 
ness or badness of the persons, their happiness or misery." 

Professor Stuart (orthodox Congregational) only dares claim five out of the 
sixty-four iwssages, as affording any proof that the word means a place of 
punishment after death. "These,** he says, **may designate the future world 
of woe,** though he adds : "I concede, to interpret all the texts which exhibit 
Sheol as having reference merely to the grave is possible ; and, therefore, it is 
possible to interpret them as designating a death violent and premature, in- 
flicted by the hand of Heaven." 

Rev. Dr. Whitby remarks: "isheol throughout the Old Testament, signifies 
not a place of punishment for the souls of bad men only, but the grave, or 
place of death.** Dr. Chapman: "Sheol, in itself considered, has no connec- 
tion with future punishment." Dr. Allen: "The term Sheol itself, does not 
seem to mean anything more than the state of the dead in their dark abode." 
Edward Leigh, who, says Home's "Introduction," was one of the most learned 
men of his time, and his work a valuable help to the understanding of the 
original language of the Scriptures, observes that "all learned Hebrew schol- 
ars know the Hebrews have no proper word for hell." Prof. Stuart: "There 
can be no reasonable doubt that Sheol does most generally mean the under- 
world, the grave or sepulcher, the world of the dead. It is very clear that 
there are many passages where no other meaning can reasonably be assigned 
to it. Accordingly, our English translators have rendered the word Sheol 
grave, in thirty instances out of the whole sixty-four instances in which it oc- 
curs." Dr. Thayer, in his "Theology of Universalism" quotes as follows : "Dr. 
Whitby says that Hell throughout the Old Testament signifies the grave, or 
the place of death." Archbishop Whately : "As for a future state of retribu- 
tion in another world, Moses said nothing to the Israelites about that." Paley 
declares that the Mosaic dispensation "dealt In temporal rewards and punish- 
ments. The blessings consisted altogether of worldly benefits, and the curses 
of worldly punishments." Prof. Mayer says, that "the rewards promised the 
righteous, and the punishments threatened the wicked, are such only as are 
awarded in the present state of being." To the same important fact testify 
Prof. Wines, Bush. Amauld, and other distinguished theologians. 

That Sheol, or Hades, in the Old Testament does not mean a place of pun- 
ishment in the future world, is evident from the following considerations: 

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ing to be fed with that which fell from the rich man's table; 
and even the dogs came and licked his ulcers. ^And it occur- 
red that the poor man died, and was borne away by the angels 

1. It is in this xoorld. 7 he lowest Hades is on earth. Deut. xxvii: 22, 
2-4, 25. "For a fire is kindled in mine anger, and shall bum unto the lowest 
Hades ixad shall consume the earihwithher increase, and set on fire the 
foundations of the mountains." See Jonah li : 2 ; Rev. vi : 8. 

2. Hence David, after having been in Hades, was delivered frmn it. Ps. 
XXX : 3; 2 Sam. xx: 5, 6. "O Lord, thou hast brought up my soul from the 
grave; thou hast kept me alive, that I should not go down to the pit. When 
the waves of death compassed me, the floods of ungodly men made me afraid. 
The sorrows ot Hades compassed me about; the snares of death prevented 
me ;" so that there is escape from Hades. Ps. xviii : 5, 6 ; cxvl : 3 ; Ixxxvi : 12, 
13: Rev. xx: 13; Ps. xvii: 5; xxx: 3. 

3. Jonah was in tJie fish only seventy hours, and declared he was in 
Hades forever. He escaped from Hades. Jon. ii : 2-6 : "Out of the belly of 
Hades cried I, and thou heardest my voice; earth with her bars was about me 
forever." Even an ceonian Hades lasted but three days. 

4. It is a place tchere God is, and, therefore, must be an instrumentality 
of mercy. Ps. cxxxtx : 8 : "If I make my bed in Hades, behold, th"ou art there. " 

5. Men having gone into it are redeemed from it. 1 Sam. ii: 6: "The 
Lord killeth and maketh alive; he bringeth down to Hades and bringeth up." 

6. Jacob wished to go there. Gen. xxxviii: 35: "I will go down into 
Hades unto my son mourning." 

7. If the word means a place of endless punishment, then David laas a 
monster. Ps. Iv : 15 : "Let death seize upon them, and let them go down 
quick into Hades." 

8. Job desired to go there; xiv: 13: "Oh, that thou wouldst hide me in 

9. Hezekiajl expected to go there. Isa. xxxviii: 10: "I said in the cutting 
oflP of my days, I shall go to the gates of Hades." 

10. Korah, Dathan and Ahiram (Numbers xvi: 30-33) not only went 
there, "but their houses, and goods, and all that they owned, and the earth 
opened her mouth and swallowed them up, and their houses, and all the men 
that appertained unto Korah, and all their goods, they, and all that apper- 
tained to them, went down alive into Hades, and the earth closed upon them; 
and they perished from among the congregation." 

11. It is in the dust. Job. xvii: 19: "They shall go down to the bars of 
Hades, when our rest together is in the dust." 

12. It has a mouthy is, in fact, the grave. See Ps. cxli: 7. "Our bones are 
scattered at Hades' s mouth, as when one cutteth and cleaveth wood upon the 

13. It has gray hairs, Gen. xlii: 38: "And he said, my sou shall not go 
down with you; for his brother is dead, and he is left alone: if mischief befall 
him by the way in which ye go, then shall ye bring down my gray hairs with 
sorrow to Hades." 

14. The overthrow of the king of Bablyon is called Hades. Isa. xiv: 

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to Abraham's bosom. And the rich man died, also, and 
was buried; *^aiid in Hades, being in torments, he raised 
his eyes, and saw Abraham at a distaijice, and Lazarus 

9-15, 22-23: "Hades from beneath Is moved for thee to meet thee at thy 
coming; it stirreth up the dead for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; it 
hath raised up from the thrones all the kmgs of the nations. All they shall 
speak and say unto thee, Art thou also become weak as we? Art thou become 
like unto us? Thy pomp is brought down to the grave and the noise of thy 
viols; the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee." All this im- 
agery demonstrates temporal calamity, a national overthrow, as the significa- 
tion of the word Hades. 

15. The captivity of the Jews is called Hades. Isa. v: 13, 14. "There- 
fore, my people are gone into captivity, because they have no knowledge; and 
their honorable men are famished, and their multitude dried up with thirst. 
Therefore, Hades hath enlarged herself and opened her mouth without meas- 
ure; and their glory, and their multitude, and their pomp, and he that re- 
joiceth, shall descend into it." 

1 6. Tempora I o vertlirow is ca lied Hades. Ps. xllx : 1 4 : "Like sheep they 
are laid in the grave; death shall feed on them; and the upright shall have 
dominion ove^r them in the morning; and their beauty shall consume in Hades, 
from their dwelling." Ezek. xxxii: 26-27: "And they shall not lie with the 
mighty that are fallen of the uncircumcised, which are gone down to Hades, 
with their weapons of war, and they have laid their swords under their heads." 
Men are in Hades with their swords under their heads. This cannot mean a 
state of conscious suffering. 

17. All nien are to go titer e. No one can escape the Bible Hades. Ps. 

18. There is no kind of work there. Eccl. ix: 10. 

19. Christ's soul was in Hades. Acts ii: 27-28. 

20. It is a way of escape from punishment. Amos vii: 2. 

21. The inhabitants of Hades are eaten by worms, vanish, and are con- 
sumed away. Job. vii: 9-24; Ps. xlix: 14. 

22. Hades is a place of rest. Jobxvii:6. 

23. It is a realm of unconsciousness. Ps. vl: 5; Is. xxxviii: 18. EccL 
ix: 10. 

24. All men will be delivered from Hades. Hos. xili : 1 7. 

25. Hades is to be destroyed. Hos. xiii: 14: "O, Hades! I will be thy 
destruction." Rev. xx : 13, 14 : "And death and Hades delivered up the dead 
which were in them, and death and Hades were cast into the lake of fire." 

In addition to the passages already quoted, the word Hades occurs in the 
following texts: Job. xi: 7, 8; Ps. cxxxix: 8; xvlii: 5; Ixxxvi: 13; cxvi: 3; 
Prov. XV : 11; xxiii: 14; xxvU: 20; Isa. xxviU: 15-18; Ivii: 9; Ezek. xxxi: 16- 
17; Jon. ii: 2; Amos ix: 2; Hab. il: 5. 

Whitby, on Acts ii: 27, says: "That Sheol throughout the Old Testament, 
and Hades in the Septuagint, answering to it, signify not the place of punish- 
ment, or of the souls of bad men only, but the grave only, or the place of death, 
appears, 1st; From the root Qf it, Sheol, which signifies to ft^k, to Qiftv© {m<} 

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in his bosom, •*and he cried out, and said, 'Father 
Abraham, pity me, and send Lazarus that he may dip the 
end of his finger in water, and cool my tongue ; for I am 

require. 2d : Because it is the place to which the Kood as well as the bad jro, 

The word is found in the N. T. (omitting 1 Cor. xv: 55) ten times, and is 
improperly translated hell in E. V., and is properly untranslated in the R. V. 
The word is from a, not, and eido, to see, and means concealed, invisible. It 
has exactly the same meaning as Sheol, literally, the grave, or death, and fig- 
uratively destruction, downfall, calamity, or punishment in this world, with 
no intimation whatever of torment or punishment beyond the grave. 

The Greek Septuagint, which our Lord used when he read or quoted from 
the Old Testament, gives Hades as the exact equivalent of the Hebrew Sheol, 
and when the Savior, or his apostles, used the word, they must have meant 
the same as is meant in the Old Testament. When Hades is used in the New 
Testament, we must understand it just as we do Sheol (or Hades) in the Old 

It must not be forgotten that contact with the heathen had corrupted the 
opinions of the Jews, at the time of our Savior, from the simplicity of Moses, 
and that by receiving the traditions and fables of paganism, they had mad^ 
void the word of God. They had accepted Hades as the best Greek word to 
convey the idea of Sheol, but without investing it at first with the heathen no- 
tions of the classic Hades, as they afterwards, did. What these ideas were, the 
classic authors inform us. 

Gibbon says (Milman's Gibbon, Ch. xxi> : "The Jews had acquired at Baby- 
lon a great number of Oriental notions, and their theological opinions had un- 
dergone great changes by this intercourse^ We find in Ecclesiasticus, and the 
Wisdom of Solomon, and the later prophets, notions unknown to the Jews be- 
fore the Babylonian captivity, which are manifestly derived from the Orient- 
als. Thus God, represented under the image of light, and the principle of 
evil under that of darkness: the history of good and bad angels; paradise and 
hell, etc., are doctrines of which the origin^ or at least the positive determina- 
tion, can only he referred to the Oriental philosophy." 

In what sense, then, did our Lord employ Hades, in the Bich Man and Laza- 
rus? What does the story teach? 

It is a parable. This is denied by some Christians, who ask, Does not our Sa- 
vior say : " There was a certain rich man ?" etc. True, but all his parables be- 
gin in the same way. "A certain rich man had two sons." "The ground of a 
certain man brought forth plentifully." "A certain man made a great supper," 
and the like. In Judges. ix : we read, "The trees went forth, on a time, to 
anoint a king over them, and they said to the olive tree, Beign thou over us." 
This language is positive, and yet it describes something that never could 
have occurred. All fables, parables, and other fictitious accounts which are 
related to illustrate important truths, have this positive form, to give force, 
point, lifelikeness to the lessons that they inculcate. 

It has also been said that parables may be literal histories. To this we re- 
ply tlM^t many of th^m ijeyer pould have owurr^d, Jt is impossil^le, for ex?m%- 

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distressed in this flame.' *^But Abraham said, *Child, re- 
member, that in your Hf e-time you received your good things ; 
and Lazarus, in Hke manner, bad things ; but now here he is 

pie, for the trees to go out and choose one of their number as king. A i>arable 
Is not, therefore, necessarily, a iwssible occurrence. 

Dr. A. Clarke, In his notes on this story, says: "This account of the rich 
man and Lazarus is either It parable or a real history. If it be a parable, it is 
what may be ; if it be a history, it is what has been." 

We demur : It does not foUow that it iniay be true, if it -is a parable. Apply 
his language to the parable of the trees. If it be a parable, then the trees may 
some time or other move off from the places where they are rooted, and hold 
an election for king. This is a parable, and yet it is impossible for it to be a 
true account. So that a parable may or may not be a true story. 

If this is a literal account, then we can interpret every part of it literally ; if 
not, then a literal understanding will involve ns in difficulty. 

Did a certain rich man die? And a poor man likewise? Did the rich man 
enter a world of punishment after death? These questions will readily be an- 
swered in the affirmative by many Christians. But when we press the matter 
further, and ask if the rich man literally writhed in flames, if the beggar was 
, really carried about in Abraham's bosom, and if a drop of water would have 
alleviated the sufferings of the rich man, the reply is : "No, these are figura- 
tive expressions. " But if this be a true story, a literal account of what has hap- 
pened, of what the Savior actually saw, what right has any one to say that 
these flames, this water, and Abraham's bospm are figurative? Either good 
men when they die are carried in Abraham's bosom, and sinners bum in real 
fire, hereafter, or Dives, Lazarus, and aU the characters and circumstances are 
figurative and not literaL If this is history, we must interpret every part of it 
literally. Nobody wiU agree to do that. If a parable, then it is all figurative. 
Inasmuch as no one wiU consent that aU of it is literal, it follows that aU is 
figurative, for no one can show, or has a right to assume, that a portion is his- 
tory and the rest parable. The palpable absurdities of a literal construction 
have driven learned men almost universally to confess it a parable. They 
would have been glad to sustain their views of the future by this story; but 
candor compels them to take the view we adopt. 

Says Llghtf oot : "Whoever believes this not to be a parable let him believe 
also those little friars, whose trade is to show the monuments of Jerusalem to 
pilgrims, and point exactly to the place where the house of the rich glutton 

Dr. Whitby says: "That this is only a parable, and not a real history of 
what was actually done, is evident from the circumstances of it, namely, the 
rich man lifting up his eyes in hell, and seeing Lazarus in Abraham's bosom, 
his discourse with Abraham, his complaint of being tormented in flames, and 
his desire that Lazarus might be sent to cool his tongue; and if all this be con- 
fessedly parable, why shall the rest be accounted history?" Hammond makes 
the same general comments, and Wsikefield remarks, "To them who regard the 
narrative a reality, it must stand as an unanswerable argument for the purga- 
tory of the papists. " 

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comforted, and you are distressed. **And besides all this, 
between us and you a great chasm is fixed, so that those 
wishing to cross hence to you are unable, nor can any cross 

Ai^ain, In the Gemara Babylonlcum, Jewish writings orlginatinff during 
the Babylonish captivity, containing doctrines entertained by Pagans con- 
cerning the future state, but not recognized by the followers of Moses, this 
story occurs. Surrounded by Chaldeans, the Jews imbibed their errors, and 
the religion they had received of Moses became very much corrupted by the 
heathen traditions, accepted by the people among whom they had sojourned. 
The seventy years which they passed in Babylon eflfected a material change in 
their religion. We are familiar with the heathen views on this subject. They 
denominate the state of the dead, without any reference to their happiness or 
misery, Hades; the same word that is employed in the parable, "In Hades he 
lifted up his eyes." In this state of the dead, this Hades, they supposed two 
apartments, Elysium, the abode of the happy, and Tartarus, the dwelling place 
of the damned. Between these two abodes there flowed a river, correspond- 
ing to the chasm in our text. 

Now this stoiT is founded on these heathen views. They were not ob- 
tained from the Bible, for the Old Testamant contains nothing resembling 
them. They were among those traditions which our Savior condemned when 
he told the scribes and Pharisees, "Ye make the word of God of none effect 
through your traditions," and when he said to his disciples, "Beware of the 
leaven, or doctrine, of the Pharisees." 

As the Pagan story runs— a story popular among the Jews before the Savior 
wasbom— there once lived two Jien, the one rich and exalted, and the other 
poor and degraded. They diea, and their conditions were reversed : The rich 
man became miserable, and the poor man happy. Nothing whatever is said 
concerning the character of either of them. Now our Savior seized the im- 
agery of this story, not to endorse its truth, but just as we now relate any other 
fable. He related it as found in the Gemara, not for the story's sake, but to 
convey a moral to his hearers; and the Pharisees and scribes to whom he ad- 
dressed this and the five preceding stories, felt— as we shall see— the force of 
its application to them. 

The commentator,. Macknight, Scotch Presbyterian, says truly : 

"It must be acknowledged that our Lord's descriptions are not drawn from 
the writings of the Old Testament, but have a remarkably affinity to the de- 
scriptions which the Grecian poets have given. They represent the abodes of 
the blest as lying contiguous to the region of the damned, and separated only 
by a great impassable gulf in such sort that the ghosts could talk to one an- 
other from its opposite banks. If from these resemblances it is thought the 
parable is formed on the Grecian mythology, it will not at all follow that our 
Lord approved of what the common people thought or spoke concerning these 
matters, agreeably to the notions of Greeks. In parables, provided the doc- 
trines inculcated are strictly true, the tei'ms in which they are inculcated may 
be such as are most familiar to the people, and the images made use of are 
such as they are best acquainted with." 

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over thence to us.' ''Then he said, *I entreat you then, father, 
to send him to my father's house; **for I have five brothers, 
that he may testify to them, that they, also, may not come 

Dr. Bloomfield says: "No responsibility on our Lord's part Is Involved In 
this case; for our best commentators and theologians are a^eed that in para- 
bolic narrations, provided the doctrines inculcated be strictly true, the terms 
in which they are expressed may be adapted to the prevailing notions of those 
to whom they are addressed."— ^rep A; Test.^ in loco. 

How did Jesus apply the story? To teach that a great change was about to 
take place; that the Jewish nation, and especially the scribes and Pharisees, 
were about to die as a power, as a church, as a controlling influence in the 
world: while the common people among them, and the Gentiles outside of 
them, were to be exalted, in the new order of things. 

The details of the parable show this : "There was a certain rich man clothed 
in purple and fine linen." In these first words, by describing their very cos- 
tume, the Savior fixed the attention of his hearers on the Jewish priesthood. 
They were, emphatically, the rich men of that nation. His description of the 
beggar was equally graphic. He lay at the gate of the rich, only asking to be 
fed by the crumbs that fell from the table. Thus dependent were the com- 
mon people, and the Gentiles, on the scribes and Pharisees. We remember 
Christ once rebuked them for shutting up the kingdom of heaven against 
these. They lay at the gate of the Jewish hierarchy. For the Gentiles were 
literally restricted to the outer court of the temple. Hence in Rev. xi: 12, we 
read : "But the court, which is without the temple, leave out, and measure it 
not, for it is given unto the Gentiles." They could only walk the outer court, 
or lie at the gate. We remember the anger of the Jews at Paul, for allowing 
Greeks to enter the temple. This is the significance of the language of the 
Eanaanitish woman. Matt, xv : 27, who desired the Savior to heal her daughter. 
The Savior, to try her faith, said : "It is not well to cast the children's bread 
to the little dogs." "True, master, yet the little dogs eat of the crumbs that 
fall from their master's table." The prophet (Isa. i: 6) represents the com- 
mon people of Israel as "full of wounds, bruises, and putrifying sores." They 
were thus regarded; and these two brief, graphic descriptions given by the 
Savior, at once showed his hearers that he was describing those two classes, 
the Jewish priesthood and nation, on the one hand, and the common people, 
Jews and Gentiles, on the other. And now see a striking point, not always ob- 
served. The rich man died and was buried. This class died officially, na- 
tionally, and their power departed. The kingdom of God was taken from 
them, and conferred on others. 

But, while the beggar died, he was not buried. If this were a literal account 
would Christ have spoken of the burial of one and not of the other? The rea- 
son is obvious. The Gentiles, publicans and siimers were not buried, they 
were translated into the kingdom of God's dear son, where is neither Jew nor 
Greek, but where all are one in Christ Jesus. This is the meaning of the ex- 
pression "Abraham's bosom." They accepted the true faith, and so became one 
with faithful Abraham. Abraham is called the father of the faithful, and the 
beggar is represented to l^ive gone to Abraham's bosom, to dei^ote ^he f agt 

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into this place of tonneut.' ^But Abraham says, 'They 
have Moses and the prophets, let them hear them.* **And 
he said, *No, Father Abraham, but if one went to them 

which is now history, that the common, people and Oentiles accepted Chris- 
tlanity,and have since continued Christian nations, enjojring the blessings of 
the Christian faith. 

What is meant by the torment of the rich man? The misery of those proud 
men, when, soon after, their land was captured, and their city and temple pos- 
sessed by barbarians, and they scattered like chafF before the wind— a condi- 
tion in which they have continued from that day to this. All efforts to bless 
them with Christianity have proved unavailing. At this very moment there 
is a great gulf fixed so that there is no passing to and fro. And observe, the 
Jews do not desire the gospeL Nor did the rich man ask to Abraham's 
bosom with Lazarus. He only wished Lazarus to alleviate his sufferings by 
dipping his finger in water and cooling his tongue. It ia so with the Jews to- 
day. They do not desire the gospel; they only ask those among whom they 
sojourn to tolerate them and soften the hardships that accompany their wan- 
derings. The Jewish church and nation is now dead. Once they were exalted 
to heaven, but now they are thrust down to Hades, the kingdom of death; 
and the gulf that yawns between them and the Gentiles shall not be abolished 
till the fullness of the Gtentiles shall come in, and "then Israel shall be saved." 

We have no application for the five brethren, nor is it necessary. We do not 
know what is referred to by the fatted calf in the prodigal son, nor in the par- 
ticular number of ninety and nine sheep in the parable of the lost sheep. In 
all these stories subordinate details are thrown in to fill out and complete the 
sketch. Prof. Stuart has well remarked, "Comi)ari8on is not to be extended 
to all the circumstances of the allegory, " or, as another has said in plainer 
terms, "Parables do not go on all fours." The main design is continually re- 
garded, while the minor details are thrown in to complete the sketch and 
make it life-like. 

The meaning of this parable is admirably stated by T. B. Thayer, D. D., in 
his "Theology of Universalism" : 

, The doctrine taught in this parable is the rejection and punishment of the 
Jews, and the calling of the Oentiles into the privileges and blessings of the 

(a) The rich man, clothed in purple and fine linen, and faring sumptuously 
every day, represents the Jews, their wealth of spiritual privileges and bless- 
ings, "because that unto them were committed the oracles of God" (Heb. iii : 

(b) Lazarus, the beggar, feeding on crumbs, and full of sores, represents 
the Gentiles, their spiritual poverty and ignorance. 

(o) Their death represents respectively the change in their conditions, 
which took place on the setting up of the gospel kingdom in the earth. The 
rich man dead, is the Jewish nation dead to, or deprived of, all its former 
privileges and gifts of divine knowledge. Lazarus dead, is the Gentiles dead 
to their former condition of spiritual poverty and unbelief. Death in both 
cases is the opposite of the former life; as death is always the opposite of life. 

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^22 ^^^ ^^^ COVtlNANT. 

from the dead, they would reform.* ^*And he said to him, 
*If they do not hear Moses and the prophets, neither will 
they be convinced, if one [should] rise from the dead.* ** 

(d) Lazarus in Abraham's bosom, represents the Gentiles translated into 
the new life of Gospel faith and knowledge and salvation. 

(e) The rich man in torment represents the Jews suffering the punishment 
of their sins, in the destruction of their city and temple, and the sore calami- 
ties which have fallen on them ever since. 

(/) The great gulf represents the antagonism of unbelief between Jews and 
Christians (Gentiles), and the utter want of religious sympathy and fellow- 
ship which separates the two people. 

(g) The request of the rich man respecting his five brethren, and the reply 
of Abraham, are only put in to show the obstinacy of the Jews in their re- 
fusal to believe in Christ as the Messiah; since, if their own Scriptures (Moses 
and the prophets), could not convince them, neither would they be persuaded 
"if one went unto them from the dead." And this was literally and singularly 
verified ; for when a real Lazarus was raised from the dead by Jesus, the chief 
priests and Pharisees not only refused to believe, but were so enraged that 
they sought to kill both Jesus and Lazarus. John xi : 12. 

These views are not presented by us to escape the force of this parable, for, 
if literal, though it proves the existence of a world of fire after death; in which 
few now believe, there is not a word in it in favor of endless punishment. 

Theophylact, of Bulgaria, wrote eight hundred years ago : "This parable can 
be explained in the way of allegory ; so that we may say, by the rich man is sig- 
nified the Jewish people, for they were formerly rich, abounding in all divine 
knowledge, wisdom and instruction, which are more excellent than gold and 
precious stones. And they were arrayed in purple and fine linen, as they pos- 
sessed a kingdom and a priesthood, and were themselves a royal priesthood to 
God. The purple denoted their kingdom, and the fine linen their priesthood : 
for the Levites were clothed in sacerdotal vestments of fine linen, and they fed 
sumptuously and lived splendidly every day. Daily they offered the morning 
and evening sacrifice, which they called the continual sacrifice. But Lazarus 
was the Gentile people, poor in divine grace and wisdom, and lying before the 
gates, for it was not permitted to the Gentiles to enter the house itself, be- 
cause they were considered a pollution.'* 

The rich man, or the Jews, were and are in the same hell in which David was 
when he said : "The pains of hell {Hades) gat hold on me, I found trouble and 
sorrow," and "Thou hast delivered "toy soul from the lowest hell." Not in end- 
less wo in the future world, but in misery and suffering in this. 

But is this a final condition? No, wherever we locate it, it must end. Paul 
asks the Romans, ''Have they (the Jews) stumbled that they should fall? God 
forbid! but rather through their fall salvation is come unto the Gentiles. 
For 1 would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye 
should be wise in your own conceit, that blindness is in part happened to 
Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles be come in, and so all Israel shall be 
saved. As it is written. There shall come out of Zlon the deliverer, and shall 
turn away ungodliness from Jacob; for this is my covenant with them when I 

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Lnke XVii: 1-10. And he said to his disciples, "It is 
impossible that offences should not come ; but alas for him 
through whom they come. *It would be better for hinj if an 
upper mill-stone were hanged about his neck, and he thrown 
into the lake, rather than that he should offend one of these 
little ones. 'Take heed to yourselves; if your brother sin, 
reprove him; if he reform, forgive him; *and if he sin 
against you seven times in a day, and if seven times he turn, 
saying, «I reform,* you shall forgive him." 

*And the apostles said to the Master, "Increase our faith!" 
*And the Master said, "If you have faith as a mustard- 
grain you shall say to this mulberry tree, *Be uprooted, 
and be planted in the lake,' and it shall obey you. 'But 
which of you having a slave plowing, or feeding catde, will 
say to him, as he comes in from the field, *Come at once, and 
recHne [at table] ?' ®But will he not say to him, *Make ready, 
that I may sup ; gird yourself and serve me, while I eat, and 
drink, and afterwards you may eat, and drink?' ®Does he 
thank the slave because he did what was commanded? *®So 
also you, when you shall have done all the things commanded 
you, say, *We are unprofitable slaves, for we have only done 
what we were bound to do.* ** 


Luke xvii: 20-37. And having been asked by the 

shall takeaway their sins." xl: 11, 25, 27. To this end Christ labored and 
wrought; this la the consummation announced by God's holy prophets since 
the world began, that, in the dispensation of the fullness of times his son 
should gather unto himself all nations, kindreds and families. 

In brief terms, then, we may say that this is a fictitious story or parable de- 
scribing the fate in this world of the Jewish and Gentile people of our Savior's 
times, and has not the slightest reference to the world after death, nor to the 
fate of mankind in that world. 

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224 ^^^ ^^^ COVENANT. 

Pharisees when God's reign was coming, he answered them, 
and said, "The reign of God does not come with observation, 
"nor will they say, 'Behold here,' or * there;' for behold, the 
reign, of God is within you." "And he said to his dis- 
ciples, **Days will come when you will desire to see one of 
the days of the Son of Man, and you will not see it." *^And 
they will say to you, *Behold there*, and *Behold here:' [but] 
follow [them] not; **for even as the hghtning flashing out 
of one part under heaven, shines to the other part under 
heaven, so will the Son of Man be. **But first he must 
suffer many things, and be rejected by this generation. ""And 
as it occurred in the days of Noah, so will it also be in the 
days of the Son of Man. "They ate, they drank, they 
married, they were given in inarriagcj, till the day Noah en- 
tered the ark ; and the flood came, and destroyed them all. 
*®In hke manner, as it occurred in the days of Lot; they ate, 
they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they built ; 
"•but on the day that Lot went out from Sodom, it rained 
sulphur and fire from^ heaven, and destroyed them all. **Thus 
will it be in the day when the Son of Man is revealed. "^In 
that day let him who shall be on the roof, and his fur- 
niture in the house, not descend to take it away; and in 
like manner let him who shall be in the field not turn 
back. ''Remember Lot's wife! ^Whoever shall endeavor 
to save his Hfe, will lose it; and whoever shall lose it, will 
preserve it. '^I tell you in that night there will be two men 
on a couch; one will be taken, and the other left. *Two 
women will be grinding together; one will be taken, and the 
other left. ^'There shall be two men in the field; the one 

LUEB xvll : 33. The impropriety of translating psiAche.^ soul, is seen in this 
verse. Jesus is here delineating the destruction of Jerusalem, and warns his 
disciples how to escape the coming calamities. V. 36 is omitted by S. V. H. 

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shall be taken, and the other left/' ''And they answer, 
and say to him, **Where, Master?" and he said to them, 
"Where the body [is], there, also, will the vultures be as- 


Lnke xriil: 1-8. And he spoke a parable to them, that 
they ought always to pray, and not be weary, saying, ***There 
was a judge in a city, that feared not God, nor regarded man. 
'But there was a widow in the same city, and she went to 
him, saying, 'Give m*e justice from my opponent!* *And 
he would not for a time ; but afterwards he said to him- 
self, 'Though T fear not God, nor regard man, *yet be- 
cause this widow troubles me, I will render her justice, lest 
at last her continual coming should annoy me.* 'And the 
Master said, ''Hear what the unjust judge says; 'and will 
not God do justice to those, his chosen ones, who cry to him 
day and night, and be compassionate towards them? 'I tell 
you that he will speedily do justice for them. But when the 
Son of Man comes, will he indeed find the faith on the 


Lake xviii: 9-14. And he spoke this parable, also, to 
some who trusted in themselves, that they were just, and 
despised all others: *®**Two men went up into the temple to 
pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other a tax-collector. 
"The Pharisee stood by himself, and prayed thus: *God, I 
give thee thanks that I am not like other men, plunderers, 
unjust, adulterers, or, even like this tax-collector; "I fast 
twice in the week; I tithe of all that I acquire.* "But the tax- 
collector, standing at a distance, would not even raise the 
eyes to the heaven, but beat his breast, saying, *God be mer- 

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ciful to me, the sinner I* "I tell you that this man went down 
to his house, justified rather than the other; for every one that 
exalts himself, shall be humbled; but he that humbles 
himself shall be exalted." 


Mark x: 17-30. And as he was going out on his way, there 
came one running up, who, kneeling before him, asked liim, 
"Good Teacher, what shall I do that I may inherit asonian 
Hfe?" *®And Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? 
No one is good but one — God. *®You know the com- 
mands, *Do not murder;* *do not commit adultery;' *do not 
steal ;* *do not testify falsely;* *honor your father and mother.*" 
**And he said to him, "Teacher, from my childhood I have 
kept all these." "Then Jesus looked on him, [and] loved 
him, and said to him, "You lack one thing yet — go, sell 
what you have, and give to the poor, and you shall have 
treasure in heaven; and come, follow me." *'But he looked 
sad at the word, and went away sorrowing, for he had great 
wealth. *^Then Jesus looked round, and said to his disciples, 
**With what difficulty shall those that have riches enter 
into the reign of God." ^*And the disciples were astonished 
at his words. But Jesus answered again, and said to them, 
"Children, how difficult it is to enter the reign of God. ^It 
is easier for a camel to enter through a needle's eye, than for ' 
a rich man to enter the reign of God." '^And they were 
amazed, saying to him, "Who then can be saved?" *^ Jesus 
looking on them, said, "With men it is impossible; but not 
with God; for all things are possible with God." '^Peter be- 
gan to say to him, "Behold, we have abandoned all, and fol- 
lowed you; ivhaU therefore, shall we have?^^ ** Jesus said to 
him, ** Truly I say to you, there is no one who has left 
house, or brothers, or sisters, or mother, or father, or 

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children, or lands, on my account, and on account of the good 
news, *Vho will not receive a hundred fold now, in this 
season, houses, and brothers, and sisters, and mothers, and 
children, and lands, with persecutions, and aBonian life in the 
coming aeon." 

Lake xviii: 18-30. And a certain ruler asked him, 
saying, "Good Teacher, what shall I do to inherit aeo- 
nian life?" "And Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me 
good? No one is good, but one — God. *°You know the com- 
mands, *Do not commit adultery;* *Do not kill;' Do not steal;' 
*Do not bear false testimony;' *Honor father and mother.' 
*'And he said, "All these I have observed from my child- 
hood." ^'And having heard [this], Jesus said to him, "You 
lack one thing yet : sell all that you have, and distribute to 
the poor; and you shall have treasure in heaven; and come, 
follow me." *^But when he heard these things, he was 
greatly grieved; for he was exceedingly rich. ^*And observ- 
ing him, Jesus said, "With what difficulty do those having 
riches, enter into the reign of God ! ^°It is easier for a camel 
to enter a needle's perforation, than for a rich man to enter 
the reign of God!" "And those that heard it, said, "And 
who can be saved?" "^And he said, "The things impossible 
with men, are possible with God." "Then Peter said, "Be- 
hold, we have left our own [homes], and followed you." 
"And he said to them, "Truly, I tell you, that there is no 
man who has left house, or wife, or brothers, or parents, or 
children, on account of the reign of God, ""who will not re- 
ceive manifold in this season, and 8Bonian life in the coming 

Xatthew xix: 16-29. And behold, one approaching, said 

Luke zviii : 25.. The other evangelists employ rhaphidos^ a common needle ; 
but Luke, a physician, uses the word helone.y a surgeon's needle. The word 
treraa^ a perforation, is aUo a medical leim used by Luke, and once .by Mat- 

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to him, "Master, what good thing shall I do that I muy 
have sBonian life?" "And he said to him, "Why do you ask 
me about the good? There is [but] one who is good; but if you 
desire to enter into the Hfe, obey the commands." "He says 
to him, "Which?" Jesus says, " *You shall not kill;' * You 
shall not commit adultery;' *You shall not steal;' *You shall 
not testify falsely; *®*Honor the father and the mother;' 
and *You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' " *®The 
young man said to him, "I have kept all these; what lack I 
still?" "Jesus repUed, "If you desire to be perfect, go, sell 
your property, and give to the poor,and you shall have treasure 
in heaven ; and come, follow me." "And the young man, when 
he heard this word, went away sorrowful, for he had great 
possessions. '^Then Jesus said to his disciples, "Truly, I tell 
you, that it is difficult for a rich man to enter the reign of the 
heavens. "^And again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to 
pass through a needle's perforation, than for a rich man to 
enter the reign of God." *And when the disciples heard 
[this], they were exceedingly astonished, saying, "Who, then^ 
can be saved?" "And Jesus, looking upon [them] said 
to them, "This is impossible with men ; but all things are pos- 
sible with God." *^Then Peter answered, and said to him, 
"Behold, we have forsaken all, and followed you; what, then, 
shall we have?" "And Jesus said to them, "Truly, I tell 

Matt, xix : 16. Jesus indicates that it was a state of happiness to be enjoyed 
on the earth ; for he teUs him it might be obtained by keeping the command- 
ments. Ver. 17. But the state of final holiness and blessedness, revealed in 
the Scriptures, Is represented as a gift from (KmI, not as the reward of works. 
See Rom. Iv: 4; 2 Tim 1:9: Tit ill: 5. The state of spiritual life and peace 
produced in the hearts of men, while they dwell on the earth, by faith in the 
gospel and obedience to its precepts, is frequently denominated life and eter- 
nal life. See John v: 24; 1 John ill: 14. Comp. 1 John ill: 3; James 1: 25; 
11:14-17. Themeanlngof the question, I apprehend, is simply this: What 
must I do in order to become thy disciple and a member of thy kingdom? re- 
ferring, as a Jew naturally and necessarily would, to the kingdom of the Mes- 
siah, otherwise called the kingdom of heaven, or of Ctod.— Paiye. 

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you that you who have followed me, in the Benovation, when 
the Son of Man shall sit on his throne of glory, you shall 
sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 
*"And every one that has left houses, or brothers, or sisters, 
or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or fields, on ac- 
count of my name, will receive manifold, and inherit aeon- 
ian life." 


Mark x: 31. But many first shall be last, and last, 

Matthew xix: 30. '*But many shall be last [that are] 
first, and first [that are] last.'* 

Matthew xx: 1-16. For the reign of the heavens re- 
sembles a householder, who went out early in the morning to 
hire laborers for his vineyard. 'And having agreed with the 
laborers for a denary, he sent them into his vineyard. 
^And going out about the third hour he saw others standing 
idle in the market. *And he said to them, * Go you also into 
my vineyard, and I will give you what is just.' And they 
went. ^And again he went out about the sixth and ninth 
hours, and did the same. "And he went out about the 
eleventh [hour] , and found others standing, and he says to 
them, *Why do you stand here all the day idle?' 'They say 
to him, * Because no man hired us.' He says to them, * You 
also go into the vineyard.* *And at evening, the master of 
the vineyard says to his steward, *Call the laborers, and give 
the hire, beginning from the last to the first.' ®But each of 
those that came at the eleventh hour received a denary. 
'^And when the first came they supposed that they should re- 
ceive more; and they also received a denary apiece. "But 
when they had received it they complained against the 
householder, saying, ^**These last have worked' [only] one 

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hour, and you have made them equal to us, who have en- 
dured the burden, and the scorching heat of the day.* **But 
he answered and said to one of them, * Comrade, I do not in- 
jure you; did you not agree with me for a denary? "Take 
that which is yours, and go; I will give to the last as to you. 
"Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with my own? Is 
your eye evil, because I am good?' "Thus the last shall be 
first, and the first, last." 


Mark x: 2-12. And Pharisees approaching, asked him, 
"Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife?'* *And he an- 
swered and said to them, "What did Moses command you?" 
*And they said, "Moses permitted [us] to write a bill of di- 
vorcement, and to put her away." ^And Jesus said to them, 
*'He wrote you this command because of your obduracy of 
heart; "but from the beginning of creation he made them 
male and female. ^On this account a man shall leave his 
father and mother, ®and the two shall become one flesh; so 
that they are no longer two, but one flesh. *What God has 
united, then, let not man sever." "And in the house the 
disciples again asked him concerning this. "And he says to 
them, "Whoever shall put away his wife, and marry another, 
commits adultery with her; "and if she shall put away her 
husband, and marry another, she commits adultery." 

Matthew xix: 3-12. And [the] Pharisees went to him, 
trjdng him and saying, "Is it lawful [for a man] to put away 
his wife for every cause?" *And he answered, and said, 
"Have you not read that he who created [them] at the first, 
niade them male and female, ^and said, * On this account, a 
man shall leave the father, and the mother, and shall chng 
to his wife, and the two shall be one flesh?' "So that they 

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are no longer two, but one flesh. What, then, God has 
united, let not man separate." ^They say to him, **Why, then, 
did Moses command to give a bill of divorcement, and put 
her away?" ^Jesus says to them, "Moses, indeed, permitted 
you to divorce your wives, on account of your obduracy of 
heart ; but from the beginning, it was not so. ®But I say to 
you, whoever divorces his wife, except on account of un- 
chastity, makes her an adulteress." "Th6 disciples say to 
him, "If this is the case of the man with the wife, it is un- 
profitable to marry I" "But he said to them, "All men can- 
not receive this word, but only those to whom it is given ; 
*^for there are some eunuchs that were bom so, from their 
mother's womb; and there are eunuchs made eunuchs by 
men ; and there are eunuchs who made themselves eunuchs, on 
account of the reign of the heavens. He who is able to ac- 
cept [this] let him accept it." 


Mark x: 13-16. And they were bringing little children 
to him, that he might touch them ; and the disciples reproved 
them. "But when Jesus saw it, he was displeased, and said 
to them, "Permit the little children to come to me; forbid 
them not, for of such is the reign of God. **Truly I say to 
you, whoever will not receive the reign of God like a little 
child, will by no means enter it;" ^®and he took them in his 
arms, laid his hands on them, and blessed them. 

Matthew xix: 13-15. Then little children were brought 
to him, that he might lay' hand* on them, and pray; but his 
disciples reproved them. "And Jesus said, "Permit the little 
children to come to me, and hinder them not, for of such is 

Mark x : 13-16 ; Matt, xix : 13-15 ; Luke xviii : 15-17. This language dem- 
onstrates the Innate purity of human nature. 

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the reign of the heavens." ^And he laid the hands on them 
and departed thence. 

Luke xyiii: 15-1 ?• And they were bringing to him the 
babes also, that he might touch them ; and the disciples, see- 
ing it, reproved them. **But Jesus called them, and said, 
'Termit the Uttle children to come to me, and forbid them 
not, because of such is the reign of God. ^'Truly I say to you, 
whoever will not receive the reign of God as a little child, he 
will by no means enter into it." 


Mark x: 32-34. And they were on the road going up to 
Jerusalem ; and Jesus was preceding them, but they were 
amazed, and they followed him, and were afraid, and he took 
the twelve aside, again, and began to tell them the things 
about to befall him. ""Behold, we are going up to Jerusa- 
lem, and the Son of Man will be deUvered to the high-priests, 
and to the scribes, **and they will condemn him to death, and 
will dehver him to the Gentiles ; and they will deride him, 
and spit on him, and scourge him, and kill him, and after 
three days he will rise again." 

Matthew xx: 17-19. And when Jesus was about to go 
up to Jerusalem, he took the twelve disciples, privately; and 
said to them on the road: *®**Behold, we go up to Jerusa- 
lem, and the Son of Man will be delivered to the high-priests, 
and scribes, *'and they will condemn him to death, and de- 
liver him to the Gentiles, to ridicule, and to scourge, and to 
crucify; and on the third day .he will be raised up." 

Luke xyiii: 31-34. And he took the twelve to him and 
said to them, "Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem, and all 

Luke zvlii : 31. The Old Testament prophecies here referred to (Luke zviii : 
31), have been collated by Gilpin. Possibly modem criticism might not ac- 
cept them all as appljring to Jesus. 

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the things written through the prophets will be accomplished 
in the Son of Man, "for he will be deUvered to the Gentiles, 
and will be derided, and shamefully treated, and spit upon ; 
^'and they will scourge him, and kill him ; and the third day 
he will rise again." "And they understood none of these 
things, and this thing was hidden from them, and they un- 
derstood not the things that were spoken. 


Matthew xx: 20-28. Then -came to him the mother of 
Zebedee's sons, with her sons, making obeisance, and asking 
something of him. "And he said to her, "What do you 
wish?" She said to him, "Say that these, my two sons, may 
sit, one on your right hand, api one on your left, in your 
reign." "But Jesus answered, and said, "You do not know 
what you request. Can you drink the cup that I am about 
to drink?" They say to him, "We can." ""He says to 
them, "You will indeed drink of my cup; but to sit at my 
right and the left, is not mine to give, except to whom it has 

•^Section I, containing the earliest intimations of the Messiah. (Gen. iii : 15 ; 
xvil: 7; xix: 22; xviii: 26: xxvlll: 14; 1 Chron. xvli: 11; Isa. xlll: 6; xllx: 
8; Jer. xxxiii: 20, 21. Isa. xi: 1, 2. Jer. xxiii: 5, 6; xxxiU: 15. Ezek. xvli: 
22,23. Zech. lii:8;vi;12, 13. Mlc. iv: 1, 7. Isa. U: 2; xxv: 7; U: 3, 4; xl: 
6-9. Gen. xllx: 10. Num. xxlv: 17. Isa. xllx: 6. Dan. vii: 13, 14. Isa. 
xll: 27; xl: 9; xllx: 13. Mai. iv: 2.) 

"Section II, containing those prophecies which relate to the birth of the 
Messiah. (Isa. xl: 3-5. MaL iv: 5; ill: 1. P8.11:6-8. Isa. vii: 14. Mlc. v: 
2. Isa. ix: 2, 6, 7.) 

"Section III, containing those prophecies which relate to the life of the Mes- 
siah—his preaching and his miracles. (Dent xviii: 18. Isa. liii: 2, 3 ; xlii: 2, 
3; 111: 7. Zech. ii: 10, 11. Isa. xlii: 1, 4. Isa. xi: 3-5; 1x1:1,2. Mlc. iv: 2. 
Isa.viii:14. Ps. cxviii : 22, 23, 24. Isa. xxvlll: 16; xxix: 14. Zech. ix: 9. 
Hag. 11: 7. 9. Isa. xxxv: 5, 6; xlii; 7; xllx: 9; xl: 11; xllx: 10.) 

"Section IV, containing snch prophecies as relate to the death, resurrection, 
and exaltation of the Messiah. (Ps. xli : 9. Zech. xi : 12, 13 : xUl : 7. Isa. liii : 
7,8. Ps. xxxv: 11; xxxvili: 13; xxii: 16. Isa. 1:6. Mlc. v: 1. Ps. Ixix: 
21 ; xxii: 16, 18. Zech. xlii: 6. Ps. xxii: 1, 7, 8. Joel 11: 30-32. Dan. ix: 24 
-26. Isa.liii:4-6, 10, 12. Zech. xli: 10. Ex.xli:46. Zech. xm:l. l8a.liU: 
9. Ps.ll:l, 2, 4. Ps. xvl: 10. Hos. vi: 2. Jobxix:25. Hos. is^Ul: 14, 1?8. 
ex: 1-4.)" 

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284 ^^^ ^^^ COVENANT. 

been prepared by my J^'aUier." "And wlieu the teu heard 
they were much displeased with the two brothers; *^but Jesus 
called them to him, and said, "You know that the rulers of 
the Gentiles domineer over them, and the great exercise au- 
thority over them . **It is not so among you, but whoever 
may wish to become great among you, let him be your ser- 
vant; *'and whoever ma^' wish to be first among you, let him 
be your slave; *®even as the Son of Man came not to be 
served, but to serve, and to give his life a ransom for many." 

Mark x: 35-45* And Jacob and John, Zebedee's two sons, 
came to him, saying to him, "Teacher, we wish that you 
should do for us whatever t7e shall ask of you." **And he 
said to them, What do you wish that I shall do for you?" 
^And they said to him, * Grant to us that we may sit, the one 
at your right hand, and the other at [the] left, in your glory." 
^But Jesus said to them, "You know not what you ask. Can 
you drink the cup that I drink, or be immersed with the im- 
mersion in which I am being immersed?'- **And they said to 
him, "We can." And Jesus said to them, **You will drink the 
cup that I drink, and you will be immersed with the immer- 
sion in which I am immersed, *"but to sit at my right hand, 
or at [the] left, is not mine to give, except for whom it is pre- 
pared." "And the ten having heard were exasperated at 
Jacob and John. "But Jesus, having called them, says to 
them, "You know that those presuming to rule the Gentiles 
domineer over them, and their great ones exercise authority 
over them. *^But it is not so among you; but whoever may 
wish to be great among you, shall be your servant; **and who- 
ever among you may desire to become first, shall be slave of 
all. *^For even the Son of Man came not to be served, but to 
serve, and to give his life a ransom for -many." 

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Mark x: 46-52. And they come to Jericho. And as he 
was departing from Jericho, with his disciples, and a great 
crowd, Bartimeus, a bhnd beggar, the son of Timeus, sat by 
the roadside, ^^and when he heard that it was Jesus, the 
Nazarene, he began to cry out, and say, "Sou of David, 
Jesus, have pity on me!" *^And many reproved him, 
charging him to be quiet; but he cried out much more, "Son 
of David, have pity on me!" **And Jesus stopped and said, 
"Call him." And they called the blind man, saying to him, 
"Take courage; arise, he calls you I" ^And throwing off his 
mantle, he sprang up and came to Jesus. ^^And Jesus ad- 
dressed him, and said, "What do you desire that I should do 
to you?" The blind man said, "Rabbuni! That I may re- 
ceive my sight." ^^And Jesus said to him, "Go: your faith 
has saved you." And he immediately received his sight, and 
followed him on the road. 

Matthew xx: 29-34. And as they departed from Jericho, 
a great crowd followed him. *^And, behold, two bhnd men, 
sitting by the roadside, hearing that Jesus passed by, cried 
out, saying, "P% v^ Jesus, son of David!" ^* And the crowd 
rebuked them, that they should be silent, but they cried the 
more, saying,"Pity us, Lord, son of David!" ''^And Jesus stood, 
and called them, and said, "What do you wish that I shall 
do for you?" ^^They say to him, "Master, that our eyes may 
be opened." ^And Jesus, being moved with pity, touched 
their eyes, and they immediately received sight, and followed 

Luke xviii: 35-43. And it occurred, as he approached 
Jericho, that a certain blind man sat by the roadside, beg- 
ging, ^and hearing a crowd passing along, he asked, "What 
may this be?" ^And they told him, "Jesus, the Nazarene, 

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286 ^^-^ ^^^ COVENANT. 

passes by." *And he shouted, saying, "Jesus, son of David, 
pity me!" '^And those who went before, reproved him, 
that he should be silent; but he cried out much more, "Son 
of David, pity me!" *®And stopping, he commanded him to 
be led to him, and having approached, he asked him, "" What 
do you desire that I shall do to you?" And he said, "Master, 
that I may receive sight." "And Jesus said to him, "Re- 
ceive your sight; your faith has saved you." *^And instantly 
he received sight, and followed him, glorifying God. And all 
the people saw it and gave praise to God. 


Luke xix: 1-28. And he entered, and was passing 
through Jericho; *and behold, a man named Zaccheus, a 
chief tax-collector, and rich, 'sought to see who Jesus was, 
and could not, on account of the crowd, for he was of small 
stature; *and he ran before, and cHmbed a mulberry tree, to 
see him, for he was about to pass that way. *And when 
Jesus came to the place, he looked up, and said to him, 
"Zaccheus, hasten down, for to-day I must abide in your 
house." 'And he hastened down, and received him, rejoic- 
ing. ^And all that saw it, murmured, saying, <<He has gone 
in to lodge with a sinful man." ®But Zaccheus, standing up, 
said to the Master, "Behold, Master, the half of my posses- 
sions I give to the poor, and if I have extorted anything from 
any man, I restore four-fold." 'And Jesus said to him, "To- 
day salvation has come to this house, since he, also, is a son 
of Abraham. *"For the* Son of Man has come to seek and to 
save the lost." 

"And as they heard these things he proceeded, and spoke 
a parable, because he was near Jerusalem, and they thought 
that the reign of God was about to appear, immediately. 
^^Therefore, he said, "A certain nobleman went into a distant 

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THE 2^.W COVENANT. . 287 

country, to receive 'for himself a kingdom, and return. "And 
he called ten of his slaves, and gave them ten minas, and said 
to them, * Trafl&c till I come.* "But his citizens hated him, 
and sent an embassy after him, saying, * We ace not willing 
for this man to reign over us.' "*And it occurred, on his re- 
turn, having received the royalty, that he ordered those 
slaves to be called to him, to whom he gave the silver, that 
he might know what they had gained by traffic. '"And the 
first came near, saying, ^Master, your mina has gained ten 
minas.* "And he said to him, * Well done, good slave, because 
you have been faithful in very little, possess authority over 
ten cities.' "And the second came, saying, * Master, your 
mina has made five minas.* "And he said, also, to this 
one, *You also be over five cities.* "^And the other came, 
saying, 'Master, behold your mina, which I had laid up in a 
napkin, "for I feared you, because you are a harsh man ; you 
take up what you did not lay down, and reap what you did 
not sow.' "He said to him, * Out of your own mouth will I 
judge you, evil slave ! You know that I am a harsh man, 
taking up what I laid not down, and reaping what I did not 
sow? "^Why, then, did you not place my silver on the 
[broker's] table, [so] that coming,. I might have exacted the 
same, with interest? ' ^And he said to those standing near, 
*Take the mina from him, and give it to him who has 
[gained] the ten minas.* **And they said to him, * Master, 
he has ten minas.* *"* I tell you, that, to every one who has, 
more shall be given ; and from him who has not, even what 
he has shall be taken. *^But bring hither these, my enemies, 
who were not willing for me to reign over them, and slay 
them in my presence.* " "^And having said these things, he 
went on before them, going up to Jerusalem. 

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John xl: 54-57- Jesus, therefore, no longer walked pub- 
licly among the Jews, but departed thence into the region 
near the desert, into a city called Ephraim, and there re- 
mained with the disciples. ^And the Jews' Passover was 
near, and many went up to Jerusalem, out of the country, be- 
fore the Passover, to purify themselves. ^Then they looked 
for Jesus, and said to each other, standing in the temple, 
**What do you think? WiU he not come to the feast?" 
"Now the high-priests and the Pharisees had commanded 
that if any man knew where he was, he should show it, 
that they might arrest him. 


Mark xiv: 3-9. And while he was in Bethany, as he re- 
clined [at table] in the house of Simon, the leper, a woman 
came, having an alabaster flask of nard ointment, very costly, 
[and] she broke the alabaster flask, and lavished [the oint- 
ment] on his head. *And some were displeased, [saying] 
among themselves, **Why has this loss of ointment been in- 
curred? Tor this ointment could have been sold for more 
than three hundred denaries, and given to the poor." 'And 
they censured her. But Jesus said, **Let her alone! Why 
do you trouble her? She has done a beautiful work for me. 
Tor you always have the poor among you; and when you 
choose you can do them good; but you do not always have 
me. ^Shehas done what she could; she has anointed my 
body beforehand, for the burial. *And I tell you truly, 
wherever the good news may be preached, in the whole 
world, that, also, which this woman has done, shall be told 
as her memorial." 

Matthew xxvi: 6-13. And Jesus, having arrived in 

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Bethany, in the house of Simon, the leper, ^a woman came to 
him, having an alabaster flask of very precious ointment, 
which she poured on his head, as he reclined. ®And ^hen 
the disciples saw it; they were displeased, saying, '**For what 
reason is this waste, for this [ointment] might have been sold 
for much, and given to the poor." ^"But Jesus perceived it, 
and said to them, ♦^Why do you trouble the woman? She 
has wrought a good work for me. "For you always have the 
poor among you, but you do not always have me. "For, as 
she has lavished this ointment on my body, she has done it 
to prepare me for burial. "Truly I tell you, wherever this 
good news shall be preached, in the whole world, what this 
woman has done, shall be told as her memorial." 

John xll: 1-11. Therefore, six days before the Passover, 
Jesus went to Bethany, where Lazarus was, whom Jesus 
raised from [the] dead. ''They, therefore, made him a sup- 
per there, and Martha served, but Lazarus was one of those 
that recHned with him. '^Then Mary took a pound of very 
costly nard ointment, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and 
wiped his feet with her hair; and the house was filled with 
the aroma of the ointment. ''**But,*' says one of the disci- 
ples, that Judas Iskariot, who was about to betray him, 
^**Why was this ointment not sold for three hundred denaries, 
and given to the poor?" ®Now he said this, not because he 
cared about the poor, but because he was a thief, and having 
the box, carried what was placed in it. 'Jesus therefore said, 
"Let her alone; [it was] that she might keep it for the day of 
my embalming. Tor you always have the poor with you, 
but you do not always have me." 'A great crowd of the 
Jews, therefore, knew that he was there; and they came, not 
only on account of Jesus, but, also, that they might see 

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Lazams, whom Jems raised from the dead. ^^And even the 
high-priests consulted that they might kill Lazarus also ; ^^he- 
cause on his account many of the Jews went away, and be- 
lieved in Jesus. 

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Mark xi: 1-10. And when they approach Jerusalem, 
to Bethphage and Bethany, near the mountain of the ohves, 
he sends two of his disciples, *and says to them, **Go to the 
village opposite you, and as soon as you enter it, you will 
find a colt fastened, on which no man has yet sat; unfasten, 
and bring him, 'and, if any one say to you, * Why do you 
this?* reply, * The Master needs him,* and immediately he 
sends it again hither. '* *And they went and found a colt fast- 
ened at a door outside, in a cross-road ; and they unfastened 
him. ^And some of those standing there said to them, "Why 
do you unfasten the colt?** 'And they said to them as Jesus 
had said; and they allowed them. ^And they bring the colt 
to Jesus, and throw their mantles on him, and he sat on him. 
®And many spread their mantles on the road, and others 
spread foUage which they had cut out of the jBelds. *And 
those going before, and those following, shouted, **Hosanna! 
Blessed [is] he that comes in the name of the Lord! ^^And 
Blessed [is] the coming reign of our father David. Hosanna 
in the highest!** 


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242 ^^^ ^^^ COVENANT. 

Matthew xxi: 1-9. And when they were near Jerusa- 
lem, and came to Bethphage, by the momitain of the oHves, 
then Jesus sent two disciples, *saying to them, **(jo to the 
village opposite you, and you will immediately find an ass 
tied, and a colt with her; unfasten, and bring to me; ^and if 
any one say anything to you, say, * The Master needs them,' 
and he will send them immediately." *But this occurred, 
that the word spoken through the prophet might be fulfilled 

'^"Say to the daughter of Zion, 

* Behold, thy king comes to thee. 

Meek, and riding on an ass. 

Even on a colt, a foal of a beast of burden.' " 

''And the disciples went and did as Jesus had directed, ^and 
they led the ass, and the colt, and put the mantles over them, 
and he sat on them. ®And a great part of the crowd spread 
their own mantles on the road, and others cut branches from 
the trees, and scattered them along the road. *And the 
crowds that went before him, and those that followed, shouted, 
saying, "Hosanna to David's son! Blessed [is] he who 
comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest!" 

John xil: 12-19. On the next day many people who 
had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming 
to Jerusalem, **took palm tree branches, and went out to meet 
him, and cried out, saying ^ **Hosanna! Blessed [is] he that 
comes in the name of the Lord, even the king of Israel !" 
"And Jesus, when he had found a young ass, sat on it, as it 
is written, 

"**Fear not, daughter of Zion; 

Behold the king comes. 

Sitting on an ass's colt." 

**Now his disciples understood not these things at the first; 

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but when Jesus was glorified, then they remembered that 
these things had been written about him, and that they did 
these things to him. "Therefore the crowd that was with him 
when he called Lazarus out of the tomb, and raised him from 
the dead, testified. "On this account, also, many people 
went and met him, because they heard that he had wrought 
this sign. *^Then the Pharisees said among themselves, 
**You see that you gain nothmg; see, the world has gone 
away after him." 

Luke xix: 29-40. And it occurred, as he drew near 
Bethphage and Bethany, at the mountain which is called 
Ohvet, he sent two of the disciples, ^saying, "Go to the op- 
posite village, entering which you will find a colt tied, on 
which no man ever sat; imfasten, and bring him; "and if 
any one ask you, * Why do you imfasten him?' answer 
thus, *The Master needs him."' ^And those who were 
sent, went away, and found it as he had said to them. ^'And 
as they were unfastening the colt, his owners said to them, 
**Why do you unfasten the colt?" ®*And they said, ^^Became 
the Master needs him." ^And they led him to Jesus; and 
they threw their mantles on the colt, and set Jesus thereon, 
^'and as he went, they spread their mantles on the road, ^'and 
as he was approaching the descent of the mountain of the 
olives, all the crowd of the disciples began to rejoice, and 
praise God with a loud voice, for all [the] mighty works 
which they had seen, "saying, 

**Blessed [is] the king that comes in the name of [the] 

"Peace in heaven, and glory in the highest!" 

"*And some of the Pharisees among the crowd said to him, 
"Teacher, rebuke your disciples." *^And he answered and 

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said, "I tell you that if these cease, the stones will cry out.** 


Luke xix: 41-44. And as he drew near and saw the 
city, he wept over it, "saying, **0h, that you, even you, had 
known, at this day, the things that relate to peace; but now 
they are hidden from your eyes ; "for days will come upon you, 
when your enemies will throw a rampart around you, and 
circumvaUate you, and press you on every side, **and will 
level you with the ground, and your children in you, and 
they will not leave in you stone upon stone, because you did 
not know the season of your visitation." 


Matthew xxi: 10-16. And when he had entered Jerusa- 
lem, all the city was agitated, saying, "Who is this?" "And 
the crowds answered, **This is Jesus the prophet, from 
Nazareth, in Galilee." "And Jesus entered the temple, and 
drove out all those that sold and bought in the temple, and 
overturned the brokers' tables, and the seats of the dove- 
sellers; ^^and he said to them, "It is written. 

My house shall be called a house of prayer,' 

But you make it a robbers* den." 
"And [the] blind and lame came to him in the temple, and 
he healed them. *^But when the high-priests and scribes saw 
the wonders that he did, and the children that were crying 
in the temple, and saying, **Hosanna to the son of David!" 
they were angry, and said to him, ^^'^♦Hear you what these 
are saying?" And Jesus said to them, **Yes; have you never 
read, *Out of the mouths of infants and nurslings thou 
hast perfected praise?* '* 

Mark xi: 15-17. And they com'e to Jerusalem; and he 

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went into the temple, and began to drive out those selling 
and buying in the temple, and overturned the brokers' ta- 
bles, and the seats of the dove-sellers ; "and would not per- 
mit any one to carry a vessel through the temple. "And he 
taught, and said to them, "Is it not written, * My house shall 
be called a house of prayer for all nations?' But you have 
made it a robbers' den." 

Luke xlx: 45-46* And he entered the temple, and be- 
gan to cast out those that sold, ^'saying to them, **It is writ- 

** *And my house shall be a house of prayer,' 
But you have made it a robbers' den. " 


Mark xi: 11. And he entered Jerusalem, [and went] into 
the temple; and when he had looked around on all things, it 
being near evening, he went out to Bethany, with the twelve. 

Matthew xxi: 17. And he left them, and 'went out of 
the city to Bethany, and lodged there. 


Mark xi: 13-14. And on the next day, as they were com- 
ing from Bethany, he was hungry; "and observing a fig tree 
at a distance, having foliage, he went to search if, perchance, 
he could find fruit on it, for it was not yet the season for 
figs. And having come to it he found nothing but foliage. 
"Then he said to it, **Let no man eat fruit from you to the 
SBon." And his disciples heard it. 

Matthew XXl: 18-22. And returning to the city in the 
morning, he was hungry; **and seeing a solitary fig tree on 

Matt, xxi: 19. Says Trench: "Forever, In E. V., is an evident mistransla- 
tion. This forever has its merciful limitation, when we come to transfer the 

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the road, he went to it, and found nothing on it except fo- 
liage, and he said to it, **Let no fruit be produced by you to 
the aeon;" and the fig tree immediately withered. ^And 
when the disciples saw it, they were astonished, saying, 
"How soon the fig tree withered!" "And Jesus answered, 
and said to them, "Truly, I say to you, if you have faith un- 
disturbed by doubt, you will not only do what has been done 
to the fig tree, but also, if you say to this mountain, *Be 
lifted, and oast into the lake,* it will be done; ^and all things 
that you ask in prayer, believing, you shall receive." 

Mark xl: 20-26. And as they passed along in the morn- 
ing, they saw the fig tree withered away from the roots. 
"And Peter, remembering, says to him, "Eabbi, behold the 
fi^ tree which you cursed, is withered away!" ^^And Jesus, 
answering, says to him, "Have faith in God; *^ruly, I say 
to you, that whoever may say to this mountain, * Be raised, 
and hurled into the lake! ' and rot doubt in his heart, but be- 
lieve that what he says will occur, he shall have it. '^For this 
reason, I say to you, all things, whatever, you pray for, and 
desire, beheve that you receive, and you will have them. 
**And when you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything 
against any one, that your Father in the heavens may also 
forgive your offenses. " 


Mark xi: 18-19. And the high-priests and the scribes 
heard it, and considered how they might destroy him; for 

curse from the tree to that of which the tree was as a liying parable; a limita- 
tion which the word itself favors and allows. * * * None shall eat fruit 
of that tree tiU the end of the present oeont not nntU these times of the Gten* 
tiles dxe fulfilled.'* 

Mabe xl : 26. Verse 26 is not in S. or V : "But if you do not forgive, neither 
wlU your Father in the heavens forgive your offences." 

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they feared him, because all the crowd was astonished at his 
te^^ching. "Ai^d whenever evening came, they went out of 
the city. 

Lake xix: 47-48. And he continued teaching in the 
temple, daily; and the high-priests, and the scribes, and the 
chiefs of the people, sought to destroy him. *®And they could 
not find how to do it, for the people all himg upon him, to 
hear him. 


Mark xi: 27-33* And they come again to Jerusalem. 
And as he was walking about in the temple, the high priests, 
and scribes, and presbyters came to him, and said to him, 
*"By what authority do you these things? Or, who gave 
you this authority to do these things?" **And Jesus said to 
them, "I will ask you one question, and answer me, and I 
will tell you by what authority I do these things : ^John's 
immersion — whence was it; from heaven, or from men? An- 
swer me." ^^And they debated among themselves, saying, 
"If we say, * From heaven,' he will say, * Why then did you 
not beheve him?' But if we say, * From men,' they feared 
the people; for all held that John was truly a prophet. ''And 
they say to Je8U8,"We do not know;" and Jesus says to them, 
"Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these things." 

Mark xll: 1-13. And he began to address them in para- 
bles: "A man planted a vineyard, and placed a hedge 
around it, and digged a wine-press, and built a tower, and let 
it to husbandmen, and left the country. "And at the season 
he sent a slave to the husbandmen, that he might receive 
from the husbandmen of the fruits of the vineyard. ^But 
they seized him, and beat him, and sent him away empty. 

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248 ^^^ ^^^ COVENANT. 

*But, again, he sent another slave to them, and him they 
wounded in the head, and disgracefully treated. *And he 
sent another, and him they killed, and many others — they 
beating some, and killing some. ®He had yet one beloved son. 
He sent him to them, last, saying, * They will regard my son.* 
^£ut those husbandmen said among themselves, < This is the 
heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.' 
^Then they seized him, and killed him, and cast him out of 
the vineyard. *What, therefore, will the mastei; of the vine- 
yard do? He will come and destroy the husbandmen, and 
give the vineyard to others. *°Have you not read even this 

" *A stone which the builders rejected. 

Has become the head of a comer; 

"This was from the Lord, 

And it is wonderful in our eyes.' " 

*^And they sought to arrest him, but they feared the crowd, 
for they knew that he had spoken the parable against them. 
And they left him, and went away. 

Matthew xxi: 23-46. And when he had entered the 
temple, the high-priests and presbyters of the people came to 
him, as he was teaching, and said, **By what authority do 
you these things? and who gave you this authority?" **And 
Jesus answered and said to them, **I also will ask you one 
question ; which, if you will answer me, I will also tell you 
by what authority I do these things : **The immersion of 
John — whence was it, from heaven, or from men?" And 
they debated among themselves, saying, ** If we say, *From 
heaven,' he will say to us, * Why, then, did you not beheve 
him?' **But if we should say, * From men,* we fear the 
crowd, for all regard John as a prophet." ^'And they an- 
swered, and said to Jesus, **We do not know." And Jesus 

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said to them, "Neither do I tell you by what authority I do 
these things. *®But what think you: A man had two sons. 
He came to the first, and, said, *Child, go work to-day in the 
vineyard.* "And he answered and said, *I [go], sir I* but 
went not. "'And coming to the other, he said just the same. 
And he answered and said, *I will not.* Afterward, he re- 
pented and went. *' Which of the two did the Father's will?" 
They say, "The last;'* Jesus says to them, ** Truly, I say to 
you, that the tax-collectors, and the courtesans go into the 
reign of God before you. ^For John came to you in the way 
of righteousness, and you believed him not; but the tax-col- 
lectors and the courtesans believed him; yet you, when you 
had seen, repented not afterward, so as to believe him. 

^"Hear another parable: There was a man that was a 
householder, who planted a vineyard, and surrounded it with 
a hedge, and digged a wine-press in it, and erected a tower, 
and let it out to husbandmen, and left the country. ^And 
when the time of fruits approached, he sent his slaves to the 
husbandmen, to receive the fruits of it. '^And the husband- 
men took his slaves, — one they beat, another they killed, an- 
other they pelted with stones. ^'And again he sent other 
slaves, more than the first, and they did in like manner to 
them. ''^And afterward he sent his son to them, saying, 
*They will regard my son.* ^But the husbandmen, when 
they saw the son, said among themselves, *. This is the heir; 
come, let us kill him, and retain the inheritance.* ^And they 
took him, and cast him out of the vineyard, and killed him. 
*^When, therefore, the master of the vineyard comes, what 
will he do to those husbandmen?'* "They reply to him, 
"He will ignominiously destroy those wretched men, and will 
let out the vineyard to other husbandmen, who will render to 

Matt, xxi: 31. S. says "first," and V. says "last." 

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250 "PSJ^ ^^^ COVENANT. 

him the fruits in their seasons." ^Jesus says to them, "Did 
you never read in the Scriptures, 

" * A stone which the builders rejected, 

The same became head of a corner; 

This was from the Lord, 

And it is wonderful in our eyes?* 

****! say to you that on account of this, the reign of God 
shall be taken from you, and shall be given to a nation 
producing the proper fruits." **And when the chief 
priests and Pharisees heard his parables, they knew that he 
referred to them. *®But when they sought to seize him, they 
feared the crowds, since they regarded him as a prophet. 

Matthew xxli: 1-14. And Jesus answered, and spoke to 
them in parables, again, saying, *"The reign of the heavens 
resembles a man who was a king, who prepared a marriage- 
feast for his son. 'And he sent his slaves to call those who 
were invited to the marriage-feast, and they refused to come. 
*Again he sent other slaves, saying, * Tell those that have 
been invited, "Behold, I have prepared my dinner; my oxen 
andfatlings have been killed; and all is ready; come to the 
marriage feast." ' *But they, unheeding, went away, one to 
his own farm, and one to his traffic, 'and the remainder 
seized his slaves, and insulted, and killed them. ^And the 
king was angry, and sent his armies, and destroyed those 
murderers, and burned their city. Then he says to his 
slaves, ^* The marriage feast is ready, but those that were in- 
vited were not worthy. ®Go, therefore, into the partings of 
the highways, and invite to the marriage-feast as many as 
you may find.* ^°And those slaves went out into the high- 

MA.TT. xli: 44. The most ancient MSS. omit verse 44: "And whoever falls 
on this stone shaU be broken, but it wiU crush him to pieces on whom It shaU 

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ways, and brought together all that they met, evil and good, 
and the bride-chamber was full of guests. "And when the 
kmg entered to view the guests, he saw a man not clothed in 
a marriage-garment; "and he says to him, *Comrade, how 
came you here, not wearing a wedding-garment?* And he 
was speechless. "The king then said to his servants, * Bind 
his feet and hands, and take him, and cast him into the 
darkness outside; there shall be' the weeping and the gnash- 
ing of the teeth;* "for many are invited, but few selected." 

Luke xx: 1-19. And it occurred, on one of the days, as 
he taught the people in the temple, and preached the good 
news, the high-priests, and the scribes, and the presbyters 
came up, *and spoke, saying to him, "Tell us by what author- 
ity you do these things ; or, who is he that gave you this au- 
thority?" ^And he answered, and said to them, "I also will 
ask you a question, and answer me : *the immersion of John, 

.was it from heaven, or from men?" '^And they debated 
among themselves, saying, **If we should say, *From heaven,' 
he will say, * Why did you not believe him?' 'And if we 
should say, * From men,' all the people will stone us, for they 
are persuaded that John was a prophet." 'And they an- 
swered that they did not know whence [it was]. ®And Jesus 

. answered and said to them, **Neither do I tell you by what au- 
thority I do these things." 

'And he began to speak this parable to the people : "A man 
planted a vineyard, and leased it to husbandmen, and left the 
country for a long time. *^And at the season he sent a slave 
to the husbandmen, that they should give him of the fruit of 
the vineyard. But the husbandmen beat him, and sent him 
away empty. "And again he sent another slave, but they 
beat him also, and disgracefully treated him, and sent him 
away empty. "And again, he sent a third, but they wounded 

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252 » 2^^^ ^^^ COVENANT. 

this one, and cast him out. *^And the master of the vine- 
yard said, * What shall I do? I will send my son, the be- 
loved; possibly they will respect him.' "But when the hus- 
bandmen saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying, 
* This is the heir; let us kill him, that the inheritance may be 
ours I' *^And they cast him out of the vineyard, and killed 
him. What then will the master of the vineyard do to them? 
"He will come and destroy these husbandmen, and give the 
vineyard to others." And when they heard it, they said, 
** Let it not be.'* ^'And he looked on them and said, **What, 
then, is this that is written? 

" *A stone which the builders rejected. 

Has become head of a comer.' 

""Whoever falls on that stone, will be bruised; but on 
whomsoever it may fall, it will grind him to dust." 

"In that very hour the scribes and high -priests sought to 
lay hands on him, but they feared the people ; because they 
perceived that he spoke this parable concerning them. 


Luke XX ; 20-26. And they watched him, and sent spies 
who feigned themselves to be just, that they might seize a 
word, in order to deliver him up to the control and authority 
of the governor. ^^And they questioned him, saying, "Teacher, 
we know that you speak and teach correctly, and do not ex- 
cept persons, but teach the way of God in truth ; "is it lawful, 
or not, for us to give tax to Kaisar ?" ^But he perceived their 
craftiness, and said to them, "'*Show me a denary." And 
they showed a denary to him; and he said, ** Whose Hkeness has 
it, and whose inscription?" "And they said, "Kaisar's." 
And he said to them, **Eetum Kaisar's things to Kaisar, 
and God's things to God." "And they could not take bold 

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of the saying before the people, and they wondered at his 
answer, and were silent. 

Matthew xxii: 15-33. Then the Pharisees went and 
consulted how they might entrap him in [his] speech. "And 
they send to him their disciples, with the Herodians, saying, 
"Teacher, we know that you are true, and teach the way of 
God in truth, and care for no one, for you regard not the 
person of men. "Tell us, therefore, what you think: is it law- 
ful to pay tax to Kaisar, or not?" "But Jesus perceived 
their evil intent, and said, "Hypocrites I why do you tempt 
me? "Show me the tax-money.'* And they handed him a 
denary. ""And he says to them, "Whose likeness is this, and 
whose inscription?" **They say to him, "Kaisar's." Then 
he says to them, "Betum Kaisar's things to Eaisar, and 
God's things to God." "And when they heard it, they 
wondered, and left him and went their way. 

Mark xii: 13-1 7* Then they send to him certain of the 
Pharisees, and of the Herodians, to entrap him in [his] dis- 
course- "And when they had come, they say to him, "Teacher, 
we know that you are true, and care for no one; for you look 
not to the appearance of men, but teach the way of God in 
truth. Is it lawful, or not, to give tax to Kaisar? **Should 
we give, or should we not give?" But he, seeing their 
hypocrisy, said to them, "Why do you tempt me? Bring me 
a denary, that I may see it." "And they brought it. And 
he says to them, "Whose Hkeness is this, and whose inscrip- 
tion?" And they said to him, "Kaisar's." And Jesus said to 
Ihem, ""Return Kaisar's things to Kaisar, and God's things 
to God." And they greatly wondered at him. 


Mark xii: 18-27. And the Sadducees, who say there is no 

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264 ^^^ -2^^ COVEnA^T. 

resurrection, came to him, and asked him, saying, ""Teacher, 
Moses wrote to us, *If a man's brother die, and leave a 
wife behind, and leave no child, that his brother should 
take his wife, and raise up offspring td his brother.' *^There 
were seven brothers; and the first took, a' wife, and. dying, left 
no offspring. "And the second took her, and died, leaving 
no offspring behind ; and in like manner the third, "and the 
seven [and] left no offspring/ Last bf all the woman, also, . 
died. **In the resurrection whose wife of them shall she be, 

Mabk xii : 18-27 ; Luke xx : 27 :40 ; Matt, xxii : 23-33. "The resurrection." 
These passages teach that : 1. AU mankind are raised ; "th/& dead are raised." 
2. All the dead are immortal. "Neither can they die any more." 3. They are 
"anprels. " 4. They are like God in character. 5. They must be holy and happy 
forever, as aU are inmiortal, godllke,angels. 

The objection sometimes offered to this view is in the phrase Luke uses, but 
that the other evangelists do not : "They which shall be accounted worthy to 
obtain that aion." But this phrase is a reply to the Pharisees who denied 
that some would be deemed worthy to rise. Jesus having said that all will 
rise, says they "having been accounted worthy," (kataxiothentes) are immor- 
tal and holy. The lexicographers define this word thus : Donnegan, "To deem 
worthy, to honor, to esteem, to desire, to sue for." Greenfield, "To account 
worthy, to esteem fit." Dr. George Campbell thus translates it: "But among 
them who shall be honored to share in the resurrection and the other world." 

That he taught the doctrine of a universal rising into holiness, is evident 
from verse 33. "And when the multitude heard this, they were astonished at 
his doctrine." What astonished them? In his audience were: 1. Pharisees 
who believed in partial salvation. Had he taught that, he would not have as- 
tonished them. 2. Sadducees, who denied the resurrection. Had he taught 
that, he would not have astonished tJiem. 3. Heathen, who believed in a par- 
tial salvation. Had he taught endless punishment for a portion of mankind, ^ 
he would not have astonished </i em. Tbe only doctrine that could have as- 
tonished all these classes, was the resurrection of all souls to holiness and 
happiness. He taught something new, and different to what all these classes 
received. Universal salvation is the only possible view different from the 
doctrines of all these. Hence Jesus warned his hearers against the old ideas. 
*'Then Jesus said unto them, Take heed, and beware of the leaven of the Phari- 
sees and of the Sadducees. Then understood they how that he bade them not 
beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and of the 
Sadducees." Matt, xvi: 6-12. The Pharisees taught the resurrection of a part 
of the human family to holiness and happiness; the Sadducees taught no 
resurrection ; Jesus warned his disciples against both. The only other doctrine 
is the resurrection of all to holiness and happiness. 

He rejected the teachings of all these, and taught that the resurrection con- 
dition is one of universal holiness.— See 1 Cor. xx : 58. 

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for the seven had her as wife?" "Jesus said to them, "Do you 
not err through this, that you do not know the Scriptures, 
nor the power of God? "For when they rise from the dead, 
they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as 
angels in the heavens. "But concerning the dead, that they 
are raised, have you not read in Moses' book how God spoke 
to bim at the bush, saying, *I [am] the God of Abraham, and 
the God of Isaao, and the God of Jacob?' . *^He is not the 
God of [the] dead, but of [the] Hving. You greatly err." 

Luke xx: 27-40. And certain of the Sadducees, who say 
that there is no resurrection, came to him, and asked him, 
^"saying, "Teacher, Moses wrote taus, *If a man's brother, 
having a wife, die, and be childless, his brother should take 
the wife, and rear offspring to his brother.' "Now there were 
seven brothers, and the first took a wife, and died childless; 
"and the second, ^^and the third took heir, and in like man- 
ner the seven, and died, and left no children. ''At last 
the woman also died. "In the resurrection, therefore, whose 
wife of them is she? For the seven had her as wife." 
"And Jesus said to them, **The sons of this 8Bon marry, 
and are given in marriage; "but those accounted worthy 
to attain that aeon and the resurrection of the dead, neither 
marry nor are given in marriage, "nor can they die any more ; 
because they are equal to the angels, and are sons of God, 
being sons of the resurrection. ^But that the dead are 
raised, even Moses revealed at the bush, when he called the 
Lord, 'the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the 
God of Jacob.' "Now he is not God of [the] dead, but of [the] 
living, for all live to him." "Then some of the scribes 
replied and said, "Teacher, you have well spoken;" *^or 
they dared not question him any more. 

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266 i'ite NS!W COVElfANt. 

Matthew xxii: 23-33. And on that day Sadducees came, 
saying, "There is no resurrection, " and they asked him, saying, 
«««*Teacher, Moses said: *If a man die, having no children, 
his brother shall marry his wife, and rear offspring to his 
brother.' *^Now there were seven brothers with us, and the 
first married and died, and having no offspring, left his wife 
to his brother, ^likewise also, the second, and the third, till the 
seven. "And after them all the woman died. **In the resur- 
rection, therefore, whose wife of the seven will she be? For 
they all had her." "But Jesus answered and said to them, 
**You err, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God; 
**for in the resurrection they neither marry nor are they given 
in marriage, but are as* angels in the heaven. "But hav^ 
you not read what was spoken by God to you, about the 
resurrection of the dead, saying, '^*I am the God of Abraham, 
and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? ' He is not [the 
God] of [the] dead, but of [the] Hving." "*And when the 
crowds heard [this] they were astonished at his teaching. 


IKark xii: 28-34. And one of the scribes came, and 
heard them disputing, and perceiving that he had answered 
well, asked him, ** Which is the first command of all?" 
**Jesus replied, "The first is, *Hear, Israel, the Lord our 
God, the Lord is one, ^and thou shalt love the Lord thy 
God with all thy heart, and with all thy mind, and with all 
thy life, and with all thy strength.' "The second is this, 
'Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.' There is no other 
command greater than these." ^And the scribe said to him, 
»*Right, Teacher, you speak in truth, for he is one, and there 
is none but he ; '^and to love him with all the heart, and all the 
understanding, and all the strength, and to love your neigh- 
bor as yourself, is abundantly more than all whole burnt 

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offerings and sacrifices." '^And when Jesus saw that he 
answered discreetly, he said to him, "You are not far from the 
reign of God. " And no one presumed to question Viim further. 
Matthew xxii: 34-40. And the Pharisees, when they 
heard that he had silenced the Sadducees, assembled. "^And 
one of them, a lawyer, asked him a question, to try him, 
'"'^Teacher, which is the great command in the law?" ^And 
he said to him, *Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all 
thy heart, and with all thy life, and with aU thy mind*; 
"this is the great and first command; '"and the second is 
similar: *Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.' *"The 
whole law and the prophets are suspended on these two 


Matthew xxii: 41-46. And while the Pharisees were 
assembled, ** Jesus asked them, saying, **What do you think 
concerning the Christ? Whose son is he?" They say to him, 
**David'8." "He says to them, "How then does David, by 
the spirit, call him Master, saying, 

**** *The Lord said to my Lord, 

**Sit thou at my right hand. 

Till I make thine enemies a footstool of thy feet.* " 

*®"If David, then, calls him Lord, how is he his son?" 
^•And no one could answer him a word, nor dared any one 
fiom that day interrogate him any more. 

Mark xii: 35-37. And, while teaching in the temple, 
Jesus answered and said: **Why do the scribes say that the 
Christ is David's son? *David himself said by the Holy 

Mark xll: 36. In the origrinal Hebrew, Ps. ex: 1-11, "Jehovah said to my 
Master." But Mark probably quoted from the Greek Septuaf^int version of 
the Psalms. 


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258 ^^^ -^^^ COVENANT. 

" *The Lord said to my Lord, 

"Sit thou at my right hand, 

Till I make thine enemies a footstool of thy feet.* " 

"*«David himself calls him Lord, and how is he his son?" 
And the great crowd gladly heard him. 

Luke xx: 41-44. And he said to them, ♦^How do they 
say that the Christ is David's son? *'For David himself 
says, in [the] Book of Psalms, 

" *The Lord said to my Lord, 

"Sit thou at my right hand, 

*'Till I make thine enemies a footstool of thy feet.' " 

**"David, therefore, calls him Lord, and how is he his son?" 


Mark xil: 38-40. And he said to them in his teaching, 
"Beware of those scrihes who desire to walk about in long 
robes, and [covet] salutations in the markets, "^and the prin- 
cipal seats in the synagogues, and the chief couches at feasts ; 
*Vho plunder the widows' houses, and pray long for display; 
they will receive a heavier judgment." 

Luke xx: 45-47. And in the hearing of all the people he 
said to his disciples, *®"Beware of the scribes who desire to 
walk in long robes, and lovd salutations in the markets, and 
the principal seats in the synagogues, and the chief places at 
feasts ; *Vho devour widows' houses, and pray long for a dis- 
play; these will receive greater judgment." 

Matthew xxiil: 1-39. Then Jesus spoke to the crowds, 
and to his disciples, *saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees 
sit on Moses' seat; ^therefore, everything they tell you, do 
and observe; but do not according to their works, for they 
say, and do not. *For they bind great [and] heavy burdens on 
men's shoulders, but they themselves will not Hft a finger to 
move them. *But they do all their works to be seen by men. 

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For they widen their prayer-fillets, and enlarge their fringes, 
•and love the upper couch in the feasts, and the principal 
seats in the synagogues, 'and the salutations in the markets, 
and to be called by men, *Rabbi.* ^But be you not called 
*Rabbi', for one is your Teacher, and you are all brothers. 
*And call no man on earth your father, for one is your 
Father, [even] he who is in heaven. "Neither be you called 
leaders, because your Leader is one^ the Christ. "But the 
greater among you shall be your servant. "And whoever 
shall exalt himself, will be humbled, and whoever shall 
humble himself, will be exalted. 

"**But alas for you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for 
you shut up the reign of the heavens before men ; for you 
enter not, nor do you permit them to enter, who are en- 

****Alas for you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because 
you ransack sea and land, to make one proselyte, and when 
he is made, you make him a son of Gehenna doubly more 
than yourselves. 

""Alas for you, blind guides! who say, 'Whoever shall 
swear by the temple, it is nothing; but he is bound who shall 
swear by the gold of the temple.* "Fools and blind! for 
which is greater, the gold, or the temple that consecrated the 
gold? "And *to swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever 
shall swear by the gift that is upon it, he is bound.' "Ye 
blind! for which is greater, the gift, or the altar that conse- 
crates the gift? ^'He who swears by the altar, swears by it, 

Matthew xxlii: 14. Sand Vomit. 

Matt, xxlll : 1 5. "Son of Gehenna. " Looking npon the smoking vaUey, and 
thinking of its corruptions and abominations, to call a man a "child of (Ge- 
henna," was to Bay that his heart was corrupt and his character vile, but it no 
more indicated a place of woe after death, than a resident of New York would 
imply such a place by caUing a bad man a child of the Five Points. 

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and by all the things upon it. **And he who swears by the 
temple, swears by it, and by him who inhabits it. "And 
he who swears by the heaven, swears by God's throne, and 
by him who sits upon it. 

""Alas for you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because 
you tithe the mint, and the dill, and the cummin, and leave 
the weightier [things] of the law undone, the judgment, the 
compassion, and the faith. But you ought to do these, and 
not omit those. **Blind guides I that filter out the gnat, and 
swallow the camel. 

***Alas for you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because 
you cleanse the outside of the cup and the dish ; but inside 
they are full of greed and injustice. "Blind Pharisee! first 
cleanse the inside of the cup and the dish, that the outside 
may become clean also. 

"^"Alas for you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you 
are like whitewashed tombs; they indeed appear beautiful 
outwardly, but within are full of dead men's bones, and all 
uncleanness. "Thus, also, do you appear to men outwardly 
just, but inwardly you are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness. 

"Alas for you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! because 

Matt, xxlll: 23. "Judgment, and the faith." "By jwdamcnns meant, not 
justice— that is, *givlng to aU their just dues' {Barnes), for the original word 
never bears this significance in the New Testament— but spiritual discHmi- 
nation. Our English version exactly represents the spirit of the original. The 
Pharisees, by their casuistry, showed an utter lack of capacity to judge of 
moral and spiritual things. Comp. Luke xii: 57; John vii: 24. Mercy Is the 
exercise and manifestation of sympathy and good-will to all mankind, espe- 
cially the suffering and the sinful, precisely the opposite of the proud and un- 
charitable disposition of PharisaiBm. * * * For illustrations of their lack 
of mercy, see Luke vii: 39; John viil: 3-5. Faith is not equivalent here to 
fidelity, as some of the commentators interpret it. So to render it is to miss 
entireiy the spiritual meaning of Christ's words. Our English version renders 
the original correctly. The whole passage is interpreted by Micah vi: 8 and 
Hosea xii: 6. Clear spiritual discernment, love to one's neighbor, humble 
<rM«< in G^od— these are the important matters of the law. Comp. 1 Tim. i: 
5r— Abbott. 

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you build the tombs of the prophets, and decorate the monu- 
ments of the just, *^and say, *Had we been in the days of our 
fathers, we would not have been partakers with them, in the 
blood of the prophets!' '*You thus testify against yourselves, 
that you are the sons of those who killed the prophets. ""And 
you will fill up your fathers' measure. ^Serpents I broods of 
vipers! how can you escape the judgment of Gehenna? 
^*Because of this, behold, I send prophets and wise men and 
scribes to you; some of them you will kill and crucify, and 
others you will scourge in your synagogues, and pursue from 
city to city; ^so that upon you shall come all the righteous 
blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of Abel the just, 
to the blood of Zachariah, son of Barachiah, whom you killed 
between the temple and the altar. ^Truly, I tell you, all 
these things shall come upon this generation. 

^** Jerusalem, Jerusalem, that kills the prophets, and stones 
those sent to her ; how often have I desired to gather your 
children, as a bird gathers her brood under the wings; and 
you were unwilling! ^Behold, your house is left to you; 
^for I tell you you will not see me from now till you shall 
say, 'Blessed [is] he that comes in the name of the Lord!' " 

Matt, xxxiii: 33. "Judgment of Gehenna." This verse undoubtedly refers 
to the literal destruction that soon after bef eU the Jewish nation, when six 
hundred thousand experienced literally the condemnation of Gehenna, by per- 
ishing miserably by fire and sword. The next words explain their doom. 

This was long before prophesied by Jeremiah (chapter xix) : "Then came 
Jeremiah from Tophet, whither the Lord had sent him to prophesy ; and he 
stood in the court of the Lord's house, and said to all the people, Thus salth 
thf. Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel, Behold, 1 will bring upon this city, and 
upon aU her towns, all the evil that I have pronounced against it ; because they 
have hardened theu necks, that they might not hear my words." Isaiah has 
reference to the same In chapter Ixvi : 24 : "And they shaU go forth, and look 
upon the carcasses ot thomen that have transgressed against me; for their 
worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched, and they shall be an 
abhorring unto all flesh." This explains the "unquenchable fire" and the ' un- 
dymg worm. " They are in this world. 

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262 ^^^ ^^'^ COVENANT, 


Mark xii: 41-44. And he sat opposite the treasury, and 
observed how the crowd cast money into the treasury; and 
many rich ones cast in much. ^'^And one poor widow ap- 
proached and cast in twoleptons, that is, a quadrans. *'And he 
called to his disciples, and said to them, *<Truly I tell you 
that this poor widow has cast in more than all those who are 
casting into the treasury; **for they all cast in of their sur- 
plus, but she, out of her poverty, cast in all that she had, 
her whole Uving." 

Luke xxi: 1-4. And he looked up and saw the rich men 
casting their gifts into the treasury, ^and he saw a certain 
poor widow casting therein two leptons, ''And he said,** Truly, 
I say to you, that this poor widow has cast in more than they 
all. *For they all have deposited out of their surplus, but 
she, out of her penury, dep6sited all the living that she had." 


John xii: 20-50. And there were certain Greeks among 
those that went up to worship during the feast; "these, there- 
fore, came to Philip, of Bethsaida of Galilee, and asked him, 
saying, **Master, we wish to see Jesus." **Philip comes and 
tells Andrew; Andrew and Philip come and they tell Jesus. 
^And Jesus answers them, saying, **The hour has come that 
the Son of Man should be glorified. "Truly, truly, I tell you, 
unless the grain of wheat, sown in ^;he ground, die, it remains 

Mabk xii : 42 ; Luke xxi : 42. Lepta, q uadrana. The smallest Jewish ooiii, 
meaning a fish-scale. A lepton was about two mills. 

"Two mites, two drops, yet all her house and land. 
Fall from a steady heart, though trembling hand ; 
The others* wanton wealth foams high and brave: 
The others cast away— she only^'-'Richard Cr as flaw. 

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alone; but if it die, it yields much fruit. ^He that loves his 
life, loses it; and he that hates his life, in this world, shall 
keep it to aBonian life. ""And if any man will serve me, let him 
follow me; and where I am, there, also, shall my servant be; 
and if any man will serve me, the Father will honor him. 
*^Now my soul is troubled; and what shall I say? Father, 
save me from this hour! But on this account I came to this 
hour. *^Father, glorify my namel" Thereupon a voice re- 
pHed out of heaven, "I have both glorified, and will again 
glorify it I" *^Then the crowd that stood by, and heard it, 
said, **lt was thunder!" Others said, "An angel spoke to 
him." *^ Jesus answered and said, "This voice has come, not 
on my account, but on your account. *^Now is this world's 
crisis. Now will the prince of this world be expelled. 
^^And I, if I be raised from the earth, will draw all men 
and things to myself. " ^'Now he said this, signifying by what 
death he was about to die. ^Therefore the crowd answered 
him, "We have heard from the law that the Christ remains 
to the sBon ; and how say you that the Son of Man must be 
raised? Who is this Son of Man?" "Jesus, therefore, said 
to them, 'TTet a little while the light is among you. Walk 
while you have the light, that darkness may not overtake 
you ; and he who walks in the darkness knows not where he 
goes. ^While you have the light, believe in the light, that 
you may become sons of light." These things spoke Jesus, 
and he went away, and was concealed from them. *^But 

John xil: 25. S. has "destroys,** V., "loses." 

John xil: 31. "Now is this world's judgment;" not as in E. V., "Now is the 
judgment of this world." The word h^isis, hero rendered judgment, will be 
accurately understood, in this place, if merely clothed in its English form, cri- 
siSy and left untranslated. It is allowed on all hands, that Jesus did not mean 
that sentence of condemnation was then pronounced upon the world. But a 
crisis had come, when light should triumph over darkness, good over evil. 

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264 r^J^ ^^^ COVEN'ANT. 

though he had wrought so many signs in their presence, they 
did not believe in him, ^that the word of Isaiah, the prophet, 
might be fulfilled, in which he said, 

"Lord, who has believed our report. 

And to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?" 

^On this account they could not believe, because Isaiah 
said again, 

**"He has blinded their eyes, 

And hardened their heart. 

So that they should not see with their eyes, 

Nor understand with their heart. 

And turn, and I should heal them." 

^^Isaiah said these things, because he saw his glory, and 
spoke concerning him. "Nevertheless, many of the rulers 
also believed on him, but did not acknowledge [it] on account 
of the Pharisees, so that they might not be excommunicated 
from the synagogues. *Tor they loved the glory of men 
more than the gloiy of God. ^But Jesus cried, and said, 
*'He that believes on me, believes not on me, but on him that 
sent me; ^and he who sees me, sees him who sent me. ^I 
have come into the world, alight, so that he who believes in 
me may not remain in darkness. *'And if any one hears my 
words, and keeps them not, I judge him not; for I came not 
to judge the world, but to save the world. "He that rejects 
me, and receives not my words, has that which judges him; 
the word that I have spoken, that shall judge him in the last 
day; *^cause I have not spoken from myself; but the 
Father who sent me, he has given me a command what I 
should say, and what I should speak. ^And I know that his 
command is saonian life. The things, therefore, that I 
speak, I speak even as the Father has told me." 

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Mark xiii: 1-37. And as he was departing from the 
temple, one of his disciples says to him, "Teacher, see; what 
stones, and what buildings I" 'And Jesus said to him, "See 
you these great buildings? There shall not be left here stone 
upon stone that will not be thrown down." 'And as he sat 
on the mountain of the olives, opposite the temple, Peter 
and Jacob and John and Andrew asked him privately, *"Tell 
us when these things will be, and what the sign when all these 
things are about to be consummated?" *And Jesus began to 
say to them, "Beware that no one lead you astray. ®Many 
will come in my name, saying: *I am [he]* and will* lead 
many astray; 'and when you hear of wars and reports of 
wars, see tJiat you be not disturbed; [they] must occur; 
but the end is not yet. ®For nation shall rise against 
nation, and kingdom against kingdom ; there shall be earth- 
quakes in places, there shall be famines. These things are a 
beginning of calamities. 

®"But take heed to yourselves; they will deliver you up to 
sanhedrins and to synagogues, and you will be beaten, and 
you will stand before governors and kings, on my account, 
for a testimony to them. '**And the good news must first be 

Mark xiii : 1-37 ; Luke xxi : 5-36 ; Matt, xxiv, xxv. The destruction of Jeru- 
salem, and the end of Judaism announced. All the details in Mark's account 
admit of no possible application, but to the woes and calamities that befell the 
Jews, as our Savior said they would, before that generation passed away. So 
the account in Luke is equally certain to belong to the same time and events, 
during that generation. All was to be accomplished then. 

Matthew reports the same discourse, and though it differs somewhat in de- 
tail, yet it describes precisely the same events. The disciples ask: "What 
will be the sign of thy presence, and of the consummation of the aeon, or age?" 
And he proceeds to answer their question— no more— no less. And the care- 
ful reader will see that all parts of the two chapters are logically and grammat- 
ically united, and that aU the events are described as occurring tn that gen- 

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266 3"^^' ^^W COVENANT, 

preached among all the natibns. ^^And when they lead you 
to deliver you up, be not anxious beforehand what you 
may say; but whatever may be given you in that hour, 
that speak; for it is not you who speak, but the Holy 
Spirit. "And brother will deUver up brother to death, and 
father, child; and children ^^dll rise up against parents, and 
put them to death. "And you will be hated by all men on 
account of my name; but he who perseveres to the end, will 
be saved. 

""But when you see the abomination of desolation standing 
where it ought not — reader, reflect! — then let those in Judea 
escape to the mountains ; ^^let him who is on the roof not de- 
scend, nor enter to take anything out of his house, "and let 
not him who is in the field, return to take his mantle. 
"But alas for the pregnant and nursing women in those days I 
"But pray that it may not occur in winter; "for in those days 
will be distress such as has not been from [the] beginning of 
creation which God created, till now, nor ever will be. *®And 
if the Lord did i^ot shorten the days, no one would survive, 
but, on account of the chosen, whom he has selected, he 
shortened the days. 

""And then, if any man should say to you, * Behold, the 
Christ is here,* or, *Behold, there,' behevenot; "for false 
Christs and false prophets will arise, and display signs and 
wonders, to deceive the chosen, if possible. **But take heed; 
behold, I have forewarned you of all things. **But in those 

Make xiii : 24. When Babylon was threatened just such language was used 
as is here uttered against Jerusalem. See Isa xlil: 9-13. Consult, also, Isa. 
xxiv: 23;xxxlv:4;lx: 20; Jer. iv: 23; xv:9; Amos v: 20; vlll: 9;Rev. vi: 12- 

"The words, this age, or generation^ shall not pass away^ afford a full dem- 
onstration that all which Christ had mentioned hitherto was to be accom- 
plished, not at the time of the conversion of the Jews, or at the final day of 
Judgment, but in that very age, or whilst some of that generation of men 

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days, after that affliction, the sun will be obscured, and the 
moon will withhold her light, **and the stars will fall out of 
heaven, and the powers in the heavens will be shaken. "And 
then they will see the 8on of Man coming in clouds, with 
great power and glory. ''And then he sends the angel?, and 
assembles his chosen from the four winds, from [the] ex- 
tremity of earth to [the] extremity of heaven. 

*®**Now learn this parable from the fig-tree. When her 
branch becomes tender, and puts forth f oUage, it is known that 
summer is near. *^Thus, also, when you shall see those 
things occurring, know that he is near, at the doors. *Truly, 
I say to you, that this generation will not paps away till all 
these things shall occur. 'The heaven and the earth will 
pass away, but my words will not fail. 

''''But concerning that day or hour knows no one, not even 
the angels in heaven, nor the son, but the Father. ''Take 
heed, watch, for you know not when the season is. '*[It is] 
like a man going abroad, having left his house, and who has 
given the authority to his slaves, to each his work ; he also 
commands the porter to watch. '^Watch, therefore, for you 
know not when the master of the house comes, whether at 
evening, or midnight, or cock-crowing, or in the morning; 
'*lest coming suddenly he should find you sleeping. ''And 
what I say to you, I say to all,. * Watch.' " 

Luke xxi: 5-36. And as some spoke of the temple, that 
it was decorated with beautiful stones and votive offerings, 
he said, ®"Days will come when as to these things that you 
are observing, there will not be left stone upon stone here 
that will not be thrown down. " 'And they asked him, saying. 

lived; for genea aute^ this generation^ never bears any other sense In the New 
Testament, than the men of this age. See Matt, xi : 16 ; xii : 42-45 ; xxiii : 36 ; 
Mark viU: 12; Luke vii: 31 ; xi: 29," &Q.—Whiihy, 

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"Teacher, when, then, will these things be, and what [will be] 
the token when these things are about to be accomplished?" 
®And he said, **See that you be not led astray, for many will 
come in my name, saying, * I am [he],' and * The time has 
drawn near;' go not after them. •And when you shall hear 
of wars, and commotions, be not terrified, for such things 
must first occur; but the end is not at once." 

^Then he said to them, "Nation will rise against nation, 
and kingdom against kingdom; "and there will be great 
earthquakes in many places, pestilences, and famines; there 
will also be fearful sights, and great signs from heaven. 
"But before all these things they will lay their hands on you, 
and will persecute you, delivering you up to the synagogues 
and prisons, dragging you before kings and governors, on ac- 
count of my name. "And it will turn to testimony for you. 
"Therefore, decide in your hearts not to premeditate a de- 
fense, **for I will give you a mouth and wisdom which all 
your opponents will not be able to resist, nor controvert. 
"And you will also be delivered up by parents, and brothers, 
and relatives, and friends; and some of you they will put to 
death. *'And you will be hated by all men on account of my 
name ; "but not a hair of your head will perish. "In your 
patience you shall win your lives. 

*°**And when you see Jerusalem beleaguered by camps, then 
know that her desolation is near. "Then let those in Judea 
flee to the mountains; let those within her depart; and let not 
those in country places enter her. "^For these are days of 
vengeance, when all the things written are to be accomplished. 
*^Alas for the pregnant and the nursing women, in those 
days ; for there will be in those days great distress on the earth, 
and wrath against this people. **And they will fall by the 
edge of the sword, and will be led captive into all the nations ; 

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and Jerusalem will be trodden down by Gentiles, till the times 
of the Gentiles be fulfilled. "And there will be signs in sun, 
and moon, and stars ; and on the earth anguish of nations, 
in dread of the noise of sea and wave; *^men fainting from 
fear and anticipation of the things coming on the inhabited 
[earth] ; for the powers of the heavens will be shaken. *^And 
then they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud, with 
great power and glory. "But when these things begin to oc- 
cur, look up, and raise your heads, because your deUverance 
draws near." 

"And he spoke a parable to them: **See the fig-tree, and 
all the trees; "^when they sprout, you see and know of your- 
selves that the summer is near. ^Thus, also, when you see 
these events occurring, know you that the reign of God is 
near. "Truly, I tell you, this generation shall not pass away, 
till all things be accompHshed. '^The heaven and the earth 
shall pass away, but iny words cannot pass away. 

""And beware for yourselves, lest your hearts be burdened 
with surfeiting, and drunkenness, and anxieties of life, and 
that day come suddenly on you, as a snare. '"For so it will 
come on all those that dwell on the face of the whole earth. 
"But watch, in every season, praying that you may be 
able to escape all these things about to occur, and to stand in 
the presence of the Son of Man." 

Matthew xxiv: 1-51. And Jesus went out and departed 
from the temple ; and his disciples went to show him the 
buildings of the temple. *But he answered and said to them, 
"Do you not see all these things? Truly, I say to you, stone 
shall not be left here upon stone that will not be thrown 
down." 'And as he sat upon the mountain of the oHve trees, 
the disciples came to him privately, saying, "Tell us when 
these things will be, and what [will be] the sign of your pres- 

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ence, and of the consummation of the 8Bon?" *And Jesus an- 
swered, [and] said to them, "Take care that no man lead you 
astray. *For many will come in my name, saying, * I am the 
Christ,* and will lead many astray. ®And you will hear of 
wars, and reports of wars, but see that you are not disturbed, 
for it must take place, but the end is not yet. Tor nation 
will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and 
there will be earthquakes and famines, in places. ®But all 
these are the beginning of calamities. ®Then will they de- 
hver you up to affliction, and kill you, and you will be hated 
by all the nations, on account of my name. ^^And then many 
wi]l be offended, and will deHver up one another to tribulation, 
"And many false prophets will arise, and will lead many 
astray. **And because lawlessness shall be increased, the 
love of many shall cool. "But he that perseveres to the end, 
shall be saved. "And this good news of the reign shall be 
preached to the entire inhabited earth for testimony to aU the 
nations, and then will the end come. "When, therefore, 
you shall see, stationed on holy ground, the abomination of 
desolation, spoken of through Daniel the prophet — ^let him 
that reads understand ! — *Hhen let those in Judea Escape to 
the mountains ; "let him who is on the roof not go down to 

Matt, xxiv: 15. "Abomination of desolation," the idolatrous images on the 
Boman ensigns. 

Matt, xxiv : 16. "How exactly this was done, we learn from Josephus say- 
ing that when Vespasian besieged Jerusalem, his army compassed the city 
round about, and kept them in on every side; and though it was judged a 
great and almost impracticable work to compass the whole city with a wall, 
yet, Titus animating his soldiers to attempt it, they in three days built a wall 
of thirty- nine furlongs, having thirteen castles in it; and so cut off all hopes 
that any of the Jews within the city should escape."— Tf^7>i7&2/. 

Lay thee even with the ground^ &c. The terms in this verse might prop- 
erly be interpreted as indicating only a complete and thorough destruction. 
Yet, by the testimony of Josephus, it appears that the event so exactly corre- 
sponded with the prediction, that the language can scarcely be considered 
figurative. The destruction was accomplished almost precisely according to 

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take the things out of his house; "and let him who is in the 
field not turn back to take his mantle. ^'But alas for the 
pregnant, and nursing [women] in those days! *® And .pray 
that your flight may not be in winter, nor on a Sabbath; 
"for then will be great affliction, such as has not been from 

the letter of the prediction. "Caesar gave orders that they should now demolish 
the entire city and temple, but should leave as many of the towers standing as 
were of the greatest eminency, that is, Phasaelus, and Hippicus, and Mariamne 
and so much of the waU as enclosed the city on the west side. This wall was 
spared, in order to afford a camp for such as were to lie in garrison, as were 
the towers also si)ared, in order to demonstrate to posterity what kind of city 
it was, and how well fortified, which the Boman valor had subdued; but for 
all the rest of the waU, it was so thoroughly laid even with the ground by 
those that dug it up to the foundation^ that there was nothing left to make 
those that came thither believe it had ever been inhabited. This was the end 
which Jerusalem came to by the madness of those that were foi innovations; 
a city otherwise of great magnificence, and of mighty fame among all man- 
kind, "-^ew. Wars, B. vii., ch. i., § 1. 

* It is testified by Josephus, that Cestius, with a Roman army, encompassed 
Jerusalem, "came into the upper city, and pitched his camp over against the 
royal palace; and had he but at this very time attempted to get within the 
walls by force, he had won the city presently, and the war had been put an end 
to at once. It then happened that Cestius was not conscious either how the 
besieged despaired of success, nor how courageous the people were for him; 
and so he recaUed his soldiers from the place, and by despairing of any ex- 
pectation of taking it, without having received any disgrace, he retired from 
the city, without any reason in the world." Jew. War, B. xi., ch. xix., § 4, 7. 
And it is testified by Eusebius, that, at the time when Titus approached the 
devoted city, after the retreat of Cestius, "the whole body of the church at Je- 
rusalem, having been commanded by a divine revelation, given to men of ap- 
proved piety there before the war, removed from the city, and dwelt at a cer- 
tain town beyond the Jordan, caUed Pella. Here, those that believed in Christ 
having removed from Jerusalem, as if holy men had entirely abandoned the 
royal city itself, and the whole land of Judea, the divine justice, for their 
crimes against Christ and his apostles, finally overtook them, totally destroy- 
ing the whole generation of these evil-doers from the earth."— J^wsed. Eccl. 
Hist. B. iiich. 5. 

For the meaning of end of the age, see Matt, xili : 40-50 : "The harvest at the 
end of the »eon (age)." Dr. Wakefield thus comments: "The harvest is the con- 
clusion of this age, and the reapers are the messengers ; as therefore the weeds 
are picked out and burned up with fire, so shall it also be in the conclusion of 
this age." Dr. A. Clarke renders end of the world (E. V. vs. 19-43), "end of 
the age-;-Jewi8h polity." So also Dr. Macknight. Dr. Campbell translates it 
the "conclusion of the state." Bishop Pearce says, on verse 40: "Rather end 
of this age, viz : that of the Jewish dispensation." And Dr. Hammond trans- 
lates it, "conclusion of this age." 

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the world's beginning, till now, no, nor ever shall be. "And 
unless those days were shortened, no flesh would survive, 
but, on account of the chosen, those days will be shortened. 
"^Should any say to you, then, *See, here is the Christ,' or 
*Here,' do not believe him. "For false Christs and false 

The end of the material world is never taught in the Bible. We have no 
Scriptural evidence that the earth wlU ever be destroyed. The word rendered 
world in aU passages that speak of the end, is aion, which means age, and not 
kosmoSy which denotes world. The phrase only occurs seven times in the 
whole Bible, and that in three books, all in the New Testament. 

In Matt, xill: 36-42, "the field is the world," ikosmos) but "the harvest is the 
end of the age" (aion) that is, the end of the Jewish dispensation. But one 
passage need be consulted to learn when that event was to occur. Jesus told 
his disciples when they asked (Matt, xxiv: 3), "What shall be the sign of the 
end of the aion," (Matt, xxiv: 34) "This generation shall not pass till aU these 
things be fulfilled." It had almost arrived, a little later, when Paul said (Heb. 
ix : 26), "But now once in the end of the aion hath he put away sin by the sac- 
rifice of himself." The end of the world in E. V., in all cases, means the end of 
the age, or epoch then transpiring, that is, the Jewish dispensation. 

If it be said "all nations were not gathered," we reply that the terms of this 
parable are not to be understood as literal, but as they are used in the New 
Testament. Matt, xxiv: 9, Christ says the disciples are to be hated by aU na- 
tions. The gospel was to be preached to all nations before the destruction of 
Jerusalem (v: 14), Paige says, "The terms nation and kingdom were some- 
times applied by the Jews to ai^y state, province, or even a separate municipal 

Is it objected that the fire was prepared for the devil and his angels? We an- 
swer wicked men are called devils in 2 Tim. ill: 3, (diaboloi) translated false 
accusers. Rev. ii: 10, "Behold the devil shall cast some of you into prison." 
Judas was caUed a devil, John vi: 70. Titus ii: 3, aged women are exhorted 
not to be devils idiaholou, rendered false accusers). The devil and his angels 
were wicked people. 

1. The whole account in Matt, xxiv, xxv ; Mark xiii: 1-37 ; Luke xxi : 5-36, 
is a parable. 2. The punishment is for not benefiting the needy. 3. The gen- 
eral usage of the word SQonian proves that the duration is limited. 4. One ob- 
ject of punishment being to improve the punished, the punishment must be 
limited. 5. The events here described took place in this world, and must, 
therefore, be of limited duration. 6. The Greek word kolasin, rendered pun- 
ishment, should be translated chastisement, as reformation is implied in its 

1. A careful reading shows that the account is a parable, — "He will set the 
shsep on the right and the goats on the left." 

2. The aBonian punishment is for evil works. Practical benevolence is the 
virtue whose reward is here announced, and unklndness is the vice whose pun- 
ishment is here threatened. Matt, xxv : 34-45, "Then shall the King say unto 
them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom 

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prophets will arise, who will show great signs and wonders, 
so as if possible to lead astray even the chosen. **Behold, I 
have told you beforehand. "''Therefore, if they shall say to 
you, *Behold, he is in the desert;* do nofc go out; ^Behold, he 
is in the inner rooms' ; do not beheve them. "^For as the 

prepared for you from the foundation of the world. * * * Then shall they 
also answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee a-hungered, or athirst, or a 
stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee? Then 
shall he answer them, saying. Verily, I say unto you. Inasmuch as ye did it not 
to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me. " If cruelty to the poor— neglect 
of them, even— constitutes rejection of Christ— as is plainly taught here— and 
all who are guilty are to suffer endless torment, "who, then, can be saved?" 
The single consideration that works, and not faith, are here made the test of 
discipleship, cuts away the foundation of the popular view of this text. 

3. The word aidnion denotes limited duration. This has appeared In pre- 
vious pages. It is impossible that Jesus should have used the word rendered 
everlasting in a different sense than we have shown to have been its meaning. 

4. God's punishments are remedial. All God's punishments are those of a 
Father, and must therefore be adapted to the improvement of his children. 
Heb. xii: 5, "My son, despise not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor faint 
when thou art rebuked of him : for whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and 
scourgeth every son whom he receiveth. * * * Now, no chastening for the 
present seemeth to be joyous, but grievous; nevertheless, afterward it yield- 
eth the peaceable fruit of righteousness unto them which jure exercised there- 
by." Seealsb Job v;Lev. xxvi; Psalms cxix: 67, 71, 75; Jer. 11: 19; Prov. 
ill: 11, 12; Lam. ill: 31-35. 

5. The events here described took place in this world within thirty years of 
the time when Jesus spoke. They are now past. In Matt, xxiv : 3, the disci- 
ples asked our Lord when the then existing age iaion) would end. Had 
he meant world he would have employed kosmos, which means world, as aion 
does not. After describing the particulars, he announced that they would aU 
be fulfilled, and the aion end, in that generation, before some of his auditors 
should die. If he was correct the end came then. And this is demonstrated 
by a careful study of the entire discourse. The disciples asked Jesus how they 
should know his coming and the end of the age. This question Jesus an- 
swered by describing the signs, so that they, his questioners, the disciples 
themselves, might perceive the approach of the end of the Jewish dispensa- 
tion {aion). He speaks fifteen times in the discourse of his speedy coming 
(Matt, xxiv: 3, 27, 30, 37, 39, 12, 46, 48, 50, and xxv: 6, 10, 13, 19, 27, 31). 
He addresses those who shall be alive at his coming (Matt, xxiv: 6, 20, 33, 34), 
"Ye shall hear of wars, etc. Pray that your flight be not in the winter. So 
likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the 
doors. Verily I say unto you. This generation shall not pass, till all these 
things be fulfilled." Campbell, Clarke, Wakefield, and Newton, (Com. in loc.) 
translate the phrase, "end of the world" (smiteleias tou aionos) "conclusion of 
the age," "end of this dispensation." The question was, then, what shaU Indicate 


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274 2»ir^ J^^ COVJBKAKT, 

lightning comes out of the east, and appears even to the west, 
so, also; will be the presence of the Son of Man. "Wherever 
the carcass may be, there will the vultures be assembled. 

''<*But immediately after the afflictions of those days, the 
sun will be obscured, and the moon will not shed her light, 

thy second coming and the end of the Mosaic economy iaion) ? "When shall aU 
these things be fulfilled?" Mark xill: 1, 34. He spoke of the temple (Luke 
xxl: 5, 7), saying one stone should not be left on another, and the question of 
his disciples was, how shall we know when this is to take place? The answer 
Is (Matt, xxiv: 6, 15, 20), "Ye shaU hear of wars. Ye shall see the abomination 
of desolation. Pray that your flight be not in winter." The adverbs "then" 
and "when" connect all the events related in the two chapters in one unbroken 
series. And what infallible token did he give that these events would occur 
"then?" Matt, xxiv : 34, "Verily I say unto you, this generation shall not pass 
till all these things be fulfilled." What things? The "Son of Man coming in 
his glory in the clouds, " and the end of the existing aiorif or age. Mark phrases 
it, "This generation shall not pass till aU these things be done." See Luke 
xxi : 25, 32. This whole account is a parable describing the end of the Jewish 
aioriy age, or economy, signalized by the destruction of Jerusalem, and the 
establishment of the new aidUy world, or age to come, that is, the Christian 
dispensation. On the authority of Jesus himself, the aion then existing ended 
within a generation, namely, about A. D. 70. Hence, those who were sent 
away into aionlon punishment, or the punishment of that aion, were sent into 
a condition corresponding in duration to the meaning of the word aion, i. e., 
age-lasting. A punishment cannot be endless, when defined by an adjective 
derived from a noun describing an event, the end of which is distinctly stated 
to have come. 

6. The word translated punishment means improvement. The word is 
kolasin. It is thus authoritatively defined : (Greenfield, Hedericus, Donne- 
gan, Grotius, LlddeU, Max MUller.) "Chastisement, punishment." "The 
trimming of the luxuriant branches of a tree or vine to improve it and 
make it fruitful." "The act of clipping or pruning— restriction, restraint, re- 
proof, check, chastisement. " "The kind of punishment which tends to the im- 
provement of the criminal, is what the Greek philosophers caUed kolasis or 
chastisement." "Pruning, checking, punishment, chastisement, correction." 
"Do we want to know what was uppermost in the minds of those who formed 
the word for punishment? The Latin poena or punio, to punish, the root pu 
in Sanscrit, which means to cleanse, to purify, tells us that the Latin deriva- 
tion was originaUy formed, not to express mere striking or torture, but cleans- 
ing, correcting, delivering from the stain of sin." That it had this meaning 
in Greek usage, we cite Plato: (Protag. Sec. 38, vol. 1, p. 252.) "For 
the natural or accidental evils of others, no one gets angry, or admon- 
ishes, or teaches, or punishes ikolazei) them, but we pity those afiOicted 
with such misfortune. * * * For if, O Socrates, you will consider 
what is the design of punishing (kolazeln) the ^vicked, this of itself 
will show you that men think virtue something that may be acquired; for no 

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and the stars will fall from the heaven, and the powera of the 
heavens will be shaken. ^'And then will appear the sign of 
the Son of Man in the heavens, and all the tribes of the 
earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming 
upon the clouds of the heavens, with power and great glory. 

one punishes {kolazei) the wicked looking to the past only, simply for the 
wrong he has done,— that is, no one does this thing who does not act like a wild 
beast, desiring only revenge, without thought, — hence he who seeks to pun- 
ish (kolazein) with reason, does not punish for the sake of the past wrong 
deed, * * * but for the sake of the future, that neither the man himself who 
is punlBhed may do wrong again, nor any other who has seen him chastised. 
And he who entertains this thought, must believe that virtue may be taught, 
and he punishes (kolazei) for the purpose of deterring from wickedness." 
Like many other words this is not always used in its exact and full sense : the 
Apocrypha employs it as the sjmonym of suffering, regardless of reformation. 
See Wis. ill : 11 , xvi : 1 ; 1 Mac. vji : 7. See also Josephus. (War. ill, v, viii ; Ant. 
il, iv, V.) It is found but four times in the New Testament. Acts iv: 
21, the Jews let John and Peter go, "finding nothing further how they 
might punish them" (kolasdntai). Did they not aim to reform them? 
Was not their punishment to cause them to return to the Jewish fold? 
From their standpoint the word was certainly used to convey the idea 
of reformation. 1 John iv: 18, "Fear hath torment." Here the word 
"torment" should be restraint. It is thus translated in the Emphatic 
Dlaglot. The Idea is, if we have perfect love we do not fear Ck)d, but 
if we fear we are restrained from loving him. "Fear hath restraint." The 
word is used here with but one of its meanings. In 2 Peter ii: 9, the apostle 
uses the word as our Lord did : the unjust are reserved unto the day of judg- 
ment to be punished ikolazomenous). This accords exactly with the lexicog- 
raphy of the word, and the general usage in the Bible and in Greek literature 
agrees with the meaning given by the lexicographers. Now, though the word 
rendered punishment is sometimes used to signify suffering alone, by Jose- 
phus and others, surely divine inspiration will use it in its exact sense. We 
must therefore be certain that in the New Testament, when used by Jesus to 
designate divine punishment, it is generally used with its full meaning. The 
lexicographers and Plato, above, show us what this is, suffering, restraint, fol- 
lowed by correction, improvement. From this meaning of the word, torment 
Is by no means excluded. God does indeed torment his children when they go 
astray. He is a "consuming fire," and bums with terrible severity towards us 
when we sin, but it is not because he hates, but because he loves us. He is a 
refiner's fire tormenting the Immortal gold of humanity in the crucible of pun- 
ishment, until the dross of sin Is purged away. Mai. ill: 2, 3, "But who may 
abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appeareth? for he 
Is like a refiner's fire and like fuller's soap. And he shall sit as a refiner and 
purifier of silver: and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold 
or silver, that they may offer unto the Lord an offering in righteousness." 
Therefore kolasis is just the word to describe his punishments. They do for 

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"And he will send his angels, with a great trumpet, and they 
will assemble his chosen from the four winds, from extremi- 
ties to extremities of the heavens. ^But learn the parable 
of the fig-tree: when her branch is already tender, and 
puts forth the leaves, you know that summer is near. ^Thus, 

thesonl what pruning does for the tree, what the crucible of the refiner does 
for the sliver ore. 

This should be further evident because of the nature of punishment. Pun- 
ishment is a means to an end. It is suffering administered as a penalty for the 
purpose of accomplishing good results. The difference between revenge and 
punishment is this : Bevenge is suffering inflicted ^vith no good end in view. 
Punishment is suffering inflicted for a good purpose. Punishment alms at 
three objects: 1, the prevention of the sin; 2, the reformation of the sinner; 
3, the general good. Endless suffering can in no just sense of the word be pun- 
ishment, for it accomplishes no one of these results. It does not prevent, but 
perpetuates sin; it does not reform, if it is endless; it does not promote the 
general good, for, if the general good is damaged by temporal sin, it must be 
infinitely more Injured by endless sinfulness. Besides, all divine punishment 
must aim at the good of the sinner, for it proceeds from him who only smites 
to bless. He is a Father. Men are his children. Their sins exile them from 
the true object of living. His punishments must, from the nature of the case, 
and from the fact that he inflicts them, seek to accomplish human good, and 
therefore must be finite in duration, and end in reformation. ("Since in all 
Greek literature, sacred and profane, aidnios is applied to things that end ten 
times as often as it is to things Immortal, no fair critic can assert positively that 
when it is connected with future punishment it has the stringent meaning of 
metaphysical endlessness." Alger. Hist. Doct. Fut. Life, p. 323.) 

Says Canon Farrar ("Excursus" in "Eternal Hope") : "That in this in- 
stance the substantive kolas is is a word which in its sole proper meaning 'has 
reference to the correction and bettering of him that endures' (see Phllo. Leg. 
ad CaL 1). So that Clement of Alexandria defines kolas eis as rnerlkai 
paideiai. Archbishop Trench does indeed remark (New Testament Synonyms 
p. 30) that 'It would be a very serious error to transfer this distinction of 
kolasis and timoi-ia to the words as employed in the New Testament.* Why 
should it be a serious error to refrain from reading into a word a sense which 
it does not possess? According to Aristotle kolasis is corrective, timoria 
alone is vindictive; kolasis has in view the improvement of the offender, 
timoria the satisfaction of the Inflictor.— Bhet. 1: 10, 17). It is Josephus, not 
our Lord and his apostles, who uses such phrases as athanatos timoria and 
eirgmos aldios; and though 'everlasting death' occurs in our liturgy, it no- 
where occurs in Scripture, frequently as we read of aeonian life." 

Says Bev. Prof. Plumptre, in a letter concerning Canon Farrar's sermons : 
"There were two words which the Evangelist might have used,— fcoZas is, 
timoria. Of these the first carries \dth it, by the definition of the greatest of 
Greek ethical writers, the idea of a reformatory process. It la inflicted 'for the 
sake of him who suffers it. ' (Aristotle, Bhet. 1, 10.) The second, on the other 

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also, when you see all these things, yon know that it is dose 
at the doors. **Tnily I say to you, that this generation will 
not pass away, till all these things be done. ^The heaven 
and the earth will pass away, but my words will not pass 
away. ^But no one knows concerning that day and hour, no, 

hand, describes a penalty purely vlndlotlve or retributive. St Matthew chose 
—if we beUeve that our Lord spoke Greek, he himself chose— the former word, 
and not the latter. " 

It ought not to be forgotten that the oriental shepheid regards his goats as 
nearly as valuable as his sheep, and our Lord intimates this when he gives them 
the next best place to his right hand, namely, his left hand. And he speaks of 
them tenderly, for the word (eriphdm^ is not "goats," but "kids," in verse 32, 
and in verse 33 even "kidlings" (eriphia). The language Is not that of anger, 
hatred, but of sympathy and kindness, as though Jesus hJad said the unfortu- 
nate goats shaU be consigned to a severe but disciplinary punishment that 
shall purify and perfect theuL 

The stereotyped objection to these views originated with St. Augustine 
(A. D. 414.— De Civ. Dei XXL, 23. '^Dicere autem in hoc una eodemque 
sensu, vita cetema sine fine evity supplicium ceteimum finem hahehiU niul- 
tum^ abswdum est." "If we do not understand aionios kolasis to mean 
endless puni8hment,'we ought not to understand aionios zoe to mean ever- 
lasting life."* This does not foUow; the word is used in different senses in the 
same sentence; as Hab. iii: 6, "And the everlasting mountains were scattered 
—his ways are everlasting." Suppose we apply his argument here. The 
mountains and God must be of equal duration, for the same word is applied to 
both. Both are temporal or both are endless. But the mountains are expressly 
stated to be temporal— they "were scattered, "—therefore God is not eternal. 
Or €k)d is eternal, and therefore the mountains must be. But they cannot be, 
for they were scattered. The argument does not hold vrater. The aidnion 
mountains were destroyed. Hence the word may denote both limited and un- 
limited duration in the same passage, the different meanings to be determined 
by the subject treated. Canon Farrar observes (Excursus on Aionios) : "The 
word '8Bonian* though sanctioned by Mr. Tennyson in the lines— 
*Draw down asonian hills, and sow 
The dust of continents to be,* 
and though rendered very desirable by the sad confusion of eternity with the 
mere negative conception of endlessness, can perhaps hardly be naturalized. 
It is not worth while once more to discuss its meaning when it has been so 
ably proved by so many writers that there is no authority whatever for ren- 
dering it ^everlasting,' and when even those who, like Dr. Pusey, are such 
earnest defenders of the doctrine of an endless l^ell, yet admit that the word 
only means 'endless within the sphere of its own existence,* so that on their 
own showing the word does not prove their point, and is, for instance, power- 

NoTK— Augustine also says that the whole human race is **bne danmed 
b(^tcb and mass of perdition!'* Conspersio damnatOj massa perditipnis. 

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278 ^^^ ^^^^ COVENANT. 

not fche angels of the heavens, nor the Son, but the Father 
only. ''For as [were] the days of Noah, thus wiU be the pres- 
ence of the Son of Man. "For as they were in those days be- 
fore the deluge, eating and drinking, marrying and giving in 
marriage, till the day on which Noah entered the ark, **andknew 

less against those who hold the doctrine of conditional immortality. It may 
be worth while, however, to point out once more to less educated readers that 
aion aidnios and their Hebrew equivalents, in all combinations, are repeatedly 
used of things which have come and shall come to an end. Even Augustine 
admits (what, indeed, no one can deny) that in Scripture the words must 
in many instances mean 'having an end'; and St. Gregory of Nyssa, who at 
least knew Greek, uses aidnios as the epithet of 'an interval.' In answer to 
the old argument invented by St. Augustine, and since his day so incessantly 
repeated, —the argument, namely, that if we do not make aidnios kolas is 
mean endless punishment we have no security that aidnios zoe means endless 
life, and that we thus lose our promise of everlasting happiness, I reply — 1. 
This is absolutely no argument whatever, and ought never to be heard again, 
because the very men who most insist upon it, contemptuously set it aside, if 
we ask them to apply identicaUy the same argument, analogously, to such 
texts as 'As in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.' 2. That 
our sure and certain hope of everlasting happiness rests on no such miserable 
foundation as the disputed meaning of a Greek adjective, which is used over 
and over again of things transitory. If we need texts on which to rest it, we 
may find plenty, such as Luke xx: 36; Hos. xlii: 14; Rev. xxi: 4; Is. xxv: G; 
1 Cor, XV, passim^ etc. 3. That although we take the word aidnios in both 
clauses to mean 'eternal,'— by which (in this connection) we mean something 
above and beyond time, time being simply a mode of thought necessary only 
to our finite condition (see John v: 39, xvii: 3) yet it is by no means neces- 
sarily the case that the word should have identically the same meaning in 
both clauses, since the meaning of the same adjective might quite conceivably 
be modified, and even altered, by that of the substantive to which it is at- 
tached. Nothing could be more in accordance with the ordinary genius of hu- 
man speech than that the same adjective might have its fullest meanmg in 
one clause, in which that meaning is entirely consonant with reason and con- 
science, yet not have it in the other, where it would be shocking and terrible. 
What makes the argument as absolutely inexcusable on philological as it is on 
all other grounds, IS, that in Rom. xvi: 25, 26, this very word occurs twice, 
and in one of the two clauses cannot mean 'everlasting,' since it is spcjiking of 
time which has come to an end ; and it is yet translated 'everlasting, by our 
translators in the very next clause!— 'According to the revelation of a mystery 
hidden in silence in the eternal times' (E. V , 'before the world began,' where 
the reader will see that 'endless' would be a flagrant absurdity), 'but now made 
manifest according to the command of the eternal God.' But surely there are 
other grounds on which we ought to have heard the last of this dreary argu- 
ment, to which it is hardly possible to listen without indignation. Good men, 
from St. Augustine to St Thomas Aquinas (Summ. part iii, Suppl., Quaest. 

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not till the deluge came, and took them all away, even so will be 
the presence of the Son of Man. ^wo men will then be in the 
field; one is taken, and the other left. "Two women [will be] 
grinding in the mill, one is taken and the other left. 
* Watch, therefore, because you do not know in 

1)0, iii), and from St. Thomas to Dr. Posey, bave gone on repeating it ad nau- 

.seam, and eyen the gentle Keble wrote— 

*And If the treasures of thy wrath could waste. 
Thy lovers must their promised heaven forego.' 

We hear the questions asked triumphantly in sermons, If the punishment of * 
the wicked is not to last forever, what guaranty have we that the felicity of 
the blessed will last forever?* I reply. Is there not in the question— when not 
fcradltionally repeated, but plainly considered— an intense selfishness and a 
moct ignoble thought of (jK)d?" 

Ionian punishment^ and life are coupled in the same passage only twice in 
the entire Bible, Dan. xii: 2, and Matt, xxv: 46, and in Daniel the everlasting 
shame and contempt are expressly applied to temporal affairs, namely, the de- 
struction of Jerusalem. 

The word may mean endless when applied to life, and not when applied to 
punishment, even in the same sentence, though we think duration is not con- 
sidered so much as the intensity of the joy or the sorrow, in either case. The 
epithet in such instances is qualitative rather than quantitative. 

Therefore, 1, the fulfillment of the language in this life; 2, the meaning of 
ai67iios; and, 3, the meaning of kolasis^ demonstrate that the penalty threat- 
ened in Matt, xxv : 46, is a limited one. 

Prof. Tayler Lewis thus translates Matt, xxv: 46, "These shall go away into 
the punishment (the restraint, imprisonment) of the world to come, and those 
into the life of the world to come." And he says ^*t?iat is all that we can ety- 
mologically or exegetically make of the word in this passage." Hence, also, 
the zoen aidnion (life eternal) is not endless, but is a condition resulting from 
a good character. The intent of the phrase is not to teach immortal happi- 
ness, nor does kolasin aidnion indicate endless punishment. Both phrases, 
regardless of duration, refer to the limited results of wronging or blessing 
others, extending possibly through Messiah's reign until "the end" (1 Cor. xv.). 
Both describe consequences of conduct to befall those referred to at his "com- 
ing," then at hand," and all those consequences antedate the immortal state. 

Canon Kingsley, author of "Hypatia," etc., observes, *The word iaion, (Pon) 
is never used in Scripture or anjrwhere else in the sense of endless (vulgarly 
called eternity). It always meant, both in Scripture afid out, a i>eriod of time. 
Else, how could it have a plural— how could you talk of the OBons, and ceons of 
CBons, as the Scripture does? ^ionfos therefore means, and must mean, be- 
longing to an epoch, or the epoch; and aidnios kolasis is the punishment al- 
lotted to that epoch." 

But the blessed life has not been left dependent on so equivocal a word. The 
soul's immortal and happy existenee is taught in the New Testament by words 

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what day your Master comes. *'But you know this, 
that if the ifiaster of the house had known in what 
watch the thief would come, he would have watched, 
and would not have allowed the house to be dug through. 
**Therefore be you also ready, because in an hour when you 

that inthe Bible are neverattached to anything that Is of limited duration. 
They are applied to Ck>d and the soul's happy existence only. These words are 
aAratomiow, imperishable ;ama»'a»to« and a7?wira»( twos, unfading ;ai)/i<^rto 
immortal, incorruptible ; and atfianasian^ immortaUty. Heb. vii : 16, "And it is 
yet far more evident : for that after the similitude of Melchizedec there ariseth 
another priest, who is made, not after the law of a carnal commandment, but 
afterthepower of an endless (akutalutos^ imperishable) life." 1 Pet. i: 3, 4, 
"Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which, according to 
his abundant mercy, hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the resurrec- 
tion of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance incorruptible {aph- 
tharton) and undefiled, and tYiaX fadeth not (anxaranton) away." 1 Pet. v: 4, 
"And when the chief shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory 
thAtfadeth not iamarantinos) away." 1 Tim. i: 17, "Nowunto the Kingeter- 
nal, immortal iaphtharto), invisible, the only wise God, be honor and glory 
forever and ever. Amen." Rom. 1: 23, "And changed the glory of the incor- 
ruptible God into &ji image made like to corruptible man." 1 Cor. ix: 25, 
•'Now they do it to obtain a corruptible crown; but we an incoi^niptible." 1 
Cor. XV : 51, 54, "Behold, I shew you a mystery; we shall not all sleep, but we 
Bhall all be changed in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: 
for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible (aph- 
thartoi), and we shall be changed. For this corruptible must put on incor- 
imption {aphtharsian)f and this mortal must put on immortality {athana- 
sian.) So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption iatlianasian) , 
and this mortal shall have put on immortality (aphtharsian)^ then shall be 
brought to pass the paying that is written, 'Death is swallowed up in victory." 
Rom. li: 7, "To them who by patient continuance in well doing seek for glory 
and honor and immortality {aphtharsia)^ eternal life." 1 Cor. xv: 42, "So 
also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption, it is raised in 
incorruption iaphtharsia)," See also verse 50. 2 Tim. i: 10, "Who brought 
life and immortality (aphtJiarsian) to light, through the gospeL" 1 Tim. 
v: 16, "Who only hath immortality (atJianasian)." 

The terms at?ianato8,adialeiptos axid aidios definitely an^ unequivocally 
denote endlessness. These words were in common use by the contemporaries 
of Jesus. These icords Jesus never applied to punishment. That is to say, he 
avoided the only phraseology that unequivocally teaches endlessness when 
speaking of punishment, and the very terms then in common use. 

A very much stronger word is aperantos, endless, interminable, found In 
1 Tim. 1: 4, "endless genealogies," though it is sometimes used hyperbolically, 
as here. Another stronger word is akatalutos, indissoluble, as in Heb. vli: 
16, "endless life." Had it been intended to express the interminable duration 
of punishment, would not these stronger words have been employed, instead of 

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think not, the Son of Man comes. **Who, then, is the faithful 
and prudent slave, whom the master shall make ruler over 
his household, to give them food in season? *°Happy is that 
slave whom his master, when he comes, shall find thus 
employed I *'Truly, I say to you, he will place him over 

so equivocal a one as the subject of this criticism? And does not the fact 
that the New Testament authors absolutely refused to employ those stronger 
words when describing the duration of punishment, demonstrate that they did 
not intend to teach its eternity? 

Now, these words the Greeks rarely used, except to denote endlessness. 
Perhaps the strongest of Greek words is ateleutetos. It is never found in the 
New Testament, though it was used by the Emperor Justinian, in his letter to 
the patriarch Mennas, when he desired to declare the endlessness of punishment, 
by a word entirely unambiguous. He says (E. Beecher, D. D., History of 
Future Punishment) "The holy church of Christ teaches an ateleutetos aeonian 
life for the righteous, and an ateleutetos punishment for the wicked." He 
does not rest the eternity of life on the word aidnios^ but adds ateleutetos to 
it, and when announcing the eternity of future punishment, he does not de- 
pend on the word aionios at all, but considers ateleutetos sufficient of itself. 
Can any one doubt that this strongest of all words would have been used, had 
eternal punishment been in our Lord's mind? And how can any advocate of 
endless punishment account for the feebler word used, and the neglect of the 
stronger, except that he intended to teach no such doctrine? 

The Greek language possesses, and the New Testament uses, words of vastly 
stronger import than the seonian phraseology, that are applied to what has no 
end, and these words might have been, shall we not say would have been, cqu- 
nected with punishment, had it been intended to teach its interminable dura- 
tion? Apeiros signifies endless, unlimited, infinite. Aristotle employs it in 
the sense of endless. Aperantos is endless, infinite. AidioSt eternal, perpet- 
ual, continual, everlasting. Paul thus employs it, God's "eternal power and 
Godhead." Jude speaks of aidios chains. 

The origin of the argument that endless punishment is taught in Matt, xxv: 
46, because the same word describing the duration of life is used to describe 
the duration of punishment, is interesting: (Beecher, Hist. Fut. Bet., pp. 
249-50.) Orosius, a Spanish presbyter, visited Augustine, A. D. 413, and in- 
formed him that the Orlgenists affirmed that aionios denoted an indefinitely 
long, and not an endless, duration. Augustine replied in a letter that though 
aion could signify limited, aionios could not, as the Greeks only applied it to 
things without end. And referring to the seonian things in the Mosaic dispen- 
sation, he declared that they were eternal because the things they typify are 
eternal, and that in Matt, xxv: 46, endless duration is taught, both of life and 
punishment. (See his "City of 'God," B. xxi: 23, and Manual of Theology, 
C. 112). And yet he confesses, "I am not so accustomed to the Greek language 
that I am at all competent to read and understand books on such subjects." 
(De Trinitate iii. Proem). "I have learned very little of the Greek language, 
and almost nothing." (Contra literos Petiliani I., ii: C. 38.) And yet theolo- 

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all his possessions. ^But if the bad slave shall say in his 
heart, * My master lingers,' *'and shall begin to beat his fel- 
low-slaves, and' eat and drink with the intemperate, ^the 
master of that slave shall come on an miexpected day, and in 
an hour when h^ is not aware, and shall cut him off, ^^and 

gians for fourteen hundred years have bowed to the dictum of Augustine, 
though he confesses he was wholly incompetent to pronounce on the subject, 
while his statement is contradicted by uniform Greek usage! 

If endless happiness were promised in the second member of this sentence, 
it would not follow that endless punishment is threatened in the first, for, as 
Dr. J. M. Whiton correctly observes, (Preface to "Is Eternal Punishment End- 
less?") "If it be antecedently as probable that God "will evermore uphold in be- 
ing a soul irrecoverably involved in the processes of 'seonian destruction* 
(2 Thess. i: 9), as it is that he wiU perpetuate, according to a specific promise 
(John xlv: 19), the immortality of a soul healthfully developing the 'seonian 
life' received through Christ; then, and not otherwise, the inference of an end- 
less misery from an endless happiness, may have some rational foundation.** 

Clemance, an English writer, (Future Punishment, pp. 65-6, quoted by Canon 
Farrar) declares that these Greek terms are "words which shine only by a re- 
flected light. If good ever should come to an end, that would come to an end 
which Christ died to bring in, but if evil comes to an end, that comes to an 
end which he died to destroy. So th4t the two stand by no means on the same 
footing. An aeon may have an end. ^ons of sbous may have an end. Only 
that which lasts through aU the aeons is without an end; and Scripture afitons 
this only of the Kingdom of God, and of the glory ot God in the church. The 
absolute eternity of evil is nowhere affirmed." 

The meaning of the terms "life eternal" and "life everlasting" {zoen aidnion)^ 
can be ascertained by a reference to the New Testament. 

1. Zoen aionion in the New Testament, is the life resulting from Christian 
faith. Johniii: 36,"Hethat believeth on the son Aa^/i everlasting life;** 16, 
"Whosoever believeth in him should ?iave everlasting life;" vi: 47, 54, "Verily, 
verily, I say unto you, he that believeth on me fiath everlasting life. Whoso 
eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life;" Jolmxvil:3, 
"This is life eternal, to know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom 
thou fiastBent." See also John x : 28, xiv: 50. This life may be, and often 
is, only a temporary possession; men have it, and fall from grace, and lose it. 
It denotes, therefore, the present enjoyment, or blessedness, of following 
Christ. John vi : 33, 53, "For the bread of God is he which cometh down from 
heaven, and giveth life unto the world. Then Jesus said unto them. Verily, 
verily, I say unto you, except ye eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drink his 
blood, ye have no life in you." See also 1 ^ohn ill: 15, v: 12; Johniii: 15, 
etc: The blessed life of the soul in the immortal world does not depend on 
faith here. 

2. Zoen aionion especially denotes the reward that was received by those 
who were faithful at the time of Christ. Matt, xix: 29, "And every one that 
hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or 

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appoint his portion with the hypocrites ; there will be the 
weeping and the gnashing of the teeth. 

XXV : 1-6. Then shall the reign of the heavens be com- 
pared to ten virgins, who took their torches, and went out 
to meet the bridegroom. 'And five of them werefooHsh, and 

children, or lands, for my name's sake, shall receive a hundredfold, and shall 
inherit everlasting life." Mark x : 30, "But he shall receive a hundredfold now 
in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and 
lands, with persecutions; and in the world to come, eternal life." Consult 
also, Luke xviii : 30 ; John xii : 25 ; Matt, xxv : 46. As this eternal life was to 
be given as a reward, it cannot mean the immortal life, for that life is a "free 

3. Zoen aidnion sometimes denotes the immortal life of the soul hereafter, 
John xvii: 1, 2, "Father, the hour is come, glorify thy son, that thy son may 
also glorify thee, as thou hast given him power over all flesh that he might 
give eternal life to as many as thou hast given him." Rom. v: 21, "As sin 
hath reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness 
unto eternal life by Jesus Christ our Lord." 1 John v: 11, "This is the record 
that God hath given us eternal life, and this life is in his son." 

The life eternal, or everlasting, that is bestowed for faith, or obedience, is a 
present blessing. The future life is the "gift of God." But though sometimes 
used thus, it should always be borne in mind that this phrase, "everlasting 
life" or "eternal life," does not usually denote endless existence, but the life of 
the gospel, spiritual life, the Christian life, regardless of its duration. In more 
than fifty of the seventy -two times that the adjective occurs in the New Tes- 
tament, it describes life. John v: 24, "He that believeth on him that sent me 
JiatU everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation, but is passed 
from death unto life." Eternal life is the life of the gospel. Its duration de- 
pends on the possessor's fidelity. It is no less the aidnion life, if one abandon 
it in a month after acquiring it. It consists in knowing, loving and serving 
God. It Is the Christian life, regardless of its duration. How often the goo* 
fall from grace. Believing, they have the aidnion life, but they lose it by 
apostasy. Notoriously it is not, in thousands of cases, endless. The life is of 
an indefinite length, so that the usage of the phrase in the New Testament is 
altogether in favor of giving the word the sense of limited duration. Hence 
Jesus does not say, "he that believeth shall enjoy endless happiness," but "he 
hath everlasting life," and "is passed from death unto life." 

It scarcely need here be proved that the aidnion life can be acquired and 
lost. Heb. vi: 4, "For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, 
and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy 
Ghost, and have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to 
come, if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance: seeing 
they crucify to themselves the son of God afresh, and put him to an open 
shame." A life that can thus be lost is not intrinsically endless. "Eternal 
life" with the sacred writers has less the sense of perpetuity, than of moral 
quality. It denotes spiritual regeneration. It is sometimes called "life" 

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284 ^^J^ ^^^ COVENANT, 

five were prudent. 'For the foolish took their torches, but 
carried no oil with them. *But the prudent, with their 
torches, took oil in the vessels. *But while the bridegroom 
delayed, all drowsed and slept, ^and at midnight a cry 
is made, * Behold, the bridegroom I Go out to meet him!' 
^Then all those virgins arose, and put their torches in order. 
®But the fooKsh said to the prudent, * Give us of your oil, for 

merely. Thus, **I come that ye may have life," "bread of life," "enter into 
life;" "God hath given us eternal life and this life is in his son;" "He that hath 
the son, hath life." In aU these the meaning indicates a life from moral death, 
a regeneration, having no reference to its duration. 

It is often remarked that as, according to Josephns, the Jews in our Savior's 
time believed in endless punishment, Jesus must have taughi} the same doo- 
trine, as "he employed the terms the Jews used." But this is not true. Christ 
and his ai>ostles did not employ the phraseology that the Jews used to de- 
scribe this doctrine. Philo habitually used atlianaton and ateleuteion^ 
meaning immortal, and interminable. He says (Universalist Expositor, 
vol. iiL, p. 446), "To live always dying, and to undergo an immortal and inter- 
minable death." He also employs aidlon^ but not aionion. (Universalist 
Expositor, vol. iii., p. 437.) Josephus says, "They, the Pharisees, believe 
* the souls of the bad are allotted to an eteitial prison^ and punished with 
eternal retribution.'" In describing the doctrine of the Esoenes, Josephus 
says they believe "the souls of the bad are sent to a dark and tempestuous 
cavern, full of incessant punishment." But the phraseology of Jesus and the 
apostles is kolasin aionion, or aionion kHseon, "aeonian chastisement or aeon- 
ian condemnation.** The Jews contemporary with Jesus call retribution 
aidiosy or adialeiptos timoriay while the Savior calls it aionios krisis or ko- 
lasis aionios, and the apostles, olethros aionios, ceonian destruction; and 
»puros aionios, (eonianfire. Had Jesus and his apostles used the terms em- 
ployed by the Jews to whom they spoke, we should be compelled to admit that 
they taught. the popular doctrine. 

"To live always dying and undergo an endless death," is the language of the 
Greek Jews, but our Savior and his apostles carefully avoided charging God 
with being the author of so cruel a calamity. 

Says a learned scholar: (Christian Examiner, Sept., 1830). "Aionios ia a 
word of si)aring occurrence among ancient classical Greek writers; nor is it 
by any means the common term employed by them to signify eternal On the 
contrary, they much more frequently make use of aldios,aei on, or some simi- 
lar mode of speech, for this purpose. ♦ ♦ ♦ To me it appears that the Sev- 
enty, by choosing aionios to represent olam, testify that they did not under- 
stand the Hebrew word to signify eternal Had they so understood it, they 
would certainly have translated it by some more decisive word; some term, 
which, like aidios, is more commonly employed in Greek, to signify that 
which has neither beginning nor end." 

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our torches are smouldering.' 'But the prudent answered, 
saying, *Go, rather, to those who sell, and buy for yourselves, 
lest there may not be enough for us and you.* *"And while 
they were gone to buy, the bridegroom came, and those who 
were ready entered with him into the marriage-f east,and the door 
was closed. "Afterwards the other virgins come and say, 

* Master, master, open to us I' "But he answered, and said, 

* Truly I tell you, I do not know you I' *^ Watch, therefore, 
because you do not know the day nor the hour. "For [it is] 
as [when] a man going abroad called his own slaves, and 
deUvered his goods to them; "and he gave five talents to one, 
to another two, to another one; to each according to his 
relative capacity, and went abroad. "Directly he who had 
received five talents, went and trafficked with them, and 
gained five more. ^^Likewise, he who had two, gained two 
more; "but he- who had received the one talent^ went away 
and dug in the earth, and concealed his master's money. 
"But after a long time the master of those slaves came, and 
made a reckoning with them. ^'And he who had received 
the five talents brought five talents more, saying, * Master, you 
dehvered five talents to me, see, I have gained five talents 
more.' "His master said to him, *Well done, good and faithful 
slave I You have been faithful over a few things ; I will place 
you over many; enter into your master's joy.' "^And he, also, 
who had the two talents, came and said, * Master, you dehv- 
ered to me two talents; see, 1 have gained two other talents.' 
*^His master said to him, * Well done, good and faithful 
slave I You have been faithful over a few things ; I will place 
you over many; enter into your master's joy.' "Then he 
who had received the single talent, approached, and said, 

* Master, I knew you, that you are a severe man, reaping 
where you have not sowed, and gathering where you have 

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28d ^^^ NEW COVEN AnT. 

not scattered; ^and I was afraid, and went and hid your 
talent in the earth; see, you have your own I' **And his 
master answered, and said to him, /'Wicked and slothful slave; 
did you know that I reap where I sowed not, and gather 
where I did not scatter? *^You then should have given my 
money to the broker, so that on my coming I might receive 
my own with interest. ^^Therefore, take the talent from him, 
and give it to him who has the ten talents.* ^For to every 
one who has, shall be given, and he shall abound; but from 
him who has not, even what he has shall be taken away. 
'^And cast the profitless slave into the darkness outside ; there 
will be the weeping and the gnashing of the teeth. 

"" And when the Son of Man shall come in his glory, and 
all the angels with him, then will he sit on his throne of 
glory; ^and all the nations shall be assembled in his presence, 
and he will separate them from each other, as the shepherd 
separates the sheep from the kids; ^and he will place the 
sheep at the right hand, and the kidlings at his left. ^Then 
will the King say to those at his right hand, * Come, you 
blessed of my Father, inherit the* kingdom prepared for you 
from the foundation of the world. ^For I was hungry, and 
you gave me to eat ; I was thirsty and you gave me drink ; I 
was a stranger and you entertained me; naked, and you 
clothed me ; ^I was sick, and you visited me ; I was in prison, 
and you came to me.' ^^Then the just will answer him, saying, 
* Master, when did we see you hungry, and fed you; or 
thirsty, and gave you drink? ^And when did we see you a 
stranger, and entertained you; or naked, and clothed you? 
"*And when did we see you sick, or in prison, and visited 
you?* *®And the King will answer, and say to them, * Truly, 
I say to you, inasmuch as you did it to one of the least of 
these, my brothers, you did it to me.' "Then he will say 

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to those on the left hand, * Go from me, cursed, into the 
SBonian fire, prepared for the accuser and his angels ; **f or I 
was hungiy, and you gave me naught to eat; and I was 
thirsty, and yon gave me naught to drink ; *^I was a stranger, 
and you did not entertain me; naked, and you did not clothe 
me; sick, and in prison, and you did not visit me/ **Then 
will they also answer, saying, * Master, when did we see you 
hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in 
prison, and did not serve you?' *^Then he will answer them, 
saying, * Truly, I say to you, inasmuch as you did it not to 
one of the least of these, you did it not to me.* *®And these 
shall go away into SBonian chastisement, and the just into 
flBonian life.** 


Lnke xxi: 37-38. And he was teaching in the temple, 
during the days, but every night he went out, and lodged on 
the mountain called Olivet. "^And all the people came to him 
early in the morning, in the temple, to hear him. 


Mark xiv: Part of v. 1. Now two days after, was [the 
. feast of] the Passover, and of the unleavened loaves. 

Matthew xxvi: 1-3. And it occurred, when Jesus had 
ended all these words, he said to his disciples : *** You know 
that after two days the Passover comes ; and the Son of Man 
is deUvered up to be crucified.'* 


Matthew xxvi: 3-6. Then the high -priests, and the 
presbyters of the people, were assembled in the court of the 
chief -priest named Kaiaphas, *and they consulted how, by 
stratagem, they might seize Jesus and kill him. ^But they 

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said, "Not at the feast, lest a riot occur among the 

Mark xiv: Pairt of v. 1. and 3. And the high-priests 
and scribes sought how they might seize him by stratagem, 
and kill him. 'For they said, ** Not during the feast, lest 
there should be a riot among the people." 

Luke xxii: 1-2. Now the feast of the imleavened loaves 
approached, which is called the Passover. *And the high- 
priests and the scribes sought how they might kill him, for 
they feared the people. 


Lnke xxii: 3-6. And the adversary entered into Judas, 
called Iskariot, who was of the number of the twelve. 
*And he went and talked with the high-priests and officers, 
how he might deliver him to them. ^And they were 
glad, and agreed to give him silver. ®And he consented, and 
sought an opportunity to dehver him to them, in the absence 
of the crowd. 

Matthew xxvi: 14-16. Then one of the twelve, named 
Judas Iskariot, went to the high-priests and said, *^**What 
will you give me, and I will deliver him up to you?" And. 
they weighed to him thirty silver pieces; "and from that 
time he sought an opportunity to deUver him [to them]. 

LuKExxll:3. Entered Satan into Judas. See note on Matt, iv: 1. The 
same Satan here tempted Judas, which tempts every man "when he is drawn 
away of his own Inst, and enticed. " James 1 : 14. The besetting lust of Judas 
was avarice, or the love of money, which "Is a root of all evil," and which 
has led thousands "Into temptation and a snare," caused them to "err from 
the faith," and involved them In "many sorrows," even in "destruction and per- 
dition."' 1 Tim. vl: 9, 10. It appears from the other evangelists, that Jesus 
had just administered a severe rebuke to Judas for his insatiable thirst of 
gold. Compare Matt, xxvl : 6-14, and Mark xlv : 3-10, with John xli : 1-8.— 

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Hark xiv: 10-11. And [then] Judas Iskariot, one of the 
twelve, went to the high-priests, to deliver him up to them. 
"And when they heard it, they rejoiced, and promised to give 
him money. And he sought how he might conveniently de- 
liver him up [to them]. 


]|[ark xi?: 13-16. Now on the first day of the imleavened 
loaves, when they sacrificed the Passover, his disciples say 
to him, ** Where do you wish that we should go and prepare 
that you may eat the Passover?'* "And he sends two of his 
disciples, and says to them, **Go into the city, and a man 
carrying a pitcher of water will meet you ; "follow him : and 
wherever he may enter, say to the householder, *The 
Teacher says, ** Where is my guest-chamber, in which I may 
eat the Passover, with my disciples?" ' "^And he will show you 
a large upper room, ready furnished; there prepare for us." 
*®And the disciples went forth into the city, and found every- 
thing as he had said to them ; and they prepared the Pass- 

Lnke xxii: 7-13. And the day of the unleavened loaves 
arrived, in which the Passover must be sacrificed. ®And he 
sent Peter and John, saying, **Go and prepare for us, that we 
may eat the Passover. " ®And they said to him, ** Where do 
you wish that we may prepare /or you to eat the Passover?*' 
*°And he said to them, **Behold, when you have entered the 
city, a man carrying a pitcher of water will meet you; follow 
him into the house he enters. "And you shall say to the 
householder, *The Teacher says to you, **Where is my guest- 
chamber, where I shall eat thepassover, with my disciples?" ' 
"And he will show you a large upper room, furnished; and 
there prepare." "And they went and found [it] even as he 
had told them ; and they prepared the Passover. 


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290 ^^^ NEW COVENANT, 

Matthew xxvi: 17-19. And on the first [day of the 
feast] of the unleavened loaves, the disciples came to Jesus, 
saying, "Where do you wish that we prepare for you to eat 
the Passover?" "And he answered, **Go into the city, and 
say to a certain man, *The Teacher says, "My time is near; 
I will celebrate the Passover at your house with my dis- 
ciples." '"And the disciples did as Jesus commanded, and pre- 
pared the Passover. 

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LT vrxjJL , 



Matthew XXTi: 20. Now when evening came, he redmed 
[at table] with the twelve disciples. 

Mark xiv: 17. And when evening came, he comes with 
the twelve. 

Luke XXii: 14-18; 24:-30. And when the hour came, 
he reclined [at table], and the apostles with him, "and he said 
to them, "I have intensely desired to eat this Passover with you 
before I suffer; ^'for I tell you, I will not eat it [again] till it be 
fulfilled in the reign of God." *^And he took the cup, [and] 
gave thanks, and said, **Take this, and distribute it among 
yourselves ; ^'f or I say to you that I will not henceforth drink 
of the product of the vine, till the reign of God shall come." 

* * * **And there occurred a controversy among them, 
which of them should be thought [the] greater. **But he said 
to them, "The kings of the Gentiles domineer over them; and 

Luke xxil: 18. In this language, Jesus declares that before he partakes of 
the emblems of his broken body and shed blood again, his kingdom will have 
come, and wlU have been set up. He refers to the communion service, in this 
language, a sacred ceremony, in which he is present, in spirit, with his disci- 

LnKExxii:25. Euergetai. Many of the oriental tyrants were satirically 
caUed "benefactors." 

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292 ^^^ ^^^ COVENAl^T, 

their rulers exercise authority over them; and are styled 
' benefactors; *'but not so [withj you; but let the greater 
among you become as the younger; and the governor as he 
who serves ; "^for which is greater, he that reclines, or he that 
serves? Is not he that reclines? But I am among you as he 
that serves. *But you are they who have continued with me 
in my trials. **And I covenant a reign for you, even as 
my Father has covenanted for me, that you may eat and 
drink at my table, in my reign, and sit on thrones, 
judging the twelve tribes of Israel." 

Jobn xili: 1-20, Now before the feast of the Passover, 
Jesus, knowing that his hour had come, that he should de- 
part out of this world to the Father, having loved his own 
who were in the world, loved them to the end. *And during 
supper, the accuser having already put [it] into the heart of 
that Judas Iskariot, Simon's [son], to betray him, *[ Jesus], 
knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, 
and that he came out from God, and was going to God, 
*rises from the supper, and lays aside his garments, and 
taking a linen cloth, girds himself : *next he puts water into 
the basin, and begins to wash the disciples* feet, and to wipe 
them with the linen cloth with which he was girded. 'Then 
he comes to Simon Peter. He says to him, "Master, do you 
wash my feet?" ^ Jesus answered, and said to him, **What 
I do you know not now, but hereafter you shall know.** 
Peter says to him, **You shaU not wash my feet to the aBon.*' 
Jesus answered him, **Unless I wash you, you have no part 
with me.*' ®Simon Peter says to him, "Master, not only my 
feet, but my hands, and my head, also I" ^® Jesus says to 
him, **He need only wash the feet who has bathed, but he is 

John xili: 2. Oenoinenou. Supper "being in progress." 

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entirely clean; and you are clean, but not all." "For he 
knew him who was to betray him ; on this accoimt he said, 
"You are not all clean.'* "When, therefore, he had washed 
their feet, he took his garments, and reclined again, [and] 
said to them, "Do you know what I have done to you? 
"You call me 'Teacher,* and *Master*, and you say well, for 
I am. "If I, then, the Master and the Teacher have washed 
your feet, you also ought to wash each other's feet. ^Tor Ihave 
given you an example, that as I have done to you, so should 
you do. "Truly, truly I say to you, a slave is not greater 
than his master, nor an apostle greater than he who sent 
him. "If you know these things, happy are you if you do 
them. "I speak not of you all, I know whom I have chosen, 
but that the Scripture may be fulfilled : 

"*He that eats of my loaf has lifted his heel against me.* 

**"Henceforth I tell you before it occurs, that when it 

occurs, you may beheve that I am. *^Truly, truly I say to 

you, he who receives any one I may send, receives me ; and 

he who receives me, receives him that sent me." 

Matthew xxvi: 21-25. And as they were eating he said, 
"Truly I tell you that one of you will betray me." "And 
they were exceedingly distressed, and began, each one, to 
say to him, "Master, is it I?" ^And he answered and said, 
"He who dipped his hand with me, in the dish, this one will 
betray me. ^*The Son of Man goes, as it is written about 
him; but alas for that man, through whom the Son of Man 
is betrayed; well were it for that man if he had not been 
bom." *^And Judas, who betrayed him, answered, and 
said, "Rabbi, is it I?*' Jems says to him, *Tou have said." 

Mark xiv: 18-21. And as they reclined and were 
eating, Jesus said, "Truly, I say to you, one of you eating 
with me will betray me." ^'^They began to be sorrowful, and 

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to say to him one by one, "Is it I, Master T' ^'And he said to 
them, " [It is] he of the twelve who dips his hand into the 
dish with me. "For the Son of Man indeed goes away, even 
as it is written concerning him, but alas for that man 
through whom the Son of Man is betrayed! Good were it 
for him if that man had not been bom I" 

Luke xxii: 19-23. And he took a loaf, and when he had 
^ven thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, ''Take^ 
this is my body, which is given in your behalf; do this in 
memory of me." *^In like manner, also, the cup, after the 
supper, saying, **This cup is the New Covenant, in my blood, 
that is being poured out in your behalf. "But behold, the 
hand of him who betrays me is with me on the table. "For 
the Son of Man is indeed going away, as it has been appointed, 
but alas for that man by whom he is betrayed!" ^And 
they began to inquire among themselves who it could be of 
them, about to do this. 

John xlii: 21-38. When Jesus had thus spoken, he 
was troubled in the spirit, and testified, and said, "Truly, truly, 
I say to you, that one of you will betray me." *^The 
disciples looked at each other, doubting of whom he spoke. 
'^There was reclining in Jesus' bosom, one of his disciples, 
whom Jesus loved. ^*To him, therefore, Simon Peter nods, 
and says to him, "Tell [us] who it is of whom he is speaking." 
*^He, therefore, leaning back on Jesus' breast, says to him, 
"Master, who is it?" '^ Jesus therefore answers and says^ 
"He it is for whom I shall dip the morsel, and give it to 
him. " Then, when he had dipped the morsel, he took and 
gave it to Judas, [the son] of Simon Iskariot. *' And after the 
morsel [was dipped], then the adversary entered into him. 
Jesus therefore says to him, "What you do, do quickly!" 
^Now no man of those reclining knew -why he said this to 

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him. ^For some supposed, seeing Judas had the box, that 
Jesus said to him, "Buy what things we need for the feast;" 
or, that he should give something to the poor. "'He, therefore, 
having received the morsel, immediately went out. And it 
was night. "When therefore he had gone out, Jesus says, 
"Just now was the Son of Man glorified, and God was 
glorified in him. ""And God will glorify him in himself, and 
he will immediately glorify him. "Little children, yet a little 
while I am with you. You will seek me, and as I said to the 
Jews, *Where I go you cannot come,* so now I say to you. 
"A new command I give you, that you love each other; — as 
I have loved you, love you also each other ; "in this all men will 
know that you are my disciples, if you have mutual love." 
"Simon Peter says to him, "Master, where are you going?" 
Jesus answered, "You cannot follow me now, where I am 
going, but you shall afterguards follow." "Peter says to him, 
"Master, why can I not follow you now? I will lay down my 
life in your behalf." * Jesus answers, **Will you lay down 
your hfe in my behalf? Truly, truly I say to you, the cock 
will not crow, till you shall have denied me three times." 

Matthew xxvi: 31-35. Then Jesus says to them, "This 
night you will all be offended in me, for it is written, ' 

** *I will smite the shepherd, 

And the sheep of the flock will be dispersed.* 

^ But after I am raised, I will go before you into Galilee." 
^And Peter answered and said to him, "I will never be 
offended in you, though all [others] shall be offended." 

John xlll: 33. See John vil: 34. vlll: 21. 

Matthew xxvi: 32:— Meyer observes: '*The word patris does not mean 
father city (as the Germans say, Vaterstadt), but fatherland." Such is the 
common meaning of all Greek writers since Homer, and fatherland means the 
country of one's nativity. See John iv : 44. 

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296 r^^ ^^^ COVENANT. 

**Jesu8 said to him, **Truly I tell you, that this night, before 
the cock crows, you will deny me three times." **Peter says 
to him, "Though I die with you, I will not deny you I" All 
the disciples said likewise. 

Mark xiy: 27-31. And Jesus says to them: **You will 
all be offended, because it is written: 

** *I will smite the shepherd. 

And the sheep will be dispersed.' 

"**But after I am raised I will go before you into Galilee." 
"And Peter said to him, **Even if all [others] shall be of- 
fended, yet will I not." **And Jesus says to him, "Truly 
I say to you, that this very night before [the] cock crows 
twice you will deny me thrice." ^^But he spoke with 
more vehemence, "Though I must die with you, I will by 
no means deny you.*' And they all declared the same. 

Luke xxii: 31-38. [And the Master said], "Simon, 
Simon, behold, the adversary has asked for you, to winnow 
you like wheat; ^but I have prayed for you that your faith 
may not fail; and when you have changed, strengthen your 
brothers." '^And he said to him, "Master, i am ready to go 
with you, to prison, and to death.** •*But he said, "I tell 
you, Peter, [the] cock will not crow to-day, till you shall thrice 
deny that you know me." ^But he said to them, "When I 
sent you out without purse, and sachel, and sandals, did you 
lack anything?" And they said, "Nothing.** ** And he said 
to them, "But now, he who has a purse, let him take it, and in 
like manner a sachel, and he who has no sword, let him sell 

Matt, xxvi: 34; Mark xiv: 30; Luke xxil: 34. Cocks were not allowed in 
Jerusalem during the Passover. The watches of the Bomans were divided into 
four, the last two of which were called cock-crowings. The meaning is sup- 
posed by some to be the trumi)et of "the third watch will not sound." But, on 
the other hand, a cock may have been kept in the Boman barracks, and if so, 
the allusion is to actual cock-crowing. 

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his mantle, and buy [one]. "For I say to you, that this 
which is written must be fully accomplished in me : 

" * And he was reckoned with law breakers : ' 

**Por, also, that which concerns me has an end." "And 
they said, **Behold, Master, here are two swords." And he 
said to them, **Itis enough." 

Matthew xxvi: 26-29. And as they were eating, Jesus 
took a loaf, and gave thanks, and broke, and gave it to his 
disciples, and said, *«Take, eat, this is my body." •'And he 
took a cup and gave thanks, and gave to them, saying, 
•*^A11 drink of it, for this is my blood of the Covenant, 
that which is poured out for many, for forgiveness of sins. 
•^But I say to you, that I will not from now drink of this 
product of the vine, till that day when I drink it new with 
you, in the reign of my Father. " 

Mark xIt: 22-25. And as they were eating, he took the 
loaf, and when he had blessed it, he broke it, and gave to 
them, and said, "Take, this is my body.'* *^And he took [the] 
cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them, and 
they all drank of it. **And he said, "This is my blood 
of the Covenant, that which is poured out in behalf of 
many. ^Truly I say to you, I will no more drink of the 
product of the vine, till that day when I drink it new in the 
reign of God." 

John xiv: 1-31. "Let not your heart be troubled; beheve 
in God, and beheve in me. ^Many abodes are in my Father's 
house ; otherwise I would have told you ; because I am going 
to prepare a place for you ; 'and if 1 go and prepare a place 
for you, I will come again, and will receive you to myself, 
so that where I am, you also may be. *And you know the 
way whither lam going." ^Thomas says to him, **Master, we 
know not where you are going; how can we know the way?" 

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298 '^^^ ^^^ covENAirr, 

•Jesus says to him, **I am the way, and the truth, and the 
life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. 'If 
you have known me, you shall know my Father also; from 
now you know him and have seen him." ThiUp says to 
him, "Master, show us the Father, and it is enough for us." 
•Jesus says to him, "Have I been with you so long a time, 
and do you not know me, PhiUp? He that has seen me has 
seen the Father; how say you, * Show us the Father?' ^''Do 
you not beheve that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? 
The words that I speak to you, I utter not of myself, but the 
Father, dwelling in me, does his works. "Beheve me, that I 
am in the Father, and the Father in me; but if not, be- 
heve me, on account of the works. "Truly, truly, I say to 
you, he that beheves in me, the works that I do he also shall 
do; and he shall do greater than these, because I go to the 
Father. "And whatever you may ask in my name, that I will 
do, that the Father may be glorified in the son. "If you ask 
anything in my name, that I will do. "If you love me, you will 
keep my commands, ^'and I will ask the Father, and he 
will give you another Helper that he may be with you to the 
8Bon : "the Spirit of Truth, whom the world cannot receive, 
because it does not behold him, nor know him. You know 
him, because he remains with you, and shall be in you. "I 
will not leave you orphans ; I return to you. "Yet a little 
while and the world sees me no more ; but you see me because 
I Uve, and you shall Hve. "'In that day, you shall know that 
I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you. "^He who 
has my commands, and keeps them, he it is that loves me; 
and he that loves me, will be loved by my Father, and I will love 
him, and will manifest myself to him." "Judas — not Iskariot 
— says to him, "Master, and what has occurred that you are 
about to manifest yourself to us, and not to the world?" 

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*^ Jesus answered, and said to him, "If any man love me, he 
will keep my word; and my Father will love him, and we will 
come to him, and abide with him. **He that loves me not, 
observes not my words ; and the word which you hear is not 
mine, but the Father's who sent me. **These things 1 have 
spoken to you while dwelling with you. *But the Helper, 
the Holy Spirit, whom the Father wiU send in my name, he 
will teach you all things, and remind you of all things that 1 
said to you. *^I leave you peace ; I give you my peace ; not as 
the world gives to you, do I give to you. Let not your heart 
be troubled, nor let it be timid. ^You heard that I said to 
you, *I go away, and I come to you.' If you loved me 
you would rejoice that I am going to iihe Father, be- 
cause the Father is greater than I. **And now I have told 
you before it occurs, so that when it occurs, you may beheve. 
*I will not speak much [longer] with- you; for the prince of 
the world is coming, and he has nothing in me. "But that 
the world may know that I love the Father, and as the 
Father commanded me, even so I do; arise, let us go hence. 

John XT: 1-27* "J am the true vine, and my Father is 
the husbandman. *Every branch in me that does not bear 
fruit, he takes away; and every [branch] that bears fruit, he 
cleanses it, that it may bear more fruit. ^You are already 
cleansed, through the word that I have spoken to you. 
*Dwell in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit 
of itself, if it does not dwell in the vine, so neither can you, 
unless you dwell in me. ^I am the vine, you are the branches. 
He that dwells in me, and I in him, bears much fruit; because 
apart from me you can do nothing. ®If any man dweU not in 
me, he is cast out, like the branch, and is withered, and they 
gather it, and cast it into the fire, and it is burned. ^If you 
dv/ell in me, and my words dwell in you, ask whatever you 

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300 rjy^ NSW COVENANT. 

wish, and it shall be given you. *In this is my Father glorified, 
that you bear much fruit, and are my disciples. "As the 
Father has loved me, I have loved you; dwell in my love. ^'^If 
you keep my commands you will dwell in my love : as I have 
kept the Father's commands, and dwell in his love. "These 
things I have spoken to you that my joy may be in you, and 
[that] your joy may be complete. "This is my command, 
that you love each other, as I have loved you. "No man has 
greater love than this, that a man should lay down his life in be- 
half of his friends. "For you are my friends, if you do the 
things that I command you. *^I no more call you slaves, 
because the slave does not know what his master does ; but I 
have called you friends, because I have made known to you 
all things that I heard from my Father. "You did not choose 
me, but 1 chose you, and appointed you, that you might go 
and bear miich fruit, and [that] your fruit may remain; so 
that whatever you ask of the Father, in my name, he will give 
it to you. "These things I command you, that you love each 
other. ^®If the world hate you, you know that it had hated 
me before [it hated] you. "If you were of the world, the 
world would love its own ; but because you are not of the 
world, but I chose you out of the world, therefore the world 
hates you. ^^Eemember the word that I said to you, * A slave 
is not greater than his master.' If they persecuted me, they 
wiU also persecute you; if they kept my word, they will also 
keep yours. "But all these things they will do to you, on 
account of my name, because they know not him that sent 
me. ^Had I not come and spoken to them, they would not 
have had sin; but now they have no pretext for their sin. 
*^He that hates me, hates my Father also. **Had I not 
wrought among them the works that no other one had 
wrought, they would not have had sin; but now they have 

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even seen, and yet have hated both me and my Father.. 
"Thus they fulfill that word which was written in their law: 

** 'They hated me without cause/ 

""•When ' the Helper comes, whom I will send to you 
from the Father, the Spirit of Truth, that which proceeds 
from the Father, he will testify of me. *^And you also will 
testify, because you have been with me from the beginning. 

John xvi: 1-33. "These things I have spoken to you that 
you may not be made to offend. *For they will excommuni- 
cate you from the synagogues; yes, an hour is coming, when 
every one who kills you will think he offers service to God. 
^And they will do these things because they know not the 
Father, nor me. *But I have spoken these things to you, so 
that when their hour comes, you may remember that I 
Spoke of them. And I said not these things to you from the 
beginning, because I was with you. ®But I now go away to 
him that sent me ; and no one of you asks me, 'Whither go 
you?' 'But sorrow has filled your heart, because I said these 
things to you. ^But I tell you the truth : it is better for you 
that I go away; for if I do not go away, the Helper will not 
come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you. ®And when 
he comes, he will convince the world concerning sin, and con- 
cerning righteousness, and concerning judgment ; "concern- 
ing sin, because they beheve not in me; ^'^conceming right- 
ousness, because I go to the Father, and you behold me no 
more; "concerning judgment, because the prince of this 
world has been judged. "I have many things to tell you, but 
you cannot endure them now. ^^But when he comes, the 
Spiiit of Truth, he will lead you into all the truth; for he 
will not speak from himself; he will speak whatever he may 
hear, and declare to you the things that are to come. "He 
will glorify me, because he will take of mine, and declare to 

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802 ^^^ ^^^ COVENANT. 

you. **A11 things that the Father has, are mine; therefore 1 
said that he takes of mine, and will declare [it] to you. *®A 
little while and you wiU see me no longer, and again a little 
while and you will see me." "Then [some] of his disciples 
said to each other, " What is this he says to us, * A Httle 
while and you will not see me, and again a little while and 
you will see me,' and 'Because I go to the Father?' " "They 
said, therefore," What is this that he says, *A little while?' We 
know not what he says." "Jesus knew that they were going 
to ask him, and he said to them, "Do you inquire of each 
other concerning this, because I said, *A Httle while and you 
behold me not,' and again, *A Httle while and you wiU see 
me?' *Truly, truly, I say to you, that you wiU weep and 
lament, but the world wiU rejoice ; you. wiU be sorrowful, but 
your sorrow wiU become joy. "When the woman is iix 
travail she is in sorrow, because her hour has come; but 
when she has borne the child, she remembers the distress no 
more, because of the joy that a man is bom into the world. 
"And you, therefore, now indeed shall have sorrow ; but I wiU 
see you again, and your heart shaU rejoice, and your joy no 
one takes from you. ^'And in that day you will ask me 
nothing. Truly, truly, I say to you, whatever you may ask 
the Father, he will give you, in my name. **TiU now you 
asked nothing in my name; ask and you shall receive, so that 
your joy may be completed. 

""These things I have spoken to you in figures; an hour 
comes when I wiU no more speak to you in figures, but I will 
tell you plainly about the Father. ^In that day you wiU ask 
in my name, and I say not to you that I wiU suppHcate the 
Father concerning you; *^for the Father himself loves you, 
because you have loved me, and have beHeved that I have 
emanated from the Father. ^I emanated from the Father, 

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and have come into the world. Again, I leave the world, and 
go to the Father." ^The disciples said, "Behold, now you 
are speaking plainly, and without a figure. *^Now we know 
that you know all things, and have no need that any 
one should ask you; hy this we beheve that you emanated 
from God." "Jesus answered them, "Do you now 
beheve? ^Behold, an hour comes, yes, the hour has come, 
when you will be scattered, every one to his own [house], and 
will leave me alone. But I am not alone, for the Father is 
with me. *^I have spoken these things to you, that in me 
you may have peace. You have affiction in the world ; but 
be of good courage ; I have conquered the world." 

John xvii; 1-26. Jesus said these things, and raised 
his eyes to the heaven, and said, "Father, the hour has 
come; glorify thy son,that the son may glorify thee; *as thou 
hast given him authority over all flesh, so that he may give 

John xvii: 2. "As thou hast given him power over aU flesh." See Matt, 
xxviii: 1%. This phrase is unlimited both in form and spirit, so far as it 
relates to the number of mankind subjected to the power of Jesus; and the 
amount of iwwer is Umited only by the necessity of the case. The power 
was not supreme, for such was not needed ; but it cannot be doubted that it 
was sufficient for the purpose designed. Johniii: 34. The strict universal- 
ity df the dominion is indicated not alone by the general phrase "all flesh," 
which is comprehensive, but sometimes limited in its import. From the 
nature of the case, it must be regarded as universaL God is the common 
Father of all, and may not be expected to exclude any from the benefit of 
the Messiah's reign. It is expressly asserted by Jesus himself, that he was 
sent by the Father to save the world; and the apostles declared that he was 
sent to be the Savior of the world, and that he gave himself a ransom for all, 
and tasted death for every man. Moreover, when Paul described this sub- 
jection of all flesh to the power of Jesus, he used very strong and compre- 
hensive terms; and lest he should be misunderstood, he added that God him- 
self was not to be understood as included among those who were thus sub- 
jected. 1 Cor. XV : 27. When he thus made an exception which was manifest, 
most certainly be would have also excepted a portion of mankind, which was 
not manifest, if he believed such exception should be made, and intended to 
state the matter of facts truly. "That he should give," &c. That is, this 
power was bestowed, in order that he might give, or to enable him to give, the 
blessing designed and here mentioned. He was fully qualified and empowered 
for the work assigned him. Hence its completion might be expected. And 

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304 ^^^ ^^^ COVENANT. 

{eonian life to all whom thou hast given him. 'And this is 
the aBonian hfe, that they may know thee, the only true God, 
and Jesus Christ whom thou didst send. *I have glorified 

JestLS prayed that as he had faithfully uaed this power, thus far, ver. 4, he 
might be sustained to the last, ver. 1. "Eternal life. " This phrase often indi- 
cates that spiritual life, and peace, and joy, which men attain on the earth, 
through faith in Jesus Christ. John v : 24. In this place it seems to have a 
wider signification, and to denote that state of life which results ^rom an 
entire deliverance from the power of sin. This was the great and crowning 
work committed to Jesus ; to save his people from their sins, to redeem men 
from all iniquity, and to take away the sin of the world. Matt, i: 21 ; John i: 
29; Tit. ii: 14. In this manner, should aU opposition to God and to holiness 
be overcome; the power of evil be utterly demolished; and the whole human 
family brought to the home of their Father, confessing his authority, extoll- 
ing his mercy, and rejoicing in his presence. 1 Cor. xv : 24-28 ; Eph. i : 9-10 ; 
Phil, il: 9-11. Such was the most valuable blessing he was commissioned to 
bestow: and to this beseems here to refer. Other blessings were incidental 
to his ministry; faith in him admits us to a foretaste of the heavenly life and 
blessedness; but the full fruition of the good designed by the Father, in send- 
ing the Son to be the Savior of the world, can only be realized when the 
creation shaU be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious 
liberty of the children of God, through the power of the resurrection. Luke 
XX : 36; John iii: 17; xii: 47; Bom. vlii: 21. Or, if it be supposed that the 
primary reference here is to tHe life which believers enjoy in this world, it 
must njBvertheless be remembered, that this is similar in nature, though 
inferior in degree, to that which shall be the portion of saints made jperf ect 
in heaven. And whether bestowed here or hereafter, it results from faith or 
knowledge of the divine character. And as power was given Jesus to bestow 
it, we need not have the slightest doubt that he will do so; for he has given 
the most convincing evidence of his love to mankind and desire for their wel- 
fare, by giving his life for us while we were yet sinners. John xv : 13 ; Rom. 
v: 6-8. "To as many as thou hast given him." Namely, to"aIl flesh," over 
whom he has power; in other words, to mankind without exception. See 
note on Matt, i: 21. In ver. 6-12. Jesus speaks of them who were given him 
for a particular purpose, or in a particular sense. But here he manifestly 
speaks of all; else why refer to his power over all? Surely, power over the 
whole human race was not necessary, to enable him to give eternal life to the 
few who had at that time believed on him. If we limit tlie meaning of the 
phrase here by its import in ver. 6-1 2, we must understand Jesus to speak only 
of them who were then his disciples; for he speaks of none other there. If we 
do not thus strictly limit it, no good reason can be assigned for any limita- 
tion whatever; on the contrary, the character of God and of his Son, the 
object for which the Son was sent into the world, and his own language in this 
verse, all require us to understand him to refer to all men in the most unUm- 
ited sense.— Paifl^e. 

John xvii: 4. "I have finished the work," &c. The same declaration, in 
substance, was repeated on the cross, John xix: 30. Our Lord probably 

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thee on earth, having finished the work which thou hast given 
me to do. ^And now, Father, glorify me, with thyself, with 
the glory that I had with thee, before the world was. •! 
have manifested thy uame to the men whom thou gavest me 
out of the world; they were thine, and thou gavest them to 
me, and they have kept thy word. 'Now I know that all 
things whatsoever thou hast given me, are from thee. ®Be- 
cause 1 have given them the words which thou gavest me ; 
and they received [them], and knew truly that I emanated from 
thee, and beUeved that thou didst send me. "1 ask concern- 
ing them; I ask not concerning the world, but concerning 

included here his final act of obedience before his exaltation. AU the prepara- 
tions for his death were made; he knew It was at hand; and he had resolved 
to be obedient in this last and severest duty assigned him. Including this, 
he had finished the work given him to do on this earth. But it Is not to be 
understood ^that the full eflfect of his labor had then been realized or fully 
accomplished: nor that he would thenceforth relax his labors for the recon- 
ciliation of men to God. He still operates by his spirit; he stiU reigns In his 
spiritual kingdom, and will reign untU sin be destroyed, and aU yield a cheer- 
ful homage to him and to the Father. 1 Cor. xv : 24-28 ; Phil. 2:8-11; Heb. 
ii: 7-15. He had put in operation that system of means which he knew 
would result in the salvation of the world, in the broadest sense of the 
phrase; for nothing short- of this could be considered a completion or the 
finishing of the work committed to him. Matt, i: 21 ; Luke ii: 10-14; John 
iii: 17; IJohniv: 14. -Paige. 

John xvii: 9. Jesus was offering a special prayer for his disciples. He 
frequently employs this form of expression; that Is, he uses the negative In 
order to give the greater emphasis to the affirmative, as when he says. In 
reference to forgiveness: "Not seven times, but seventy times seven;" or, "Lay 
not up treasures upon earth, but lay up treasures in heaven." He does not 
forbid us to forgive seven times, nor to lay up treasures upon earth, but he 
precedes his command to forgive seventy times seven, and to lay up heavenly 
treasures, by a negative, in order to give the greater force to what follows. 
He offers a special prayer for his disciples, but in verse 21 he extends It to 
others, and on his cross he prayed for his murderers (Luke xxiii: 34); and 
he also prayed for all men when (John x) he prayed for all the sheep for whom 
he had laid down his life. "Other sheep I have which are not of this fold; 
them also I must bring; and they shaU hear my voice; and there shaU be one 
flock and one shepherd." Barnes (Presbyterian) says: "Th^p passage settles 
nothing about the question whether Christ prayed for sinners." Whitby 
says: "He made this prayer out of affection to the world, and with this design, 


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those whom thou hast given me; because they are thine. 
'°And all things that are mine are thine, and thine mine, and 
I am glorified in them. "And I am no more in the world, but 
they are in the world, and I am coming to thee. Holy 
Father, keep those that thou hast given to me, in thy name, 
that they may be one as we also [are]. "When I was with 
them, I kept in thy name those that thou hast given me ; and 

ttiat the preaching of the apostles to them might be more effectual for their 
oonverBion and salvation?* The language is simply a special prayer for the 

John xvil: 12. The case of Judas. "Kept and lost,** are here employed 
antithetically. The eleven were "kept," by remaining true,' and Judas was 
"lost" out of the apostleship. He was lost as aU men were, for Christ came 
to "save that which was lost." The language has no reference to his final 
condition, but to his then present state. 

Judas is caUed "the son of destruction," John xvii: 12. The apostle speaks 
of those who "draw back unto destruction," Heb. x: 39; and also of "the 
destruction of ungodly men," 2 Pet. Hi: 7; and the Bevelator, xvii: 8-11, 
declares that certain ones are destined to destruction. What is the meaning 
of this word, (apoleia) ? It is the same word found in the following passages : 
Matt, vii: 13, "Broad is the way that leadeth to * destruction;' " Acts viil: 
20, "Thy money perish with thee;" 2 Pet. li: 1, "ShaU bring in damnable 
heresies;" 2, "Follow their *pe7^tcioM«* ways;" 3, "Their damnation slum- 
bereth not;" Matt, xxvi: 8, "To what purpose this waste (of ointment) ;" Mark 
iv : 4, Acts xxv : 16, "It is not the manner of the Bomans to deliver any man 
to die." It is found twenty times in the New Testament, and is translated 
destruction, waste, perdition, die, damnable and pernicious. Its meaning is 
loss, waste, <&c. 

In Heb. x: 39: "But we are not of them who draw back unto perdition; 
but of them that believe to the saving of the soul;" the meaning is that the 
disciples would not experience the destruction about to overtake the wicked 
people of those times. This is the view given by orthodox commentators. 
Wakefield : "But we are not they who withdraw unto destruction, but who 
faithfully persevere, to the deliverance of our lives." Clarke: "We are not 
cowards who slink away, and notwithstanding, meet destruction: but we 
are faithful, and have our souls saved alive. The words peripoiesin psuches 
signify the preservation of life. See the note Ephesians 1:11. He intimates 
that, notwithstanding the persecution was hot, yet they managed to escape 
with their lives." Lightfoot: "As Christ's i>ouring down his vengeance, In 
the destruction of that city and people, is called his ^coming in his glory,* 
and his *coming in judgment:' and as the destruction of that city and nation 
is characterized, in Scripture, as the destruction of the whole world, so there 
are several passages that speak of the nearness ot that destruction, that are 
suited according to such ohaiaoters. Such as that in 1 Cor. x: 2: 'Upon 

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I guarded them, and none of them was destroyed, except the 
son of destruction; that the Scripture may be fulfilled. "And 
now I am coming to thee; and these things I speak in the 
world, that they may have my joy completed ^ in them. "I 
have given them thy word, and the world has hated them, 

whom the ends of the world are come;' 1 Pet. iv: 7: *The end of aU things is 
at hand;* Heb. x: 37: *Yet a little while, and he that shall come, will come, 
and will not tarry.' "Sermon on James^ v : 9. 

As "son of thunder- in the New Testament means an eloquent man, and 
"son of peace," a peaceable man, so "son of perdition" denotes one abandoned 
to wickedness. Judas was lost, was a son of perdition, because of his great 
wickedness. He was lost out of the apostleship, but nothing indicates that 
his loss was final. The best critics of aU churches give this view. 

Whitby: "And none of them is lost; L e., either by temporal death (chapter 
xviii: 9), or by falling off from me, but the son of perdition, i e., Judas, 
worthy of perdition. So the son of death is worthy of it (2 Sam. xli: 5), 
and ethnos apoleias is a nation fit to be destroyed. (Eccl. xvi: 9; Matt, 
xxiii: 15, and the note on Eph. ii: 2.) RosenmuUer: *No one is ignorant that 
Judas is here the intended betrayer of Christ, and who had fallen off from 
hinL Apoleia (perdition), therefore, as the preceding words teach, in thifi 
place, seems to indicate a defection from Jesus, the teacher, as in 2 Thess. 
li: 3, where the phrase ho whios apoleias (the son of perdition) differs very 
little from ho whios amartias (the son of transgression), and is used concern- 
ing a noted impostor, who persuaded many to a defection from the Ohristian 
religion.' " 

There is nothing in the use of the word to intimate that it means more than 
temporal loss. In fact, the more utterly he wa^ "lost," the more certain he is 
to experience the saving power of Christ, who came to "seek and save that 
which was lost," Matt, xviii : 11 ; "to the lost sheep of the house of Israel," x : 6. 
The prodigal son, the piece of silver, and the hundredth sheep were lost, but 
all these were found. Their being lost was the sole reason why they were 
sought and saved from their perilous condition. We have "all gone astray 
like lost sheep," but the lost shall be found, and "there shall be one flock and 
one shepherd." 

The word apollumi is the word usually rendered lost and lose, and it Is 
also translated destroy, perish^ and marred. "Lord save us, we *perish^* " 
Matt, viil: 25; "Go, rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel," Matt, x: 
6; "Whosoever wiU save his life shall lose it," Markviii: 35; "I have found 
my sheep which was lost," Luke xv: 6; "There shall not a hair of your head 
perisTi,** Luke xxl{ 18, are instances of the use of the word. As applied 
to the soul it means a condition of sinfulness. Matt, x : 6 : "The lost sheep of 
the house of Israel;" xviii: 11 : "The Son of Man is come to save that which 
teas lost." But nothing is more distinctly taught ^than that Jesus, who 
came to seek and save the lost, will continue his work until he finds them. 
There is no final loss in the New Testament. 

Dr. Adam Clarke says. Acts i : "It must be allowed that this crime was one 

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808 ^^^ ^^^ COVENANT. 

because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the 
world. "I ask not that thou take them from the world, but that 
thou keep them from the (svil [of the world]. "They are liot 
of the world, as I am not of the world. "Sanctify them 
in the truth; thy word is truth. As thou hast sent me into 

of the most inezousable ever cominitted by man; nevertheless, it has some 
aUevlations. (1.) It Is possible that he did not think that his Master could 
be hurt by the Jews. (2.) When he found that he did not ose his power 
to extricate himself from their hands, he deeply relented that he had 
betrayed him. (3.) He gave every evidence of the sincerity of his repentance, 
by sroing openly to the Jewish rulers, confessing his own guilt, asserting the 
innocence of Christ, returning the money which he had received from them; 
and then (4.) the genuineness of his regret was proved by its being the 
cause of his death. But Judas might have acted a much worse part than he 
did. (1.) By persisting ia his wickedness. (2.) By slandering the character 
of our Lord, both to the Jewish rulers and to the Bomans; and had he done 
so, his testimony would have been credited, and our Lord would then have 
been put to death as a malefactor, on the testimony of one of his own dis- 
ciples; and thus the character of Christ and his gospel must have suffered 
extiemely in the sight of the world; and these very circumstances would 
have been pleaded against the authenticity of the Christian religion by 
every infidel, in |tU succeeding ages. And (3.) had he persisted in his evU 
way, he might have lighted such a flame of persecution against the infant 
cause of Christianity, as must, without the intervention of Ood, have ended 
In its total destruction. Now, he neither did nor endeavored to do any of 
these things. In other cases these would be powerful pleadings. Judas was 
Indisputably a bad man; but he might have been worse; we may plainly see 
that there are depths of wickedness to which he might have proceeded, and 
which were prevented by his repentance. 

"These examples sufficiently prove that this was a common proverb, and is 
used with a great variety and latitude of meaning; and seems intended to show 
that the case of such and such persons was not only very deplorable, but 
extremely dangerous; but does not imply the positive impossibility either of 
their repentance or salvation. The utmost that can be said for the case of 
Judas is this: he committed a heinous act of sin and ingratitude; but 
he repented, and did what he could to undo his wicked act. He had 
committed the sin unto death; that is, a sin that involves the death of the 
body; but who can say (if the mercy was offered to Christ's murderers, and 
the gospel was first to be preached at Jerusalem, that tTiese very murderers 
might have the first offer of salvation through him whom they had pierced), 
that the same mercy could not be extended to wretched Judas? I contend 
that the chief priests, <firc., who instigated Judas to deUver up his Master, and 
who crucified him top as a malefactor, having at the same time, the most 
indubitable evidence of his mnocence, were worse men than Judas Iscatiot 
himself; and that if mercy was extended to those, the wretched penitent 
traitor did not die out of the reach of the yearning of its bowels. And I 

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the world, "so have I sent them into the world. *'And I 
sanctify myself in their behalf, so that they also may be 
sanctified in [the] truth. "'Nor do I ask for these only; but 
also for those beUeving on me through their word ; "that they 
all may be one, as thou. Father, in me, and I in thee; 
that they also may be in us, so that the world may believe 
that thou hast sent me. "And I have given them the glory 
that thou hast given me, that they may be one as we are 
one; **I in them, and thou in me, that they may be perfected 
into one, that the woild may know that thou hast sent me, and 

contend further, that there is no positive evidence of the final damnation of 
Judas in the sacred text." 

It is said that this language cannot be true of Judas, if he is ever to 
be redeemed, no matter how much he may have suffered previously, "the 
answer to this is, that this was a proverbial expression among the Jews, and 
was not employed literally. Job says: "Let the day perish wherein I was 
bom." Jobtii: 3. Solomon said: **If a man live many years, and his soul 
be not filled with good; and also that he hath no burial; I say that an 
untimely birth is better than he." Eccles. vi: 3. 

The commentator Eendrick, says: " 'It had been good for him, if he had 
never been bom," is a proverbial phrase, and not to be understood literally; 
for it is not consistent with our ideas of the divine goodness to make the 
existence of any being a curse to him, or to cause him to suffer more, upon 
the whole, than he enjoys happiness. Bather than do this, God would not 
have created him at all. But as it is usual to say of men who are to endure 
some grievous punishment or dreadful calamity, that it would have been 
better for them never to have been bom, Christ, foreseeing what Judas would 
bring upon himself, by delivering up his Master into the hands of his enemies, 
applied this language to him." 

Dr. Clarke quotes the common use of the saying : "In Shemoth Babba, sec. 40, 
fol. 135, 1, 2, it is said, 'Whosoever knows the law, and does not do it, it 
had been better for him had he never come into the world.' In Vayikra Babba, 
sec. 26, fol. 179, 4, and Midrash Coheleth, fol. 91, 4, it is thus expressed: It 
were better for him had he never been created; and it would have been 
better for him had he been strangled in the womb, and never have seen the 
light of this world.' " 

"It is plainly a proverbial expression, descriptive of a great calamity or 
punishment. Many phrases of the same purport are found in the Jewish 
writers. This is one: *He that knoweth the law and doeth it not, it were 
better for him that he had not come into the world.' The Inferences which 
have sometimes been drawn from a strictly literal interpretation of these 
words, in regard to the nature and duration of future punishment, have 
therefore little pertinence or warrant."— iiuermore. 

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hast loved them as thou hast loved me. **Father, those 
whom thou hast given me I — I desire that where I am, they 
also may be with me ; that they may behold my glory, which 
thou hast given me, because thou hast loved me [from] before 
the foundation of the world. ^Eighteous Father, the world 
knew thee not, but I knew thee, and these knew that thou 
hast sent me. ^'And I have made known, and will make 
known thy name to them ; that the love with which thou hast 
loved them^ may be in them, and I in them." 


Matthew xxyi: 30. And when they had sung a hymn, 
they departed to the mountain of the olives. 

Mark xiv: 26. And when they had sung a hymn, they 
departed to the mountain of the olives. 

Luke xxii: 39. And he departed, and went according to 
his custom, to the mountain of the oHves, and the disci- 
ples also followed him. 

John xviii: 1. When Jesus had spoken these words, he 
went out with his disciples over the winter-torrent Kidron, 
where was a garden, into which he and his disciples entered. 


Matthew xxvi: 36-46. Then Jesus comes with them to 
an inclosure called Gethsemani, and says to his disciples, 
"Sit here, while I go away yonder, and pray." "And he took 
with him, Peter, and Zebedee's two sons, and began to be 
distressed, and in anguish. ^Then he says to them, "My 
soul is overwhelmed with sorrow, even unto death; remain 
here, and watch with me." ^And he went forward a Httle, 
and fell on his face, and prayed, and said, "My Father, if it 
is possible, let this cup be removed from me ; yet, not as I 
will, but as thou wiliest." *^And he comes to the disciples, 

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and finds them asleep, and says to Peter, <*Is it so, then, 
that you could not watch with me one hour? "Watch and 
pray that you enter not into temptation; the spirit is indeed 
willing, but the flesh weak." "Again, a second time, he 
went away and prayed, saying, "My Father, if it is not 
possible that this be removed, except I drink it, thy wiU be 
done." *^And returning, he found them asleep, — ^for their 
eyes were weighed down. **And he left them again, and 
Vent away, and prayed a third time, saying the same words 
again. **Then he comes to the disciples, and says to them, 
"Sleep on, now, and rest; for behold, the hour has come 
nigh, and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of 
sinners. *** Arise, let us go; behold, he who betrays me is 

Mark xiy: 33-43. And they came to an inclosure called 
Gethsemani, and he says to his disciples, "Sit here, while I 
go away and pray. " ^And he takes with him Peter, and Jacob, 
and John, and began to be greatiy distressed and full of an- 
guish. ^And he says to them, "My soul is extremely sorrow- 
ful, even unto death ; stay here and watch." "^And he went 
forward a Httie, and fell on the ground, and prayed that if pos- 
sible the hour might pass from him. **And he said, "Abba, 
Father, all things are possible with thee; remove this cup 
from me; yet, not what I will, but what thou [wiliest]." 
'^And he comes, and finds them sleeping, and says to Peter, 
"Simon, are you sleeping? Could you not watch a single hour? 
^Watch and pray, that you enter not into temptation ; the 
spirit is indeed willing, but the flesh weak." ""And he went 
away again, and prayed, saying the )same words. *^And 
again he came, and found them asleep, — for their eyes were 
weighed down, — and they knew not what to answer him. 

Mask xIy ; 36. Abba is S3rTlac of the diminutive of father— papa. 

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"And he comes the third time, and says to them, "Sleep, 
now, and rest. It is enough; the hour has come; behold, the 
Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. "Arise ; 
let us go; behold, he that betrays me is near." 

Luke xxii: 40-42 ; 46-46. And when he reached the place, 
he said to them, "Pray that you may not enter into temptation." 
"And he withdrew from them about a stone's throw, and he 
kneeled and prayed, "saying, "Father,if thou art willing, re- 
move this cup from me; yet, not my will, but thine, be done." 
* * * ^'^And when he rose from prayer, and came towards 
the disciples, he found them asleep from sorrow ; **and he said 
to them, "Why do you sleep? Arise, and pray that you do not 
enter into temptation." 

John xviii: 3. And Judas, also, who betrayed him, knew 
the place; because Jesus often resorted there with his dis- 


Matthew xxvi: 47-56* And while he was speaking, 
behold, Judas, one of the twelve, came, and with him a great 
crowd, with swords and bludgeons, from the high -priest and 
presbyters of the people. **And he who betrayed him, gave 
them a sign, saying, "Whomsoever I shall kiss, that is he; 
take him." ^''And immediately approaching Jesus, he said, 
"Hail, Eabbi," and tenderly kissed him. "^And Jesus said 
to him, "Comrade, what, are you here?" Then they came 
and laid hands on Jesus, and took him. "And behold, one 
of those with Jesus stretched out his hand and drew his sword, 
and striking the slave of the high-priest, cut off his ear. 
**Then Jesus says to him, "Eetum your sword into its 

Luke xxll: 43 and 44 are omitted from the oldest MSS. : "And an angel 
from heaven appeared to him, strengthening him. And being in agony he 
prayed most earnestly; and his sweat was like clots of blood, falling to the 

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scabbard; for all who take the sword shall perish by the sword. 
^^'^Or do you think that I cannot ask my Father, and he will even 
now send me here more than twelve legions of angels? 
"How then could the Scriptures be fulfilled, that [say] thus it 
must be?" ** Jesus in that hour said to the crowds, "Have 
you come out with swords and bludgeons to arrest me, as if 
in pursuit of a robber? Every day I sat in the temple, teach- 
ing, and you did not arrest me. "But all this has been 
done that the Scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled." 
Then all his disciples left him and fled. 

Mark xiv : 43-50. And immediately, while he yet spoke, 
Judas Iskariot comes, — one of the twelve, — and a crowd with 
him with swords and bludgeons, from the high-priests, and 
the scribes, and the presbyters. **And he who betrayed 
him had given them a signal, saying, "Whomsoever I shall 
kiss, that is he ; seize him, and lead him away safely. " **And 
when he had come he immediately approached him, and 
says, "Eabbil" and tenderly kissed him *®Then they laid 
hands on him, and seized him. *'And one of those standing 
by, drew a sword, and struck a slave of the high-priest, and 
cut off his ear. *®And Jesus answered, and said to them, 
"Have you come out with swords and bludgeons, to take me, 
as if in pursuit of a robber? *^I was with you, teaching in 
the temple every day, and you did not arrest me. But the 
Scriptures must be fulfilled." ^And they all left him, and 

Luke xxii: 47-53. Behold, while he was speaking, a 
crowd, and he who was called Judas, one of the twelve, went 
before them, and approached Jesus, to kiss him. *®And 
Jesus said to him, "Judas, do you betray the Son of Man 
with a kiss?" *®And those about him, seeing what was going 
to transpire, said, "Master, shall we strike with a sword?" ^And 

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a certain one of them struck the slave of the high- priest, and 
cut off his right ear. "But Jesus answered, and said, 
'^Permit so much !" And he touched the ear, and healed him. 
**And Jesus said to the high-priests, and officers of the 
temple, and presbyters, who had come against him, "Have 
you come out with swords and bludgeons, as for a robber? 
*You did not stretch out your hands against me when I was 
with you daily in the temple; but this is the hour and the 
power of darkness." 

John xviii: 3-11. Then Judas, having received the 
cohort and officers from the high-priests, and the Pharisees, 
comes with torches, and lanterns, and weapons. ^But Jesus, 
knowing all the things that were coming upon him, went 
out, and says to them, "Whom are you seeking?'* *They 
answered him, **Jesus, the Nazarene." Jesus says to them, 
**I am [he]." And Judas, also, who betrayed him, stood 
with them. 'When, therefore, he said to them, **I am 
[he]," they retreated, and fell on the ground. ^Then he 
asked them again, ''Whom are you seeking?" And they said, 
•* Jesus, the Nazarene." * Jesus answered, **I told you that I 
am [he]; if therefore, you seek me, let these go;" "that the 
word which he spoke might be fulfilled: 

**I have lost not one of those whom thou hast given me." 
*®Then Simon Peter, having a sword, drew it, and struck 
the high-priest*s slave, and cut off his right ear. Now* the 
slave's name was Malchus. "Jesus, therefore, said to Peter, 
**Put the sword into the scabbard; the cup that the Father 
has given me, shall I not drink it?" 


Matthew xxvi: 67. And those who had taken Jesus, 
conducted him to Kaiaphas, the high-priest, where the scribes 
and the presbyters were assembled. 

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Mark xiv: 61-63. And a youth followed him, with a linen 
cloth wrapped around [his] naked [body], and they seized 
him. **And he left the linen cloth and fled naked. ^'And 
they conducted Jesus to the high -priest, and the high-priests 
and the scribes and the presbyters came together to him. 

Luke xxii; 54. And they seized him, and led him 
[away], and brought him into the house of the high-priest. 
But Peter followed at a distance. 

John XYiii: 12-14:. Then the cohort, and the com- 
mander, and the ofl&cers of the Jews, arrested Jesus, and 
bound him, *^and led him to Annas first, for he was father- 
in-law of Kaiaphas, who was high-priest that year. "Now 
Kaiaphas was he who advised the Jews that it was expedient 
for one man to die in behalf of the people. 


Matthew xxvi: 58. But Peter followed him at a dis- 
tance, to the court of the high-priest; and he went in and sat 
with the attendants, to see the end. 

Mark xiv: 54. And Peter followed him at a distance, 
even into the high-priest's court, and sat in company with the 
attendants, warming himself before the blaze. 

Luke xxii: 66. And when they had kindled a fire in the 
middle of the court, they sat down together, and Peter sat 
among them. 

John xviii: 16-16. And Simon Peter, and another dis- 
ciple, followed Jesus. And that disciple was known to the 
high-priest, and he went in with Jesus, into the court of 
the high-priest. ^®But Peter stood outside, at the door. 
Therefore, that other disciple, who was the acquaintance of 

Mark xlv : 51-52. Gumnos, with only an under rolje. 

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the high-priest, went out and spoke to her that kept the 
door, and brought Peter in. 


Mark xiv: 66-65. Now the high-priests, and the entire 
sanhedrin, sought testimony against Jesus, in order to 
kill him; but they found none. "For many testified falsely 
against him, but their testimonies were contradictory. '^^And 
some standing up testified falsely against him, saying, ^^^He 
said, *I will destroy this temple, made with hands, and with- 
in three days I will build another, made without hands.' " 
^^But notwithstanding this their testimony was contradictory. 
•^And the high-priest, rising in the midst, asked Jesus, 
saying, "Do you answer nothing that these testify against 
you?" "But Jesus was silent, and answered nothing, and 
the high-priest asked him, and said to him, **Are you the 
Christ, the son of the Blessed One!" '^And Jesus said, **I 
am ; and you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right 
hand of the Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven." 
®^And the high-priest rent his garment and said, "What 
further need have we of witnesses? ^Behold now you have 
heard the blasphemy. What is your opinion?" And they 
all condemned him as subject to death. ®®And some began to 
spit upon him, and to bhndfold him, and to buffet him ; and 
to say to him, "Prophesy." And the attendants received him 
with blows. 

Matthew xxvi: 59-68« Now the high-priests, and the en- 
tire aanhedrin sought false testimony against Jesus, so that 
they might deliver him to death ; "^and they found it not, though 
many false witnesses came ; but afterwards, two came for- 
wardj ®*and said, "This man declared, *I can demolish God's 


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temple, and within three days rebuild it.' " •'And the high- 
priest stood up and said to him, "Do you answer nothing? 
What is it that these testify against you?" •^But Jesus was 
silent. And the high-priest said to him, **I adjure you by 
the Uving God, that you tell us if you are the Christ, the Son 
of God!" "Jesus said to him, "You have said it; besides, I 
say to you, from now you will see the Son of Man sitting on 
the right hand of the Power, and coming on the clouds of the 
heaven." "^Then the high-priest rent his clothes, saying, 
''Behold^ he blasphemes! What further need have we of 
witnesses? Behold, now you have heard the blasphemy, what 
think you?" "And they answered, and said, *<He is hable 
to death." "Then they spit in his face, and buffeted him, 
and some struck him with their open hands, and said, 
^"Prophesy to us, oh, Christ, who is he that struck you?" 

Luke xxii: 63-65. And the men who had him in custody 
derided him, and scourged him. •^And they blindfolded him, 
and asked him, saying, **Prophesy, .who struck you!" ^And 
they spoke many other blasphemous things against him. 

John xviii: 19-24. Then the high-priest asked Jesus 
concerning his disciples, and his teaching. ^And Jesus 
answered him, "I have publicly spoken to the world; I 
always taught in a synagogue, and in the temple, where all 
the Jews congregate ; and I said nothing in secret. "Why 
do you ask me? Ask those who have heard what I said to 

Matt, xxvi: 62, G3. Part of verse 62 and aU of verse 63 are not contained in 
the oldest MSS. : "Dost thou answer nothing to what these testify against 
thee? But Jesus was silent. And the high priest said to him." 

Farrar says : "Matt, xxvi : 67, eneptusan ekolaphisan (slapped with the open 
palm) ; errapisan (struck with sticks) ; Mark xiv: 65 hrapismasin elahon at. 
ehallon; Luke xxii: 63-64, enepaizo7i auto^ derontes tis estin hopaisas re. 
There is a pathetic variety in these live forms of insult by blows [cf. Acts xxi: 
32 ; xxlli : 2 ; Isa. 1:6; and the treatment of one of Annas's own sons, (Jos. 
B. J. w. 5, S. 3] )." 

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318 fffi: 2^W COVENANT. 

them; behold, they know what things I said." ^And when 
he had said these things, one of the attendants struck him 
with the open hand, saying, **Do you answer the high-priest 
thus?" ^But Jesus answered him, **If I have spoken evil, 
testify concerning the evil; but if well, why do you strike 
me?" **Annas, therefore, sent him bound to Kaiaphas, the 

Peter's first denial. 

Matthew xxvi: 69-70, And Peter sat outside, in the 
court, and a servant-girl came to him, saying, **You were 
also with Jesus, the Galilean." ^°But he denied it in the 
presence of them all, saying, "I know not what you say." 

Mark xiv: 66-68. And Peter being below in the court, 
there came one of the servant-girls of the high -priest; ®^and 
seeing Peter warming himself, she looked at him, and said, 
"You also were with Jesus, the Nazarene." *^But he denied, 
saying, **I neither know nor comprehend what you say." 
And he went into the outer court. 

Luke xxii: 56-57. And a certain servant-girl seeing him 
as he sat by the blaze, looked steadily at him, and said, 
**This man, too, was with him." "But he denied, saying, **I 
do not know him, woman!" 

John xviii: 17-18. Then the servant-girl who kept the 
door says to Peter, "Are you, also, [one] of this man's 
disciples?" He says, "I am not!" ^^And the slaves and 
officers, alsoy having made a charcoal fire, because it was 
cold, stood and warmed themselves. And Peter, also, stood 
with them, and warmed himself. 

Peter's second denial. 

Matthew xxvi: 71-72. And as he went out into the 
portico, another [servant-girl] saw him, and says to those 

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there, "This man, also, was with Jesus, the Nazarene." 
"And again he denied it with an oath, [saying], *«I do not 
know the man." 

Markxiy: 69-70. And the servant-girl saw him, and 
again began to say to those standing near, "This is [one] of 
them." ^"And he denied it again. 

Luke xxii: 68. And after a Uttle, another saw him, and 
said, "You, too, are [one] of them." But Peter said, "Man, 
I am not!" 

John xviii: 25-27. And Simon Peter was standing and 
warming himself. Then they said to him, "Are you also, 
[one] of his disciples?" He denied, and said, "I am not." 
"One of the slaves of the high-priesij, a relative of him whose 
ear Peter cut off, says, "Did I not see you in the garden with 
him?" "Then Peter again denied; and immediately a cock 


Matthew xxvi: 73-75. And after a little, those who 
stood by, came and said to Peter, "Certainly, you are also 
[one] of them, for your dialect betrays you!" ^*Then he 
began to curse, and to swear, [saying], "I do not know the 
man!" And instantly a cock crowed. "And Peter remem- 
bered the word that Jesus had said, "Before a cock crows you 
will three times deny me." And he went out, and wept 

Mark xiv: 70-72. And after a little, those that stood 
near again said to Peter, "Certainly you are [one] of them, 
for you are a Galilean." "Then he began to curse and swear, 
"I do not know this man of whom you speak." ^* And im- 
mediately a cock crowed a second time. And Peter recol- 
lected the word that Jesus spoke to him, "Before a cock 

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820 ^^^' ^^^ COVENANT. 

crows twice, you will three times deny me." And as he 
reflected thereon, he wept. 

Luke xxii: 59-62. And about an hour afterwards, an- 
other confidently afl&rmed, **In truth, this man, too, was 
with him, for he is a G-alilean." ^But Peter said, **Man, I 
know not what you say." And immediately, while he spoke, 
a cock crowed. ®*And the Master turned, and looked at Peter, 
and Peter was reminded of the Master's word, that he said 
to him, **Before a cock crows to-day, you will three times 
irenounce me." *^And he went out and wept bitterly. 


Matthew xxvli: 1. And when morning came, a council 
was held of all the high-priests and presbyters of the people, 
against Jesus, in order to put him to death. 

Mark xv: 1. And immediately, in the morning, the 
high-priests, with the presbyters, and the scribes, even the 
entire sanhedrin, held a consultation. 

Luke xxii: 66-71. And when it was day, che presbytery 
of the people, high-priests and scribes, were assembled, and 
they brought him into their sanhedrin, saying, ®'"Tell us if 
you are the Christ." And he said to them, "If I tell you, 
you "mil not believe ; *^and if I question [you], you will not 
answer. ®*But from now the Son of Man will sit on the right 
hand of the power of God." '®And they all said, **Are you, 
then, the Son of God?" And he said to them, "You say that 
I am." "And they said, "What further need have we of testi- 
mony? For we ourselves have heard from his own mouth." 


Matthew xxvii: 3-10, Then Judas, who betrayed him, 
when he saw that )ie was condemned, repented, and returned 
the tMrty silver pieces to the high-priests, and to the pres- 

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byters, saying, *" I sinned, in betraying righteous blood!'' 
But they said, ** What is that to us? Look to [that], your- 
self !'* ^And flinging the silver pieces in the temple, he with- 
drew, and going away, strangled himself. 'And the high- 
priests took the silver pieces, and said, ** It is unlawful to 
cast them into the treasury, since it is the price of blood." 
^And they took counsel, and bought with them the Potter's 
Field, [in which] to bury the strangers. ^Therefore, to this 
day,»that field is called **The Field of Blood." 'Then was ful- 
filled that which was spoken through Jeremiah, the prophet, 

** And I took the thirty silver pieces, 

The price of him that was valued, 

Whom the sons of Israel valued, 

*^And gave them for the ^Potter's Field,* 

Even as the Lord commanded me." 


Matthew xxvii: 2, and 11-14. And they bound him, 
and led him away, and delivered him up to Pilate,the governor. 
* * * "And Jesus stood in the presence of the governor, 
and the governor asked him, saying, " Are you the king of 
the Jews?" "And Jesus said to him, "You say [it]." But 
he answered nothing when he was accused by the high-priests 
and presbyters. "Then says Pilate to him, " Do you not 
hear how many things they testify against you?" "And he 
answered him not, not even one word, so that the governor 
was greatly astonished. 

Mark xv: 1-5. And [having] bound Jesus, they carried 
him and delivered him to Pilate. *And Pilate asked him, "Are 

Matt, xxvll: 5. "Was stranRled." 

Wakefield says : "I use the word 'strangled ;' ** and Campbell : "It may be ren- 
dered Vas strangled/ or *was suffocated.* " 


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you the king of the Jews?" And he answered, and says to 
him, ** You say [it];" 'And the high-priests accused him of 
many things. *Then Pilate asked him again, saying, " Do 
you answer nothing? See how many things they accuse you 
of." *But Jesus answered nothing, so that Pilate was 

Luke xxili: 1-4. And the whole multitude of them 
arose and led him to Pilate. *And they began to accuse him, 
saying, " We found this man misleading our nation, and 
forbidding to pay tax to Kaisar, and saying that he himself is 
Christ [the] king." 'And Pilate asked him, saying, "Are you 
the king of the Jews?" And he answered him, and said, 
" You say [it]." *And Pilate said to the high-priests, and the 
crowds, " I find no crime in this man." 

John xviii: 28-38. Then they led Jesus from Kaiaphas 
to the pretorium. It was then morning, and they went not 
into the pretorium, so that they might not be defiled, but 
that they might eat the Passover. **Pilate, therefore, went 
out to them, and says, "What accusation do you bring 
against this man?" "They answered, and said to him, " If 
this man were not an evil-doer we would not have delivered 
him up to you." ^'But Pilate said to them, " Take him your- 
selves, and judge him according to your law." The Jews 
said to him, ** It is not lawful for us to kiU any one;" ^that the 
word of Jesus might be fulfilled, when he indicated by what 
death he was about to die. **Pilate, therefore, again went into the 
pretorium, and called Jesus, and said to him, " Are you the 
king of the Jews ?" ^ Jesus answered, "Do you say this of your- 
self, or did others tell you concerning me?" *^Pilate 
answered, " Am 1 a Jew? Your own nation, and the high- 
priests delivered you to me. What have you done?" '"Jesus 
answered, ** My kingdom is not of this world. If my king- 

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dom were of this wodd, then, also, my officers would fight, 
so that I might not he delivered to the Jews ; but now my 
kingdom is not from hence. " '^Pilate, therefore, said to him, 
»* Are you a king then?" Jesus answered, " You say that I 
am a king; to this also I was bom; and for this have I 
entered the world, that I may testify to the truth. Every 
one that is of the truth, hears my voice." "Pilate says to 
him, ''What is truth?" And when he had said this, he 
went out again to the Jews, and said to them, ** I find no 
crime in him." 


Luke xxiii: 5-12. But they were more urgent, saying, 
** He excites the people, teaching in all Judea, and beginning 
from G^alilee, even to this place." 'Now Pilate, when he 
heard it, asked if the man were a Galilean. 'And when he 
heard that he was of Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, 
who was also in Jerusalem, in these days. ^Herod greatly 
rejoiced when he saw Jesus, for he had for a long time 
wished to see him, because he had heard about him, and he 
hoped to see some sign wrought by him. *And he questioned 
him in many words, but he answered him not. *°And the 
high-priests and the scribes arose, vehemently accusing 
him. "And Herod, also, with his soldiers, treated him con- 
temptuously, and having ridiculed him, and cast a gorgeous 
robe around him, sent him back to Pilate. "And Herod and 
Pilate became friends with each other on that day, for formerly 
they had been at enmity between themselves. 


Matthew xxvii: 15-20. Now at a feast the governor 
was accustomed to release to the crowd one prisoner whom 
they asked, ^^'And they had then a notorious prisoner, named 
Barabbas. "When, therefore, they were assembled, Pilate 


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said to them, " Whom do you wish that I should release to 
you, Barabbas, or Jesus, called Christ?" "For he knew that 
they had dehvered him through jealousy. /®And while he was 
seated on the tribunal, his wife sent to him, saying, ** Have 
nothing to do with that just man : For I have suffered many 
things this day, in a dream, because of him." *°5ut the 
high-priests and the presbyters persuaded the crowds that 
they should ask for Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. 

Mark xv: 6-11. Now at a feast he was accustomed to 
release one prisoner to them, whomever they asked. ^And 
there was one who was named Barabbas, Who had been 
imprisoned with the insurgents, and had committed murder 
in the insurrection. ®And the crowd went up and began to 
demand what he was accustomed to grant to them. 'But 
Pilate answered them, saying, ** Do you wish me to release 
to you the king of the Jews?" *®For he knew that they had 
dehvered him up through jealousy. "But the high-priests 
excitediihe crowd [to ask] that he should rather release Barab- 
bas to them. 

Luke xxiii: 13-19. And Pilate summoned the high- 
priests, and the rulers, and the people, and said to them, 
"" You have brought this man to me as one that misleads 
the people, and behold, having examined him in your pres- 
ence, I have not found in him a fault touching those things of 
which you accuse him. *^Nor has Herod ; for he sent him to us, 
and behold, nothing deserving death has been done by him; 
"I will therefore chastise him, and release him." * * "But 
they cried all together, saying, "Away with this man, and 
release Barabbas to us !" — "one who had been cast into prison 
for a certain murder and sedition that occurred in the city. 

John xviii: 39. "But you have a custom that I release 

Luke xxlii : 17 is not contained in the oldest MSS. : "Now it was neoessary 
to release one to them, at the feast." 

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one to you, during the Passover; are you willing, therefore, 
that I release the king of the Jews to you?" 


Matthew xxvii: 31-33. And the governor^ answered, 
and said to them, " Which of the two do you wish that I 
should release to you?" And they said, ** Barabbas!" "Pilate 
says to them, "What then shall I do to Jesus, called Christ?" 
They all say, **Let him be crucified !" **And he said, "Why, 
what evil has he done?" But they vehemently cried out, 
saying, ** Let him be crucified!" 

Mark xv: 13-14. And Pilate said to them, "What, then, 
shall I do to him whom you call the king of the Jews?" 
"And they again cried out, "Crucify him!" "And Pilate said 
to them, " What for? Has he done evil?" But they vehe- 
mently cried out, sayimjy " Crucify him !" 

Lnke xxiii: 30-33. But Pilate again addressed them, 
wishing to release Jesus. ^^But they cried, saying, "Crucify! 
Crucify him!" ^And he said to them a third time, "For 
what? Has this man done evil? I have found nothing in 
him deserving death; I will scourge him, therefore, and 
release him." '^But they insisted, with loud voices, demand- 
ing that he should be crucified ; and their voices prevailed. 

John xvlii: 40. Then they cried out again, saying, "Not 
this man, but Barabbas!" Now Barabbas was a robber. 


Matthew xxvii: 34-30. And when Pilate saw that he 
gained nothing, but rather that a tumult was made, he took 
water, and washed his hands before the crowd, saying, "I 
am innocent of this blood; take notice." *^And all the peo- 
ple answered and said, "On us and on our children be his 
blood!" *Then he released Barabbas to them, and when he 

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had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified, *^Then 
the governor's soldiers led Jesus to the pretorium, and the 
whole company surrounded him, *^and they clothed him, put- 
ting a scarlet military cloak on him ; *^and they braided an 
acanthine crown, and placed it on his head, and put a reed 
in his right hand ; and they kneeled before him, and ridiculed 
him, saying, "Hail, king of the Jews!" ^And they spit on 
him, and took the reed, and struck him on his head. 

Mark xy: 15-19. Then Pilate, being willing to gratify 
the crowd, released Barabbas to them ; and having scourged 
Jesus, dehvered him to be crucified. *®And the soldiers led 
him away into the court, which is the pretorium, and they 
call together the whole band. "And they arrayed him in 
purple, and braided an acanthine crown, and placed it on 
him, ^®and began to salute him, and to say, "Hail, king of 
the Jews!" "And they struck his head with a reed, and spit 
on him, and kneeling, rendered homage to him. 

Luke xxiii: 24-25. And Pilate gave sentence to satisfy 
their demand. ^^And he released him who had been cast into 
prison for insurrection and murder, whom they desired, and 
surrendered Jesus to their will. 

John xix: 1-16. Accordingly Pilate then took Jesus and 
scourged him; ^and the soldiers braided a crown of acanthus, 
[and] placed it on his head; and they threw a purple mantle 
around him, ^and came towards him, and said, "Hail, the 
king of the Jews ! " And they beat him with their hands. 
*And Pilate went out again, and says to them, "See, I bring 
him out to you, that you may know that I find no crime in 
him." ^Thereupon Jesus came out, wearing the acanthine 
crown, and the purple mantle, and [Pilate] says to them, 
" See the man!" "When, therefore, the high-priests and the 
officers saw him, they shouted, saying, " Crucify, crucify!" 

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THE imw covENAirr, 827 

Arid Pilate says to them, "Take and crucify him yourselves, 
for I find no crime in him." The Jews answered him, **W^ 
have a law, and by that law he ought to die, because he made 
himself God's son." ®When Pilate, therefore, heard this word, 
he was more afraid, 'and went again into the pretoriimi, and 
says to Jesus, " Whence are you?" But Jesus gave him no 
answer. ^"Pilate says to him, **Do you not speak to me? 
Do you not know that T have authority to release you, and 
authority to crucify you?" "Jesus answered him, "You 
would have no authority against me, if it had not been given 
you from above. On this account, he who dehvered me to 
you has a greater sin." "At this Pilate sought to release 
him; but the Jews cried out, saying, "If you release this 
man, you are not Eaisar's fiiend; every one that pretends to 
be a king, opposes Kaisar." "When Pilate, therefore, heard 
these words, he led Jesus out, and sat down on the tribunal, 
in a place called the Pavement, in Hebrew, Gabbatha. "Now 
it was the preparation of the Passover; it was about the sixth 
hour; and he says to the Jews, ** See your king!" "There- 
fore they said, "Away with [him], away with [him] I Cru- 
cify him !" Pilate says to them, "Shall I crucify your king?" 
The high-priests answered, "We have no king but Kaisar." 
"Then, therefore, he dehvered him to them, to be crucified. 


Matthew xxvii: 31-32. And when they had ridiculed 
him, they stripped him of the cloak, and put his own gar- 
ments on him, and led him away to crucify him. ^And as 
they came out, they met a Kyrenian, named Simon, whom 
they impressed, to carry his cross. 

Mark xv: 20-21. And when they had ridiculed him, 
they stripped him of the purple, and put his own clothes on 
him, and they led him out to crucify him. "And one Simon, 

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a Eyrenian, the father of Alexander and Rufus, coming from 
the countiy, was passing by, and they impressed him to 
carry his cross. 

Luke xxiii: 26-32. And as they led him away, they 
seized one Simon, a Kyrenian, coming from the country, 
and they placed the cross on him, to carry after Jesus. ^And 
a great multitude of the people followed him, and of women, 
who lamented and bewailed him. "But Jesus, turning to 
them, said, **Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but 
weep for yourselves, and your children ; *^or behold days are 
coming in which they will say, < Happy the sterile, and the 
wombs that did not bear, and the breasts that suckled not.* 
^'Then they will begin to say to the mountains, *Fall on us!' 
and to the hills, *Cover us !' ^'for if they do these things in the 
green wood, what will be done in the dry?" "And there were 
two others, also, who were criminals, led with him, to be put 
to death. 

JTohn xix: 16-17. Then they took Jesus, and he went 
out, '^bearing the cross by himself, into what is called Skull- 
place, in Hebrew, Golgotha. 


Matthew xxyil: 33-34; 37-38. And when they had 
come to the place called Golgotha, which is to say, Skull- 
place, '^they gave him wine to drink, mixed with gall, and 
when he had tasted it, he would not drink it. * * '"And 
above his head they placed his accusation in writing, "Tms 
IS Jesus, the king op the Jews." ^Then are two robbers 
crucified with him, one at the right hand, and the other at 
the left. 

Mark xv: 22, 23, 26, 27. "And they bring him to 
Golgotha, which, being translated, is Skull-place. ^'And 
they gave him myrrh-mingled wine, but he did not ac-^ 

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cepiit. * * * *And the inscription of his accusation was 
written over, "The king op the Jews." "'And with him they 
crucified two robbers, one at his right hand, and one at his 

Luke xxiii: 33,3S. And when they had reached the place 
called [the] Skull, they crucified him, and the criminals, one 
at the right hand, and one at the left. * * * "And there 
was also an inscription above him, "This is the king of the 

Luke xxill: 38. The inscription on the cross. Latin was the langnage of 
aU Boman ffovemments, officers, and most soldiers. The common speech of 
the Jewish people had faUen off from the ancient and classical Hebrew of the 
Old Testament, to become a corrupt dialect ("Ssrro-Chaldaic*' or "Aramaic"). 
Pilate's inscription was, therefore, written in this dialect of the Jewish popu- 
lace—that it might be read by them. Probably he knew little of it himself, 
beyond a smattering of the most usual Aramaic words. Greek, the finest* and 
most flexible speech the world has ever known, had been propagated 
throughout the whole East by means of the conquests of Alexander the 
Great. It was the language of the conquerors ; and the literary and commercial 
spirit of the Greek race tended to make it the language of the conquered, 
also. Greeks, with the Greek tongue, Greek dress, Greek commerce, Greek 
habits and influences, were around the Jews everywhere. 

The inscription was written in these three tongues, that it might be read by 
alL (Golgotha is Hebrew, Calvary, Latin, i. e.. Skull-place.) 

Greek . . . Latin . . . Hebrew. "All careful readers of the Bible must have 
observed that the superscription placed over our Lord's head on the cross is 
variously given by the Gospel-writers. Each one reports it in a manner 
slightly different from the other three. This apparent discrepancy has given 
rise to various explanations. In order to solve the difficulty, we must remem- 
ber that the superscription was written in three different languages. Greek 
was the language best known in the world at the time when our Lord was 
crucified; and there was a Greek superscription, for the benefit of strangers 
from foreign parts. Latin was the language of the Romans; and there was a 
Latin superscription, because the sentence on our Lord was passed by a Latin 
judge, and executed by Latin soldiers. Hebrew was the language of the Jews ; 
and there was a superscription in the Hebrew tongue, because Jesus was cru- 
cified as a Jew, that all Jews might see it. But, for anything we know, the 
superscription in each language may have slightly varied from the super- 
scription in other languages. Matthew may have recorded it as it was in 
Hebrew; Mark, as it was in Latin; Luke, as it was in Greek."— i?2/Ze. "That 
John's was the exact form may be safely inferred from St. John's presence at 
the cross, where the words were before his eyes for all that memorable six 
hours, and from his care to specify the languages in which it was written.**— 
Smith, [Seepage X. J 

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880 '^^^ ^^^ COVENANT, 

John xlx: 18-32, They crucified him, and two others 
with him, one each side, and Jesus between. "And Pikte 
also wrote an inscription, and placed it on the cross, and it 
was written, "Jesus, the Nazarene, the kino of the Jews." 
**This inscription, therefore, many of the Jews read, because 
the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city, and it 
was written in Hebrew, in Latin, [and] in Greek. "Then the 
high-priests of the Jews said to Pilate, "Do not write, *The 
king of the Jews,' but that he said, * I am the king of the 
Jews.' " "^Pilate answered, '"What I have written, I have 


Matthew xxvii: 35-36* And when fchey had crucified 
him, they distributed his garments among them, casting lots. 
^'And they sat and watched him there. 

Mark xv: 24-25. And they crucify him, and distrib- 
ute his garments, casting lots for them, what each should 
take. ^And it was the third hour, and they crucified him. 

Luke xxiii: 34. And distributing his garments among 
them, they cast lots. 

John xix: 23-25. Then the soldiers who had crucified 
Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to each sol- 
dier a part; also the tunic; but the tunic was seamless, woven 
from the top throughout. "They said to each other, there- 
fore, "Let us not tear it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be," 
that the Scripture might be fulfilled, which says : 

"They parted my garments among them. 

Matt, xxvll: 35. The most ancient versions do not contain the clause, "That 
it might be verified, which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my gar- 
ments among them, and cast lots npon my raiment." 

Luke xxiii: 34, is not in the oldest MSS. : "And Jesus said, *Father, for- 
give them, for they know not what they are doing.' ** 

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And for my raiment they cast lots." 
'^The soldiers, therefore, did these things, 


Matthew xxvii: 39-44. And those passing along ridi- 
culed him, shaking their heads, and saying, **^" Destroyer of 
the temple, and builder of it in three days! save yourself , if 
you are God's son, atid come down from the cross !" "And 
the high-priests, with the presbyters and scribes, likewise 
mocking, said, **"He saved others; he cannot save himself. 
He is the king of Israel ! let him now descend from the cross, 
and we wiU beheve on him. *^He trusts in God; let him 
dehver him now, if he desires him, for he said, < I am God's 
son!'" **And the robbers also, who were crucified with 
him, reproached him in the same way. 

Mark xv: 29-32. And those that passed along 
blasphemed him, shaking their heads, and saying, "Ha! 
you destroyer of the temple, and builder of it in three 
days! ^Save yourself, and come down from the cross!" ^^In 
like manner, also, the high-priests ridiculed [him], with the 
scribes, [and] said to each other, "He saved others; he cannot 
save himself . ^Let the Christ, the king of Israel, now descend 
from the cross, that we may see and believe !" And those who 
were crucified with him, taunted him. 

Lake xxiii: 35-37; 39-43. And the people stood gaz- 
ing; and the rulers also sneered, saying, "He saved others; 
let him save himself, if he is the Christ of God, the Chosen." 
^And the soldiers derided him, approaching him, offering 
sour wine, ^and saying, "If you are the king of the Jews, 
save yourself!" * * * ^®And one of the suspended 
criminals reviled him, [saying] "Are you not the Christ? 
Save yourself and us." *"But the other answered, and 
reproving him, said, "Bo you not even fear God, since you 

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832 ^^^ -ZVIJir COVENANT, ' 

are in the same condemnation? *'And we, indeed, justly, for 
we receive what is due for our deeds ; but this man has done 
nothing wrong." **And he said, "Jesus, remember me 
when you come in your reign." *^And he said to him, "Truly 
I say to you, you shall be with me in Paradise to-day." 


John xix: 25-27. Now there stood by the cross of 
Jesus, his mother, and his mother's sister Mary, Cleopas's 
[wife] , and Mary the Magdalene, ^islow when Jesus saw his 
mother, and the disciple he loved, standing near, he says to 
his mother, "Woman, see your son!" ^He then says to the 
disciple, "See! your mother!" And from that hour the disci- 
ple took her to his own [house]. 


Matthew xxTii: 45-56. Now darkness was over all the 
land from the sixth hour till the ninth hour. *® And about the 
ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, "Eloi, 
eloi, lema sabachthani ;" that is, "My God, my God, why 
hast thou forsaken me?" *^And some of those that stood 
there, when they heard it, said, **This man calls for Elijah." 
"And immediately one of them ran, and taking a sponge, 
filled it with sour wine, and fastening it to a reed, gave to him 
to drink. *^But the others said, '*Let him alone; let us see 
if EHjah will come and save him !" And another took a spear , 

Luke xxiii: 43. It has been questioned whether "This day" should be 
connected with "I say to you," or "with me shalt thou be." It seems to us 
that the latter is correct. The common form of the Savior's words, "Truly I 
say to you," would indicate that the comma should immediately follow "you." 
This is his usual style of address, Luke xix: 5, "To-day I must abide," etc. 

Matt, xxvii: 45. Tertullian (Apol. c. 21), appeals to the record of this 
darkness in the Roman archives, in confirmation of the resurrection. 

Matt, xxvii. 46. The last words of Jesus, "J^tot," &c., are in Aramaic, and 
seem to indicate that Aramaic was the language in which he habitually spoke. 

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and pierced his side, and there issued blood and water. *^hen 
Jesus,crying out again with a loud voice, surrendered his spirit. 
"And behold, the veil of the temple was rent in two, from top to 
bottom, and the earth shook, and the rocks were rent, ""and the 
tombs were opened ; and many bodies of the sleeping saints 
were raised, "and they came forth from the sepulchers, 
after his rising, went into the holy city, and appeared to 
many. "And when the centurion, and those watching Jesus 
• with him, saw the earth quake, and the events that occurred, 
they were much afraid, and said, "Truly, this was God's 
son!" "^And there were many women, also, looking on from 
a distance, who had followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering 
to him, •'among whom were Mary the Magdalene, and Mary, 
Jacob and Joseph's mother, and Mary^ the mother of Zebe- 
dee's sons. 

Markxv: 33-41. And when the sixth hour had come, 
there was darkness over the whole land till the ninth hour. 
'*And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, **Eloi, 
eloi, lama sabacthani?" which, translated, is, ** My God, my 
God, why hast thou abandoned me?" '^ And when some of 
the by-standers heard it, they said, ** Behold, he calls 
Elijah!" "And one ran, and filled a sponge with sour wine, 
put it on a. reed, and gave him to drink, saying, "Let him 
alone; let us see if Elijah comes to take him down." ^'Then 
Jesus uttered a loud voice, and gave up the spirit. '^And the 
veil of the temple was rent in two, from top to bottom. 
'''And the centurion, who stood opposite to him, seeing that he 
so cried out, and gave up the spirit, said, "Certainly this man 
was God's son!" *°And there were women, also, observ- 
ing from a distance, among whom [were] Mary the Magda- 
lene, and Mary, Jacob the younger and Joses' mother, 
and Salome, "who, when he was in Galilee, followed him. 

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and served him, and many other women, who went up with 
him to Jerusalem. 

Luke xxiii: 44-49. And it was then about the sixth 
hour, and darkness came over the whole land till the ninth 
hour; **the sun was ecHpsed, and the veil of the temple was 
rent in the middle. **And when Jesus had cried with a loud 
voice, he said, "Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit;" 
and having said this, he gave up the spirit. *^And when the 
centurion saw what had occurred, he glorified God, saying, 
"Certainly, this was a just man." *®And all the crowds that 
had come together to [witness] this spectacle, when they beheld 
the things that had occurred, returned, beating their breasts. 
"But all his acquaintance, and the women who had followed 
him from Galilee, stood at a distance, observing these things. 

John xix: 28-37. After this, knowing that all things 
are now finished, that the Scriptures might be fulfilled, Jesus 
says, **I thirst!" *A vessel stood [there] filled with sour 
wine ; therefore, they fastened a sponge filled with sour wine 
to a hyssop-stalk, and they brought it to his mouth. **When, 
therefore, Jesus took the sour wine, he said, ** [It is] done!" 
And he bowed his head, and yielded up his spirit. **Then 
the Jews, — that the bodies might not remain on the cross dur- 
ing the Sabbath, — since it was the Preparation, for the day 
of that Sabbath was a great one, — ^asked Pilate that their 
legs might be broken, and they taken away. ^The sol- 
diers, therefore came, and broke the legs of the first, and of 
the other who was crucified with him; 'Tbut when they came 
to Jesus, and saw that he was already dead, they did not 
break his legs, ^but one of the soldiers pierced his side with 

John xlx: 34. "Blood and water." See Stroud "On the Physical Cause of 
the Death of Christ." The decomposed crassamentum and serum of extrava- 
sated blood is a demonstration of actual death, and a demonstration of the 
symptoms and phenomena of the last hours of our Lord. 

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a spear, and immediately blood and water issued. ^And 'he 
who saw it has testified, and his testimony is true, and he 
knows that he says true things, so that you also may believe; 
^'for these things occurred that the Scripture might be 

"A bone of him shall not be shattered." 

^And again, another Scripture says : 

"They shall look on him whom they pierced." 


Matthew xxvii: 57-60. And when evening came, a rich 
man arrived from Arimathea, named Joseph, who was also 
himself discipled to Jesus; ^this man went to Pilate, and 
soHcited the body of Jesus. Then Pilate ordered it to be 
given up; *^'and Joseph took the body, and wrapped it in 
clean, linen cloth, •''and laid it in his own new sepulcher, 
which he had excavated in the rock; and he rolled a great 
stone against the door of the sepulcher, and went away. 

Hark xv: 42-46. And when evening had now come, 
since it was the Preparation — thafis, the day before the Sab- 
bath — ^*^ Joseph of Arimathea, an honorable senator, and him- 
self expecting the reign of God, came, ana went boldly to 
Pilate, and asked for the body of Jesus ; **and Pilate wondered 
whether he were already dead. **And he called the centurion 
to him and asked him whether he were already dead . And 
when he ascertained from the centurion, he gave the dead 
body to Joseph. **And he bought Hnen cloth, [and] took 
him down, and wrapped him in the Unen cloth, and put him 
in a sepulcher, which was excavated in a rock, and rolled a 
great stone against the door of the sepulcher. 

Ldke xxiii: 50-54. And behold, a man named Joseph, 
from Arimathea, a Jewish city, being a senator, a good 

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and righteous man, "who had not assented to their counsel 
and conduct, and who was expecting the reign of God, — *Hhis 
man went to Pilate, and soHcited the body of Jesus; ^and he 
took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a 
sepulcher excavated in a rock, wherein no one had ever yet 
been laid. "And it was the day of the preparation, and the 
Sabbath began to dawn. 

John xix: 38-42. And after these things, Joseph of 
Arimathea, a disciple of Jesus, but a secret one, through fear 
of the Jews, asked Pilate that he might take away the body of 
Jesus; and Pilate permitted [it]. They came, therefore, and 
took him, ®*And Nicodemus came also, he who came to him 
by night at the first, bringing a roll of myrrh and aloes, 
about a himdred pounds. *°Then they took the body of Jesus, 
and bound it in Hnen cloths, with the spices, as is customary 
with the Jews to entomb. *^And there was in the place 
where he was crucified, a garden, and in the garden a new 
sepulcher, in which no one had been laid. **There, therefore, 
they laid Jesus, because the sepulcher was near, on account 
of the Jews' preparation. 


MarkxT: 47. And Mary the Magdalene, and Mary, 
Joseph's [mother], saw where he was laid. 

Luke xxiii: 55-56. And the women who had gone with 
him out of Galilee, followed, and saw the sepulcher, and 
how they had laid his body. ^And they returned and pre- 
pai-ed aromatics and ointments ; but rested on the Sabbath, 
according to the command. 

Matthew xxvii: 61, And Mary the Magdalene was 
there, and the other Mary, sitting opposite to the sepulcher. 

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Matthew xxvil: 62-66. Now the next day following 
the Preparation, the chief priests and the Pharisees were 
assembled hef ore Pilate, "saying, "Sir, we remember that that 
impostor said, while Hying, <I will rise again after three days;' 
**order, therefore, that the sepulcher be made secure mitil 
the third day, lest the disciples come and steal him away, 
and say to the people, *He has been raised from the dead,' 
and the last fraud will be worse than the first." *^Pilate said 
to them, **Take a guard, go, [and] make it as secure as you 
know how." "And they went with the guard, and made the 
sepulcher secure, sealing the stone. 


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Hark xvi: 1. And when the Sabbath had passed, Mary the 
Magdalene, and Mary, Jacob's [mother], and Salome, bought 
spices that they might go and anoint him. 

Matthew xxviii: 2-4. And behold, a great earthquake 
occurred, for an angel of the Lord descending from heaven, 
and coming forward, rolled away the stone, and sat upon it. 
''His appearance was hke hghtning, and his clothing white as 
snow; *and for fear of him the guards .trembled, and became 
hke dead men. • 

Matthew xxviii: 1. And late on Sabbath night, as the 
next day was just dawning, Mary the Magdalene, and the 
other Mary, came to see the sepulcher. 

Mark xvi: 2-4. And very early, on the day after Sab- 
bath, at sunrise, they went to the tomb. 'And they said to 
themselves, **Who will roll away the stone for us, from the 
door of the sepulcher?" *for it was very large. When 
they looked up they saw that the stone had been rolled Sway. 

Luke xxiv: 1-3. And they went to the tomb on the first 
day after the Sabbath, at early dawn, carrying spices which 
they had prepared; "and they found the stone rolled away 
from the sepulcher: ''and they entered,but did not find the body. 

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John XX : 1-2. And on the first day. aiter the Sabbath, 
Mary the Magdalene went to the sepulcher early, while- it was 
yet dark, and saw the stone already taken away from the 
door of the sepulcher. *She runs therefore, and comes to 
Simon Peter, and to the other disciple whom Je^us loved, 
and says to them, **They have taken away the Master, out 
of the tomb, and we do not know where they have laid him." 


Mark xvi:- 5-7. • And on entering the tomb they saw a 
young man sitting at the right hand, clothed with a white 
rob3, and they were alarmed. ®And he said to ttiQm, **Be 
not alarmed; you seek Jesus, the crucified Nazarene. He has . 
been raised; he is not here. See the place where they laid 
him. ^But go, tell his disciples, and Peter. He goes before 
you to Galilee; there you will see him, as he told you." 

Lake xxiv: 4-8. And it occurred as they were perplexed 
about this, behold, two men stood near them, in effulgent 
raiment, ^and as they were afraid, and bowed their faces to 
the earth, they said to them, "Why do you seek the Uving 
among the dead? ^Remember how he spoke to you while he 
was yet in Galilee, ^saying, "The Son of Man must be sur- 
rendered into the hands of sinners, and be crucified, and rise 
again on the third day;" ^and they recollected his words, 


Matthew xxviii: 5-10. And the angel answered and said 
to the women, "Be not afraid; fori know that you seek Jesus 
who was crucified ; ®he is not here, for he has been raised, 
even as he said ; come see the place where he lay. ^And go 
quickly, and tell his disciples that he has been raised from 
the dead; and behold, he goes before you into Galilee; there 
you will see him; behold, I have told you." *And immedi- 

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ately going out of the sepulcher, with fear and great joy, 
they ran to inform his disciples, ^and behold, Jesus met 
them, saying, "Hail!" And they approached him, and 
clasped his feet, and rendered homage to him. ^^Then Jesus 
said to them, **Be not afraid, go teU the brothers to go into 
Galilee; there they shall s^ me." 

Mark xvi: 8. And they went out, and fled from the 
sepulcher, for trembhng and consternation had seized them : 
and they said nothing to any one, for they were afraid. 


Luke xxiv: 9-11. And they returned and related all 
these things to the eleven, and to all the others. ^°Now there 
were Mary the Magdalene, and Joamia, and Mary, Jacob's 
[mother] ; and the other women with them, who told these 
things to the apostles. "And these words appeared to them 
as idle talk, and they disbeheved them. 


John XX : 3-10. Peter then went out, and the other dis- 
ciple, and went toward the sepulcher, *and they ran together, 
but the other disciple outran Peter, and came first to the 
sepulcher, 'and stooping, and looking in, he sees the linen 
bandages lying; however, he did not go in. 'Then, also, 
Simon Peter came following him, and entered the sepulcher, 
and beheld the bandages lying, ^and the doth that had been 
on his head, not lying with the linen bandages, but folded in 
a place by itself. ®Then, therefore, that other disciple who 
came first to the sepulcher, also went in, and saw, and 
beheved. ®For as yet they did not know the Scripture, that 
he must rise again from the dead. ^Then the disciples went 
away by themselves. 

Lnke xxiv: 12» But Peter arose, and ran to the sepul- 

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cher, and stooping and looking in, he sees the hnen band- 
ages lying alone, and he went away by himself; wondering 
at what had happened. 


John XX : 11-18* But Mary stood outside the tomb weep- 
ing ; so, as she wept, she stooped and looked into the tomb, 
"and saw two angels in white, sitting, one at the head and 
one at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain. "And 
they say to her, ** Woman, Why do you weep?" And she* 
said to them, "Because they have taken away my Master, 
and I do not know where they have laid him." "When she 
had said these things she turned herself back, and sees Jesus * 
standing, and did not know that it was Jesus. "Jesus said 
to her, "Woman! why do you weep? Whom do you seek?" 
Now she, supposing that he was the gardener, says to him, 
"Master, if you have carried him off, tell me where you have 
laid him, and I will take him away." "Jesus says to her, 
"Mary!" She turned and said' to him, in Hebrew, "Rabbouni," 
which signifies [Great] Teacher. ^^ Jesus said to her, "Do 
not touch me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; 
but go to my brothers, and tell them, behold, I ascend to my 
Father and your Father, and my God and your God." 
"Mary the Magdalene comes and tells the disciples, "I 
have seen the Master;" and [that] he had said these things 
to her. 

Luke xxiv: 12. The oldest MSS. omit verse 12 : "And Peter, arising, ran to 
the tomb, and stooping, he saw only the linen bandages, and he departed 
by himself, wondering at what Lad occurred." 

John xx: 16. Babbunl, or Babbounl,l8 the most emphatic form of the words 
"My Master," indicating great veneration and love. The four forms of th© 
word are Kab, Babbl, I^bbon, Rabbont 

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g42 '^^^ ^^^ COVENANT. 

[Mark XtI: 9-30. Omitted from oldest MSB]. 


Matthew xxviii: 11-15. And as they were going, behold, 

Mabk xvi: 9-20. This passage is not oontaiiied in the Vatican or Sinaitic, 
the two oldest, and is absent from many other ancient MSS. Griesbach makes 
it doubtful, and Tischendorf, the latest and highest authority, rejects it. 
Tregelles substantially agrees with Tischendorf . Westcott and Hort mark the 
verses as interpolated. The passage has had able and vigorous defenders, 
such as Scrivener and Burgon. It is known that Irenaeus (Adv. Hter. Hi) 
before the date of V. and 8. quotes it as from Mark. It was undoubtedly 
«dded to a very early copy of Mark's Gospel, in place of the original ending. 
The close of verse 8 is too abrupt for the end of the account, but the fact that 
the disputed passage differs so widely from the other evangelists' records of 
the same discourse, coupled with its absence from the oldest MSS., compels its 
rejection. The passage contains several forms of expression, which are found 
nowhere else in Mark, such as "those who had been with him," v. 10; "dis- 
believed," V. 11 ; "after these events," and "was manifested," v. 12. 

Some codices contain this ending : "And they set forth in few words, to 
Peter, and those with him, all things that had been ordered. And these 
things, Jesus, himself, also, sent out through them from East to West, the 
holy and incorruptible message of 8eonian salvation." 

The concluding verses of Mark, as contained in E. V. are here given: 
"9. And having risen early on the first day of the week, he appeared first to 
Mary the Magdalene, from whom he had exorcised seven demons. 10. She 
went and told those who had been with him, as they were mourning and 
weeping. 1 1. And they having heard that he was alive, and had been seen by . 
her, did not believe it. 12. And after these things he appeared in another 
shape, to two of them, as they were walking, going into the countoy. 13. 
And they, returning, announced it to the rest; nor did they give credit to 
' them. 14. Afterwards he appeared to the eleven, as they were reclining at 
table, and censured their incredulity and obduracy ot heart, because they 
did not believe those who had seen him, after he had risen. 15. And he 
said to them, 'Go into all the world, and preach the good news to the whole 
creation. 16. He who believes, and is immersed, will be saved; but he who 
believes not will be condenmed. 17. And these signs will accompany believ- 
ers : In my name they will exorcise demons ; they will si>eak in new languages ; 
18. they will handle serpents; and if they should drink anything deadly, it 
will not injure them; they will lay hands on sick persons, and they shall be 
welL' 19. Then, indeed, after the Lord had spoken to them, he was taken up 
into heaven, and sat at God's right (hand). 20. And they went forth, and 
preached everywhere, the Lord co6perating, and ratifying the word, through 
the accompanying signs." 

" 'Shall be danmed,' E. V., is not a just version 'of the Greek word. The 
term 'damned,' with us, relates solely to the doom which shall be pronounced 
upon the wicked at the last day. This cannot be affirmed, with truth, of the 
Greek katakrino^ which corresponds exactly to the English verb 'con- 
demn.' "^Cam^belU 

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some of the guard entered the city, and told the high-priests 
all that had been done. ^And when they had assembled with 
the presbyters, and had consulted, they gave sufficient money 
to the soldiers, "saying, **8ay his disciples came by night, 
and stole him while we slept. "And if this should be re- 
ported to the governor, we will persuade him, and protect you." 
^'^And they received the money, and did as they were taught, 
an.l this word was spread abroad among the Jews, [and is 
told] to this day. 


Luke xxiv: 13-35. And behold, two of them were going 
the same day to a village called Emmaus, distant from 
Jerusalem sixty stadiums. "And they conversed with each 
other concerning all these things that had happened. ^''And 
it occurred while they conversed and discussed, that Jesus 
himself came near, and went with them. "But their eyes 
were restrained so that they did not recognize him. "And he 
said to them, **What words are these that you exchange with 
one another as you walk?'* And they stood still dejected. 
"And one named Kleopas answered and said to him, ♦'Do 
you alone sojourn in Jerusalem, and do not know these things 
that have been done in these days ?** "And he said to them, 
** What things?" And they said to him, **The things con- 
cerning Jesus the Nazarene, who was a prophet, powerful in 
word and work before Go4 and all the people, ^'and how 
the high-priests and our rulers gave him up to sentence of 
death, and crucified him. **But we hoped it was he who was 
about to redeem Israel : yes, and besides all this, it is the 
third day since these things occurred4 "But some of our 
women amazed us, for they went early to the sepulcher, 
^'and did not find his body, but came saying that they 
had even seen a vision of angels, that said he was alive« 

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'*And some of those with us went to the sepulcher, and found 
it even as the women had said; but they saw him not." ''And 
he said to them, '*0h, foolish and slow of heart to 
believe, after all that the prophets have spoken! ^Was it not 
necessary for the Christ to suffer these things, and to enter 
into his glory?" ''And beginning from Moses, and all the 
prophets, he explained to them what in all the Scripture were 
the things relating to himself. '^And they approached the 
village where they were going; and he seemed intending to 
proceed farther, "^but they entreated him, saying, "Eemain 
with us, for it is towards evening, and the day is already 
far spent." And he went in to remain with them. ^'And it 
occurred, as he reclined with them, [that] he took the loaf, 
and blessed, and broke it, and gave to them ; "and their eyes 
were opened, and they knew him, and he vanished from sight. 
^'And they said to each other, "Did not our heart bum with- 
in us as he talked to ns on the road, while he opened, the 
Scriptures to us?" ^And they rose the same hour, and 
- returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven, and those with 
them, assembled, **and said, **The Master has indeed risen, 
and has appeared to Simon." ^And they related the occur- 
rences on the road, and how he was recognized by them in the 
breaking of the loaf. 


Luke xxiv:. 36-49. And as they related these things he 
himself stood among them, and says to them, ''Peace to 
you!" *'But they were troubled, and terrified, and thought 
they saw a spirit. ^And he said to them, "Why are you 
agitated; and why do doubts arise in your heart? *See my 
hands, and my feet, that it is I, myself; handle me, and see; for 
a spirit has niot flesh and bones, as you see me have." ^And 

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when he had said this, he showed them his hands and feet ; *'and 
while they did not heheve him for joy, and wondered, he said 
to them, **Have you anyfoodhere?" "And they gave him a 
piece of broiled fish, **and he took it, and ate [it] in their pres- 
ence. **And he said to them, "These are my words, which 1 
spoke to you while I was yet with you, that all things written 
in the law of Moses, and the Prophets, and [the] Psalms, 
concerning me, must be fulfilled.** **Then*he opened their 
mind to understand the Scriptures, ^and said to them, 
**Thus it is written, that the Christ must suffer and rise 
from the dead on the third day ; ^'and that in his name ref- 
ormation in order to forgiveness of sins should be preached to 
all the Gentiles, beginning at Jerusalem. *"You are witnesses 
of these things, **and behold I send forth the promise of 
my Father upon you; but remain in the city, till you are 
clothed with power from above. '* 

J(dill XX : 19-23. When therefore it was evening on that 
day, the first [day] after the Sabbath, when the doors were closed 
where the disciples were [assembled], for fear of the Jews, 
Jesus came and stood among them, and said to them, 
"Peace to you I" *"And when he had said this, he showed them 
his hands and his side. The disciples, therefore, rejoiced as 
they saw the Master. "Then he said to them, again, 
"Peace to you; as the Father sent me even so will I send 
you." **And when he had said this, he breathed on [them], 
and said to them, "Receive [the] Holy Spirit; "Vhosever sins 
you forgive, it shall he forgiven to them ; if those of any you 
retain, they are regained." 


* John XX : 24-29. But Thomas, one of the twelve, called 

Luke xxiv. Verae 40 is omitted in the oldest MSS. : "And saying this, he 
showed to them his hands and feet." 

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Didymus, was not with them when Jesus ccune. ^When, 
therefore, Jems came, the other disciples said to him, "We 
have seen the Master." But he said to them, **If I do not 
see the nail-marks in his hands, and put my finger into his 
hand; and put my hand into his side, I will not belieye.'* 
^And eight days after the disciples were again within, and 
Thomas with them. The doors being shut, Jesus entered 
and stood among them, and said, "Peace to you." *^Then 
he said to Thomas, "Beach here your finger, and see my 
hands,, and reach [here] your hand, and put it into my side, 
and be not incredulous, but beheving." '^Thomas answered 
and said to him, "My Master," and "My God!" *^But Jesus 
said to him, "Have you believed because you have seen me? 
Happy [are] they who have believed, without having seen mer 


Matthew xxviii: 16-17. And the eleven disciples went 
into Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus had directed them. 

The Different Accounts of tfte Resurrection not Contradictory. But are 
there any importaDt contradictions? 1. As to the persons. According to 
Matthew, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary came very early, <fec. Mark 
mentions Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome. Luke 
speaks of Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Joanna, and the 
other women who were with them, while John makes mention only of Mary 
Magdalene. But no one professes to mention all the women who were there, 
and it would be natural for each writer to call by name only those who were 
uppermost in his own mind. John does not say that Mary Magdalene was the 
only woman. On the contrary, the words which he represents her as using. 
" We know not where they have laid him," imply that others had been with 
her, especially as after her return to the sepulcher, when she was left alone, 
she, in the same form of expression (Johnxx: 13), says, "and / know not 
where they have laid him." This is one of the out of the way coincidences 
which go to establish the authority of truthful writings, because they can- 
not be counterfeited. 

2. As to the angels. Matthew speaks of one angel, whose appearance was 
like lightning, and his raiment white as snow, and who was sitting on the same 
stone that had been rolled from the sepulcher. Mark (xvi: 5) says that when 
they entered or came to the sepulcher, for the Greek word may have either 
meaning, they saw a young man sitting on the right clothed in a long white 
garment. One of the two writers may speak of an angel outside, and the other 

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"And when they saw Imn, they paid [him] homage, but some 


John XXi: 1-24. After these events Jesus manifested him- 
self again to his disciples, at the lake of Tiberias, and he 

of an angel wiihin the sepnlcher; but the language of both may equally well 
apply to the same angel In the same position, 1. e., sitting on the right hand, 
outside of the sepulcher. Luke, who at the end of his account mentions 
Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, and the other 
women with them, as the women who told these things to the apostles, would 
naturally confine his narrative of occurrences at the sepulcherto what particu- 
larly concerned that portion of the company from whom his information was 
derived, and they may have been Joanna and the women from Galilee who 
were with her. These women may have come a little later than the others. 
They saw not one, but two angels, and them not sitting ^ but standing ^ and 
speaking to them in language very different from that which the angel had 
spoken to the other wom3n (Lukexxiv: 5, 6, 22). According to John, Mary 
Magdalene saw no angel when she first came to the sepulcher, and Peter and 
John, who came with her, or rather, a little before her, on her return to the 
sepulcher, saw none, though they entered the sepulcher. But after they had 
gone, she, stooping down to look into the sepulcher, saw there two angels In 
white, one at the head and the other at the f est where the body of Jesus had 
lain. This is plainly a different transastion from that which is described by 
the other evangelists. The inference from all this is, that Matthew and Mark 
describe one appearance, Luke another to a different party, and John still a 
third. Where, then, is the contradiction or inconsistency? 

3. As to the first manifestation of Jesus. According to John xx: 15-17, he 
appeared first to Mary Magdalene; according to Matthew, he appeared to 
the women as they were hastening away from the sepulcher. Matthew may 
have generalized the occurrence which John has given in detail, and repre- 
sented Jesus as.appearing to the women, when as a literal fact he appeared to 
only one of their number. This is no unusual form of speech. We rather 
infer, however, from the narrative, that Jesus appeared twice, viz., 1, to 
Mary Magdalene, and 2, to the women who had been with her when she first 
came to the tomb. 

In the accounts of what occurred in the morning there are no contradictions. 
The whole period taken up by these events probably was not more than an 
hour, and may not have been half that time. Yet how have the disclosures 
of those few moments revolutionized the world, changing its great currents 
of thought and Inaugurating a new and momentous era in its history! 

Leaving the events of the morning, the writers go on in very different 
ways. After a paragraph relating to the soldiers, and without anything to 
Indicate the time or events that had intervened, Matthew hastens to give an 
account of the meeting which Jesus had appointed with his disciples In Gali- 
lee. Luke details in full the meeting of Jesus with two disciples (not apostles) 
on their way to Emmaus in the afternoon, and his appearance to the apostles 

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848 ^^^ ^^^ COVENANT. 

Appeared thus: Simon Peter and Thomas called Didymns, 
and Nathanael of Kana in Galilee, and Zebedee*s [sons], 
and two others of his disciples, were together. *8imon 
Peter says to them, "I go fishing;" they say to him, <*We 
also go with you;" therefore they went out, and entered 

in Jerusalem in the evening. This evening appearance of Jesus to the apostles 
is mentioned by John (xx : 19-23) in a narrative which is remarkably distinct 
from Luke's account, and yet strikingly corroborates it. Mark, in a passage 
(xv: 12-20) which Tischendorf rejects as not belonging to the Gospel, says 
that Jesus appeared in another form to two disciples as they were going into 
the country ; that they announced it to the rest— their associates, and probably 
not the apostles— and were not believed; and that afterwards he appeared to 
the eleven as they were at meat, and reproached them for their want of faith. 
This part of Mark's gospel is very much condensed, and evidently crowds into 
a few sentences sayings and events which were separated by considerable 
intervals of time. 

The l)ifferent Times of His Appearance. From all the accounts we gather 
that Jesus appeared: 1, to Mary Magdalene (John xx: 13-17); 2, to the 
(other) women (Matt, xxviii: if-lO) ; 3, to Peter (Luke zxiv: 84, 1 Cor. xv: 5); 
4, to the two disciples on their way to Emmaus (Luke xxiv : 15), which may 
possibly have been before his appearance to Peter; 5, to the apostles (Thomas 
being absent) at supper in Jerusalem (Luke xxiv*. 36-42, John xx: 19-20, 
1 Oor. XV : 5); 6, on the next Sunday at Jerusalem to the apostles, and par- 
ticularly to Thomas (John xx: 26) ; 7, to above five hundred of the.brethren 
at once, probably in (Galilee (1 Cor. xv : 6) ; 8, to James, probably also in GaU- 
lee (1 Cor. xv: 7); 9, to aU the apostles (1 Cor. xv: 7), probably the same 
meeting as that described in John xxi; 10, to the apostles on a mountain 
in Galilee (Matt, xxviii: 1(5-17), which may be the same as his appearance to 
*'above five hundred." 11. There is the charge given to the apostles (Matt, 
xxviii: 18-20, Mark xvi: 15-18) with nothing to mark the time or place. 
12. There Is the last interview, ending with his ascension (Luke xxiv: 44-450, 
Mark xvi: 19-20, Acts i: 4-10). But as Jesus was seen of the apostles from 
time to time for forty days (Acts 1: 3), "speaking to them of the things per- 
taining to the kingdom of God," we have no reason to suppose that these were 
bhe only occasions on which he was seen by them. 

Matthew (xxviii: 7-10) says that both the angel and Jesus directed the 
women to announce a meeting of the disciples with him in Galilee. "Go, teU 
my brethren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me." "Then," 
verse 16, "the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into a mountain 
where Jesus had appointed them. And when they saw him, they worshiped 
him: but some doubted." If Matthew, one of the apostles, knew, as he must 
have known, of the meeting of Jesus with the apostles more than once in 
Jerusalem, how could he f aU to leave some record of the fact in his narra- 
tive? His gospel is only a sketch of portions of our Savior's life, and nowhere 
professes to give a f uU account of eversrthing that took place in a single 
instance. His whole account of the resurrection, and the sayings and events 

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the boat, and they caught nothing during that night. ^But 
when the morning came, Jesus stood on the beach. The 
disciples, however, did not know that it was Jesus. ^Then 
Jesus says to them, ''Children, have you any food?" They 
answered him, **No." "And he said to them, **Ca8t the net 

connected with it, contains only a few more words than It requires to fill 
one of these pages. A dry summary of facts, such as would be required in 
order to bring the various particulars within such limits, was not at aU after 
his manner of writing. He gives the salient acts and words as they lie most 
prominent in his mind, often without reference to the Intervening or accom- 
panying circumstances. He belonged to Galilee, and may have gone thither 
before the other apostles to call the disciples who were there together to 
meet their risen Lord. In this way, the meeting there may, after an interval 
of some years, have been the one which he remembered most distinctly, and 
which he therefore selected to be preserved in his brief narrative. The points 
which he relates are aU connected together. On the morning of the reeurrec- 
tion, both the angel and Jesus speak of the meeting which was to take place 
in Galilee, and after stating this, and inserting by way of parenthesis a short 
account of the bargain between the elders and the soldiers in regard to the 
events of that morning, Matthew passes over aU that took place in Jerusalem, 
and hastens on to the meeting in Galilee. 

But he says that at the meeting in Galilee **some doubted." If the meet- 
ing spoken of as taking place in Jerusalem had really taken place, how could 
there have been this element of doubt? There is nothing to show that the 
meeting in Galilee was confined to the eleven. The direction, "Go, teU my 
brethren," indicates a wider circle. St. Paul speaks of Jesus being seen by 
above five hundred at once. And it certainly would not be strange if some of 
these five hundred came in an unbelieving state of mind. The honesty of the 
writer who recorded the doubt is more remarkable than that the doubt should 
exist under such circumstances. The great and important omissions which 
must, from the nature of the case, belong to so brief a narrative, should make 
us slow to infer .that even important facts connected with the events which 
he relates, either did not t«ke place, or were unknown to the writer, because 
they are not mentioned by him. This consideration has had too little weight 
both with those who defend and those who would break down the authenticity 
of the €k>spel narratives. In accounts which from their very nature and 
design are necessarily so incomplete and fragmentary, the omission of any 
fact, however impori^nt in itself, is no evidence that it did not take place, or 
that it was unknown to the writer. With so many facts of the greatest 
significance and weight pressing upon him for admission, and yet obliged as 
he was by the necessities of the case to exclude most of them from his narra- 
tive, it ought not to seem strange to us if we should find wanting in his brief 
account circumstances as interesting and important as those which he has 
retained. An accomplished writer in these times would probably fill a hun- 
dred pages where St. Matthew did one with the account' of what transpired 
between the crucifixion and the asoension. One closely written half-sheet of 

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on the right side of the boat, aaid you will find;" and 
tiiey threw it, and could not draw it for the multitude of 
fishes. ^Therefore the disciple whom Jesus loved said to 
Peter, "It is the Master!" Then, when Simon Peter heard 
that it was the Master, he girded on his mantle, — for he was 

our letter-paper is more space than he had to spare for his record of all 
the circTimstances connected with the most momentoas event in the history 
of our race.— t/riip. J5^jPl>o». 

JoHH xxi ; 25. The evangelists uniformly assert that our Lord repeatedly 
"showed himself alive after his passion, by many infallible proofs," Acts i : 3 ; 
that is, he was seen and handled by his disciples; he conversed with them; 
and, linaUy, they witnessed his departure from the earth. As the fact 
asserted is of such vital importance, and represented by the apostle, 1 Cor. 
XV : 3-8, as lying at the very foundation of Christianity, a methodical sum- 
mary, gathered from the four evangelists, may form an appropriate conclusion 
of the present volume. (1.) The first interview with himself, after his resur- 
rection, was granted by our Lord to Mary Magdalene, who forsook him not 
while he lived, even in his hour of utmost distress, and who was the first to 
visit his sepulcher after the Sabbath had passed. Mark xvi: 9 ; John xx : Il- 
ls. (2.) He was next seen by the other women ; namely, Mary the mother of 
James, Salome, Joanna, and others. Matt, xviii : 9. Compare Matt, xxvtii: 1 ; 
Mark xvi : 1 ; Luke xxiv : 1-10 ; (3.) By two disciples on their way to Emmaus. 
Mark xvi: 12; Luke xxiv: 13-31. (4.) By Peter, or Cephas. Luke xxiv: 34: 
1 Cor, XV : 5. (5.) By ten disciples, Thomas being absent. Mark xvi: 14; 
Luke xxiv: 36; John xx: 19-24. To this appearance Paul is supposed to 
refer, 1 Cor. xv: 5. Five times on the day of his resurrection, he was seen in 
different places by different individuals, not one of whom doubted his iden- 
tity. (6.) He was next seen about a week afterward, by the eleven, Thomas 
being present and obtaining the actual demonstration which he demanded as 
the condition of believing that his Master was truly alive. John xx : 26-29. 
(7.) By Peter, Thomas, Nathanael, James, John, "and two other of his dis- 
ciples," at the sea of Tiberias. John xxi: 1-14. (8.) By the eleven, at a 
mountain in Galilee. Matt, xxviil: 16-18. (9.) By "above five hundred 
brethren at once." 1 Cor. xv: 6. This is omitted by all the evangelists; but 
Paul asserts that "the greater part" of those five hundred witnesses were then 
Uving, and ready to testify the fact. (10.) By James. 1 Cor. xv: 7. (11.) 
By the whole number of the apostles, on the mount of Olives ; and "while they 
beheld, he was taken up, and a cloud received him out of their sight." Mark 
xvi: 19; Luke xxiv: 50-51; Acts i: 1-9; 1 Cor. xv:7. To these may not 
improperly be added, (12.) his appearance to Paul. 1 Cor. xv: 8. Such was 
the evidence, which, during "forty days," Acts i: 3, was given to the apostles, 
that their Master was truly alive from the dead. And when it is remembered, 
that they did not expect his resurrection, that they were slow to believe, that 
they would not believe even on the testimony of their associates, and that 
each of them subsequently became ready to testify the fact at the hazard 
and actual loss of life, there remains no room for doubt that they had ample 

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naked — and threw himself into the lake. ®But the other 
disciples came by the small boat; — ^for they were not far 
from the land, but about two hmidred cubits off, dragging 
the net of fishes. '^When, therefore, they landed, they 
observed there afire of charcoal, and a fish lying on [it], and 
a loaf. ^"Jesus says to them, "Bring [some] of the fishes that 
you have now caught." "Therefore, Simon Peter went on 
board and drew the net to the land, full of large fishes, a 
hundred and fifty-three; and though there were so many, the 
net was not torn. "Jesus said to them, "Come, breakfast!" No 
one of the disciples ventured to ask him, "Who are you ?" know- 
ing that it was the Master, "Jesus comes and takes the loaf, 
and the fish in like manner, and gave to them. "This is the 
third time, now, that Jesus appeared to the disciples, after he 
had been raised from the dead. 

^'^When, therefore, they had breakfasted, Jesus said to Simon 
Peter, "Simon, [son] of John, do you love me, more than 
these?" He said to him, "Yes, Master, you know that 
I dearly love you." He said to him, "Feed my lambs." ^®He 
said to him again, a second time, "Simon, [son] of John, do 
you love me?" He said to him, "Yes, Master, you know 

and conclusive proof of their Lord's identity. We need not hesitate in 
believing the apostolic testimony. Regarded merely as history, apart from 
the authority of inspiration, it is entitled to the most unlimited credit. We 
cannot disbelieve it, without renouncing all faith in human testimony. — 

JoHNxxi: 12-15. "Break your fast," and "broken their fast." Our word 
lunch expresses the sense of the Greek. 

John xxi: 15-16. The word "love" in these verses is translated from two 
Greek words, agapao and phileo. Jesus asks the question with the first, 
and Peter answers with the second, a stronger word. But in verse 17, Jesus 
employs the same word that Peter uses : "Bost thou affection atbly love 
me?" It is not easy to say what is the chief distinction made on this occasion. 
The words are used interchangeably, but phileo seems to imply the greater 
affection. As they are different words in the original, it was thought best to 
denote the difference in them. 

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352 ^^J^ ^^^ COVENANT. 


that I dearly love you." "He said to him, "Shepherd my 
sheep." He said to him the third time, "Simon, [son] of 
John, do you dearly love me?" l^aw Peter was grieved, 
because he said to him the third time, "Do you dearly love 
me?" and he said to him, "Master, you know all things; 
you perceive that I dearly love you I" Jesus said to him, 
"Feed my sheep. "Truly, truly I say to you, when you 
were young you girded yourself, and walked where you 
wished, but when you become old, you will extend your 
hands, and others will gird you, and do to you what you 
would not." "Now this he said to indicate by what death 
he would glorify God. And when he had said this he said 
to him, "Follow me." '"Peter turned about and saw the 
disciple whom Jesus loved, following, — who also reclined on 
his breast, at the supper, — and he said to him, "Master, who 
is he that betrays you?" "Peter, therefore, saw him, and said 
to Jesus, "Master, and this man, what [of him]?" "Jesus 
said to him, "If I wish him to continue till I come, what [is 
it] to you? Follow me." ^This word, therefore, went out 
among the brothers, that ttiat disciple would not die. But 
Jesus did not say to him, "He shall not die," but, "If I 
wish him to remain till I come, what [is it] to you?" **This 
is the disciple, also, who attests these thing's, and wrote these 
things, and we know that' his testimony is true. 


Lnke xxiv: 50-53. And he led them out as far as 
Bethany, and he raised his hands, and blessed them. "And 
it occurred, while he blessed them he was separated from 
them. **And they returned to Jerusalem with great joy, ^and 
were constantly in the temple, blessing God. According to 

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Acts 1 : 4-5. And being assembled with them he charged 
them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to tarry for the 
Father's promise, "Which," [said he], "you heard from me; 
Hhat though John immersed in water, you shall be immersed 
in [the] Holy Spirit, not many days hence/* 

Matthew xxTiii: 18-20. And Jesus came to them, and 
spoke to them, saying, "All authority in heaven and on 
earth is given to me. ^^Gro, therefore, disciple all the nations, 
immersing them into the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all 
things [as] I have told you; and behold, I am with you all the 
days, even to the consummation of the aeon." According to 


Acts i: 6-12. They, therefore, when they were assembled, 
asked him, saying, "Master, will you at this time restore 
the reign to Israel?** 'And he said to them, "It is not 
for you to know times or seasons, which the Father has fixed 
by his own authority; ®but you shall receive power through 
the Holy Spirit coming on you; and you shall be my witnesses, 
both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and Samaria, and even 
to the extremity of the earth.'* ®And as he was saying these 
things, while they were beholding him, he was taken up ; and 
a cloud received him from their eyes. ^^And while they were 
steadily gazing into the heaven, as he was departing, behold, 
two men stood near them, in white clothing, "who said, 
"Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the heaven? 
This Jesus who is taken up from you, into the heaven, wiU 
come in the manner in which you saw him go into the 
heaven.** "Then they returned to Jerusalem from the 
moimtain called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem, being 
distant a Sabbath*s journey. 

A few verses from Acts are here Inserted, as they describe in the words of 
Luke, the same events that are related by the other evangelists. 

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John XX : 30-31. Moreover, Jesus performed many other 
signs, in the presence of the disciples, which are not written 
in this book; "but these are written that you may beUeve 
that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God ; and that, beheving, 
you may have cBonian life in his name. 

John xxi: 25. And there are many other things, also 
that Jesus did, which, if they should every one be written, 
I suppose that even the world itself would not contain the 
^vritten books. AccoRDiNa to John. 

It was but for thirty-three short years of a short lifetime that he lived on 
earth; it was bat fortfiree broken and troubled years that .he preached the 
gospel of the kingdom. But forever, even until all the aeons have been 
closed, and the earth itself, with the heavens that now are, have passed away, 
shall every one of his true and faithful children find hope and forgiveness in 
his name, and that name shall be called Emmanuel, which is, being inter- 
preted, "God with us."— Canon Farrar. 

John xxi: 25. S. omits this verse. 

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1: 1-17 


XV : 

1: 18-25 



il; 1-12 



il: 13-15 



li: 16-23 



lil: 1-12 



lil: 13-17. 



iv: 1-11 



iv: 12-16 



Iv: 17-22 



Iv: 23-25 












vlil: 1-4 



vlil: 5-13 


XX : 

vili: 14-15 


XX : 

viU: 16-17 


XX : 

vili: 18-27 


XX : 

viil: 28-34 



Ix: 1 



ix: 2-8 



ix: 9 



ix: 10-17 



ix: 18-26 



ix: 27-34 



ix: 35-38 



x: 1 



x: 2-4 



x: 5-42 


XXV : 

xl: 1 



xl: 2-6 



xl: 7-24 



xl: 25-30 



xll: 1-8 



xU: 9-14 



xli: 15-21 



xli: 22-45 



xll: 46-50 



xlll: 1-9 



xlll: 10-17 



xlll: 18-23 



xlll: 24-53 



xlll: 54-58 



xlv: 1-12 



xlv: 13-14 



xlv: 15-21 



xlv: 22-33........ 



xlv; 34-36........ 


xxvii : 

xv: 1-20 


xxvii : 

xv: 21-28 



xv: 29-38 



39 161 

1-12 161 

13-20 163 

21-28 165 

1-13 167 

14-20 170 

22-23 172 

24-27 173 

1-14 173 

15-35 178 

1-2 203 

3-12 230 

13-15 231 

16-29 227 

30 229 

1-16 229 

17-19 232 

20-28 233 

29-34 235 

1-9 242 

10-16 244 

17-22 245 

23-46 ^ 248 

1-14 250 

15-22 253 

23-33..... 256 

34-46 257 

1-39 258 

1-51 269 

1-46 283 

1-5 287 

6-13 238 

14-16 288 

17-19 290 

20 291 

21-25 293 

26-29 297 

30 310 

31-35 295 

36-46 310 

47-56 312 

57 :.314 

58 315 

; 59-68 316 

69-72 318 

; 73-75 319 

1 320 

2 321 

3-10 320 

11-14 321 

15-20 323 

21-30 325 

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Matthew. Page. 

XXvU: 31-32 327 

XXvU: 33-34 328 

XXvU: 35-36 330 

XXvU: 37-38 328 

XXvU: 39-44 331 

XXvU: 45-56 332 

xxvll: 57-60 335 

XXvU: 61 336 

XXvU: 62-66 337 

xxvlll: 1, 338 

xxviil: 2-4 338 

xxvlll: 5-10 339 

xxvlll: 11-15 342 

xxvlll: 16-17 346 

xxvlil: 18-20 353 














































1 1 

2-8 22 

9-11 28 

12-13 29 

14-15 43 

16-20 49 

21-28 50 

29-31 52 

32-39 53 

40-45 54 

1-12 57 

13-14 58 

15-22 132 

23-28 65 

1-6 67 

7-12 68 

13-19 69 

19-30 106 

31-35 109 

1-9 117 

10-12 118 

13-25 119 

26-34 126 

35-41 128 

1-20 129 

21-43 135 

1-6 137 

7-13 143 

14-29 144 

30-34 146 

35-44 147 

45-46 149 

47-52 150 

53-56 151 

1-23 157 

24-30 159 

31-37 160 

1-9 161 

10-21 162 

22-26 163 

27-30 164 

31-38 166 

1 166 

2-13 169 

14-29 170 

30-32 172 

33-50 174 

1 203 

2-12 230 

M^T^^ r 
















































XI v: 
XI v: 






























•54 1. 

: 55-65 





. 66-68 

: 69-72 

: 1 





: 1-5 



: e-11 




: 12-14 

: 15-19 




: 20-21 





: 24-25 

: 26-27 

: 29-32 

: 33-41 


....:. ...328 




: 42-46 



: 47 




: 1 

: 2-4 




: 5-7 



: 8 



: 9-20 

: 1-4 







: 5-25 


: 26-38 


: 39-56 


: 57-80 . ... 


: 1-20 

: 21 



: 22-38 


I 39-40 

: 41-52 

: 1-18 


...., 17 

". 23 

: 19-20. 


: 21-22 


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XV : 

XV : 











23-38 19 

1-13 29 

14-15 43 

16-32 47 

33-37 52 

38-39 53 

40-44 54 

1-11 49 

12-16 55 

17-26 56 

27-28 58 

29-39 132 

1-5 66 

6-11 68 

12-19 69 

20-49 88 

1-10 90 

11-18 92 

19-23 93 

24-50 96 

1-3 99 

4-8 117 

9-18 119 

19-21 109 

22-25 127 

26-39 128 

40-56 134 

1-6 143 

7-9 145 

10-11 146 

12-17 148 

18-20 165 

21-27 .167 

28-36 168 

37-43 171 

43-45 172 

46-50 174 

51-56 181 

57-62 127 

1-16 180 

17-24 193 

25-37 190 

38-42 191 

1-13 192 

14-36 107 

37-54 110 

1-12 Ill 

13-34 112 

35-59 113 

1-9 115 

10-17 203 

18-35 204 

1-24 206 

25-35 208 

1-10 209 

11-32 210 

1-17 212 

18-31 213 

1-10 223 

11-19 182 

20-37 223 

1-14 225 

15-17 232 

18-30 227 

31-34 232 

35-43 235 

Luke. Page. 

xix: 1-28 236 

xlx: 29-40 243 

xix: 41-44 244 

xix: 45-46 245 

xix: 47-48 247 

xx: 1-19 .251 

xx: 20-26 252 

xx: 27-40 255 

xx: 41-47 258 

xxi: 1-4 262 

xxl: 5-36 '. 267 

xxi: 37-38 287 

xxii: 1-6 288 

xxii: 7-13 289 

xxU: 14-18 291 

, xxii: 19-23 294 

xxii: 24-30 291 

xxii: 31-38 296 

xxii: 39 310 

xxii: 40-42 312 

xxii: 45-46 312 

xxii: 47-53 313 

xxii: 54 315 

xxii: 55 315 

xxii: 56-57 318 

xxii: 58 319 

xxU: 59-62 320 

xxii: 63-65 317 

xxii: 66-71 320 

xxiii: 1-4 322 

xxiii: 5-12 323 

xxiii: 13-19 324 

xxiii: 20-23 325 

xxiii: 24-25 326 

xxiii: 26-32 328 

xxiii: 33 329 

xxiii: 34 330 

xxiii: 35-37 331 

xxiii: 38 329 

xxiii: 39-43 331 

xxiii: 44-49 334 

xxiii: 50-54 335 

xxiii: 55-56 336 

xxlv: 1-3 338 

xxlv: 4-8 339 

xxlv: 9-12 340 

xxlv: 13-35 343 

xxlv: 36-49 344 

xxlv: 50-53 352 


i: 1-5 30 

1: 6-8 33 

1: 9-14 30 

1: 15 33 

1: 16-18 30 

1: 19-34 33 

1: 35-51 34 

ii: 1-12 35 

11: 13-25 37 

ill: 1-36 38 

iv: 1-54 43 

v: 59 

vi: 1-2 146 

vl: 3-15 148 

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vi: 16-21 


vl: 22-71 


vli: 1 


vli: 2-10 


vli: 11-52 


vlll: 12-20 


vlll: 21-59 




X: 1-21 


X' 22-42 


xi: 1-16 


xi: 17-53 


xi: 54-57 


xil: 1-11 


xii: 12-19 


xii: 20-60 


xiii: 1-20 


xiii: 21-38 










xvili: 1 



















XX : 

XX : 

XX : 

XX : 






2 312 

3-11 314 

12-16 315 

17-18 318 

19-24 317 

25-27 319 

28-38 322 

39 324 

40 325 

1-16 326 

16-17 328 

18-25 330 

25-27 332 

28-37 334 

38-42 336 

1-2 339 

3-10 340 

11-18 341 

19-29 345 

30-31 354 

1-24 347 

25 354 

4-12 353 

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The author of this book is also author of the foUomng, 
which can be procured of the Universalist Publishing House, 
Boston, Mass., or Chicago, Illinois. 

"Aion, Aionios :" an excursus on the Greek word ren- 
dered **everlasting,*' **eternal,'* etc., in the Bible, showing 
that the word does not denote endless duration, when 
applied to punishment. 174 pages. $1.00. 

*'A Cloud of Witnesses : " A collection of testimonies 
from poets and other men and women of genius, express- 
ing faith in the universal prevalence of good. A work of 
rare interest. 324 pages. $1.00. 


Manna : " A book of daily worship, containing a Scriptore 
selection and a prayer for every day in the year, for 
individual and family use. 888 pages, f 1.00. 

*' Christian Chorals :" A Hymn and Tune book for the 
congregation and the home. 800 hymns and 108 tunes. 
50c. each; $5.00 a dozen; $40.00 a hundred 

"A Responsive Service:" Twelve services for church 
use, one for the Sundays of each month in the year. Sin- 
gle copies 15 cents; f 1.50 a dozen; $10.00 a hundred. 

** The Bible Hell : " A small but compact book that traces 
the word Hell through the Bible, and shows that **the 
Bible Hell " is in this world. Price 25 cents. 

"Bible Proofs :" An exposition of all the passages that 
directly prove universal salvation. Price 25 cents. 

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"Bible Threatenings Explained:" An exposition of 
all the threatenings of the Bible, showing that they are 
in harmony with universal salvation. Price 25 cents. 

•*The Hanson-Lozier Debate : " Report of a four even- 
i;Qgs' discussion, between Dr. Hanson, Universalist, and 
Rev. J. H. Lozier, Methodist. Aji effective missionary 
document for UniversaUsts. Price 25 cents. 

" The Prayer of Prayers : " A series of sermons on the 
Lord's Prayer, with a steel engraving of the author. 
Price Jl.OO. 

Pamphlets on 

The Resurrection of Damnation. 
The Rich Man and Lazarus. 
Cod's Justice and Mercy Harmonized. 
The Atonement. 

Price, €f cents each. 

Volume n of the translation of the New Testament is 
in process of preparation in uniform style with this volume, 
containing the remainder of the New Testament. Price, 

UniTersalist Publishing House, 


Tlie UpersQlist 

Is the Denominational Organ of the West, pubUshed weekly, 
at $2.60 a year, in advance, by The Universalist PubUshing 
House, Chicago, SI. 

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